• ARPANet 1981 (03 universities
• Became Internet (from the term
• WWW was introduced and
Internet is a global collection of
WWW user friendly interface
http Hypertext Transfer Protocol
• With the advent of the World Wide
Web (WWW), or the "web"
organizations that had relied on
various sales approaches had a
new sales avenue
• Other businesses found that the
web was a good place to put
information, such as manuals, as
well as a place to help create a
consistent corporate image
• As the web developed, a number of
developed (eBusiness), including
companies like eBay, Yahoo and
Amazon, and web-based information
sources like eHow
What is an eBusiness?
Any business that takes place by digital processes
over a computer network rather than in physical place
What is e-commerce?
Business exchanges or transactions that occur
electronically. More commonly e-commerce is
associated with buying and selling of
information, products and services via computer
Intranet a network which uses the technology and
standards of internet but accessible to a limited
Staples, the world's largest office products company
Founded : 1986
Revenue (annual) : $25b company 93% via e-commerce
Employment : Nearly 90,000 employees
Product range: Office supplies, electronics, technology and office
furniture, business services, computer repairs, copying and printing.
Staples® – Boston, USA
From books and movies to groceries and electronics, Amazon.com, Inc.
is the most popular on-line retailer in North America and internationally
amazon.co.uk, amazon.de, amazon.fr, amazon.co.jp, amazon.ca, and
The company serves consumers through its convenient retail websites.
It also allows sellers to also sell its products on the Amazon websites
and provides opportunities for on-line advertising. Amazon.com, Inc.
was founded in 1994 and is based in Washington.
Dell Inc. was one of the first companies to customize its products and
sell on-line and was founded in 1984 by Michael Dell. It started with
$1000 in start-up capital and an idea to sell custom built PCs directly to
customers without the middleman. The concept was a success and by
1997 Dell was the first company to record a million dollars in on-line
sales. The popular e-business sells, markets, develops and supports
computer systems and is based in Round Rock, Texas.
There are two strategic intentions behind eBusiness
expansions by traditional companies:
Increase productivity and cost efficiency
• Starting an eBusiness does not have to mean
putting out large sums of cash. In fact, many
eBusiness ventures start out small and then
build as more and more revenue is earned.
This is one condition that really attracts
business owners to online selling.
• With a little preparation and planning you
can have your own eBusiness up and running
within as little as a few hours to a few days
(e.g. Yahoo 3 hours)
• E-business allows companies to expand into
new markets, both nationally and
internationally. Entry barriers to these new
markets are relatively low, depending on the
type of goods or services sold via the e-
• Government regulation may also be easier when
conducting e-business as local and national
governments have not imposed heavy
regulations on many or all sectors of e-
Disadvantages of eBusiness
1. More Competition
Because individuals and traditional businesses may enter the e-
business marketplace, sellers must find a competitive advantage
over more competitors than usual. Foreign companies may also be
entering the e-business marketplace flooding the market with
cheap or inferior goods. Companies may also offer substitute
goods at a cheaper price, giving consumers more purchasing
options than before. These types of competition can limit a new
e-business from getting off the ground, much less succeeding in
2. Difficult Customer Relations
Another major disadvantage of e-business is the difficulty of
creating positive goodwill through a website and computer.
Creating this same type of positive customer service is
difficult for e-businesses, considering that their customers
may be hundreds or thousands of miles away from the e-
Simple steps to startup eBusiness
1. Create a name for the business A name that is easy to
remember and also catchy enough to stay right on the tip of
2. Build a website by finding a hosting company (e.g.
JustHost, HostMonster, and BlueHost). Consider a hosting
company that will register your domain name for you.
3. Launch the website by submitting the URL to Yahoo, MSN, or
Google, for example. Each search engine will ask for a list of
keywords to describe your business. This is done to allow the
search engine to rank your website among other similar
websites. The process of coming up with really good keywords is
known as search engine optimization (SEO). Put thought into the
keywords you choose.
4. Market the website This can be done through a number of
5. Keep the website updated and maintained Update the site
regularly. No one wants to buy products from a stale online
store. Customers want to know that you are an expert in your
product line, so offer free How-To guides and blogs, as well as
other content that requires continuous updates. Visitors like
interaction as well.
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Q1: What is a Team?
A team is a unit of two or more people who interact and
coordinate their work to accomplish a specific goal
Differences between ‘Group’ and ‘Team’
Has designated strong leader Shares or rotates leadership
Holds individuals accountable
Holds team accountable to
Sets identical purpose
Sets specific team
Has individual work products Has collective work products
Q2: What are the types of teams exist?
Formal Teams (appointed by the organization)
Vertical teams (functional teams), Horizontal teams
(e.g. new product development teams) (Refer page
526) and Special-purpose teams (e.g. Quality
Self-Directed Teams (empowered)
Teams in new workplaces
Virtual teams / Global teams
(e.g. cross-cultural teams)
Q3: Explain team characteristics
Member roles (task and socio-emotional)
Q4: What are the stages in Team
Q5: What are the causes of team conflicts?
Q6: Negotiation and Bargaining To resolve team
The three aspects communication, negotiation
and bargaining are interrelated. See their
descriptions below to understand this:
Communication enhances the inter-personal
relationship, mutual understanding and
effective work processes in an organization
Negotiation is an integral part of communication
which helps to arrive at various agreements /
Bargaining is a part of negotiation
Applied in Distributive Bargaining (Win-loose):
Negotiations that seek to divide up a fixed amount of
resources (e.g. dividing the ownership of a company)
A’s aspiration range
B’s aspiration range
Innovative Management Skills Chap 01
Managerial Ethics for Social Responsible Behaviour Chap 05
Entrepreneurship Chap 06
Managerial Planning Chap 07
Decision Making Chap 09
Designing adaptive organizations Chap 10
Managing change Chap 11
Leadership skills Chap 15
Motivating people Chap 16
Managing organizational communication Chap 17
Managing teams Chap 18
Managing quality Chap 19
Managing e-business Chap 20
Managing the value chain Chap 21