Credit: Pipistrel Pantheria
AIAA AVIATION 2013 Conference
By
Prasad Sundararajan
Applying Systems Engineering Management T...
General Aviation Industry
 The GA Marketplace
 U.S Civil Pilot Population
Light Sport Aircraft
 FAA – LSA/ Sport Pilot ...
SDM Tools for GA Piston Airplanes Product Development
Source: Active U.S. General Aviation Aircraft Types, GAMA 2012 Datab...
SDM Tools for GA Piston Airplanes Product Development
SDM Tools for GA Piston Airplanes Product Development
Sport Pilot Certificate
Privileges Limitations
• Daytime Visual Flight Rules • Prohibited from Class A airspace.
• Cross-c...
SDM Tools for GA Piston Airplanes Product Development
SDM Tools for GA Piston Airplanes Product Development
SDM Tools for GA Piston Airplanes Product Development
SDM Tools for GA Piston Airplanes Product Development
SDM Tools for GA Piston Airplanes Product Development
CTsw CTLS C4 (in development)
Systems Engineering design and management tools plays a vital role in
airplane production.
The introduction of Sport Pilot...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Systems Design and Management Tools for GA Airplanes Product Development Projects

802 views

Published on

Systems Design and Management Tools for GA Airplanes Product Development Projects

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
802
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
3
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
18
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • Prasad Sundararajan has been an active member of AIAA since 1992 and is a member of the Economics Technical Committee. He was elected as an Associate Fellow of AIAA in January 2010. He has been involved in aerospace and AIAA related activities for the past 16 years both at the regional and national levels. He is the founder and research director at aerospaceinindia.org, an independent open access network on Indian space activities. He holds a Master’s degree in Mechanical Engineering from Concordia University, Montreal, Canada and an MBA from Crummer Gradual School of Business, Rollins College, Florida. He also earned an Advanced Project Management Certificate from Stanford University School of Engineering, California. He is a FAA certificated Sport Pilot based in North Carolina. * His primary areas of interest and expertise are in space strategy and policy studies of emerging space powers, comparative economic and technology analysis, and the practical application of internet technologies for knowledge management and disbursement of aerospace related information.
  • Fewer certificated Private Pilots leads to a decrease in demand for light piston aircraft. Sport Pilot certifications are increasing since its introduction in 2004. - An increasing average age of pilots across the system demonstrates a pilot base that is not being replaced by younger generations. (Age: 40 (1991) to 48 (2009)) High flight training drop-out rate before pilot certificate completion (~80% per AOPA).
  • FAA introduced the Light Sport Aircraft category and the Sport Pilot certificate in 2004 – the most significant change enacted by FAA in 50 years. Goal of FAA - allow for easier access/ entry-level and lower cost means to the privilege of enjoying the benefits of flying. LSA includes fixed-wing airplanes, weight-shift control (trikes), powered parachutes, gliders, gyroplanes, and lighter-than-air (balloons and airships). FAA is now mandated by U.S. Congress to revise Part 23 of
  • Sport Pilot certificate requires only a minimum of 20 hours of flight training as opposed to 40 hours for Private pilot certificate. A sport pilot must hold at least a current and valid U.S. driver's license in order to exercise this privilege (instead of the third class medical certificate requirement for the private pilot). Airmen who currently hold a recreational, private, commercial, or airline transport pilot certificate and a valid medical will be able to fly light sport aircraft and aircraft that meet the definition of light sport aircraft provided they have the appropriate category and class ratings.
  • Stakeholders Visualization Map is a systems engineering design and management tool. It allows management to make informed decision making and prioritization of resources. It consists of a focal organization, its stakeholders and the tangible and intangible value exchanges between them. It allows us to visualize the primary paths for a project to engage the stakeholders and identify the most important stakeholders (with numerical value analysis). The qualitative visualization stakeholders map for a new Special-Light Sport Airplane (SLSA) product development (PD) project presented includes 17 value flows between 8 primary stakeholders. A quantitative value network would be the next step in the process (not discussed).
  • Allegro LSA – the 3 rd LSA certified by FAA since introduction of the LSA category in 2004. Originally designed and manufactured in the Czech republic. LSA America, Inc based in Littleton, NC now manufactures them in the US. All-aluminum wings and kevlar composite fuselage with aluminum T-tail. Wings made at the facility while the composite fuselage is currently being imported from Czech Republic.
  • The Design Structure Matrix (DSM) is a network modeling tool utilized to decompose the architecture of a complex technical system and their interactions thereby highlighting the system architecture. The DSM is represented as a square matrix (N x N) mapping the interaction among the set of N system elements. The product architecture DSM provides a highly effective representation of product components and their relationships The Allegro LSA aircraft was divided into five ‘section-based’ systems: cockpit, fuselage, empennage, wings and engine package. Each section comprises structural sub-systems/ components that are unique to that system, eg. shell and structure in the cockpit, and functional systems.
  • The Domain Mapping Matrix (DMM) is a systems engineering design and management (SDM) tool that allows to develop a top-level QFD (Quality Function Deployment) matrix, mapping customer requirements to product specification. The DMM analysis can help to clarify the relationship between domains and also in verifying the elements comprising each domain. The top customer requirements were gathered by Flight Design GmbH in an online survey of its existing customers and GA pilots during 2011 as part of its new four seat GA airplane development effort, Flight Design C4. Given that the engine is the primary system in an airplane, a mapping of the customer requirements with the engine system components is of paramount importance in any airplane product development project.
  • Modularity is an approach to managing complexity by breaking up complex engineering systems into subsystems, connected to each other with well-defined interfaces. Modularity enables firms to take advantage of different approaches to design, manufacture and go-to-market with their products. It also facilitates rapid adoption and dissemination of new technology. Modularizing a system enables platform engineering, in which common core components are grouped together and used in a variety of “derivative” products that have different external appearances of attributes. Flight Design Composite Technology CTsw - Short Wing CTLS – Light Sport CTLSi – CTLS with fuel injected engine (20-30% fuel efficiency) CTLE – CTLS modified for Law Enforcement MC – Metal Composition C4 – Four seat GA airplane
  • The Sport Pilot certificate has reduced the cost and time required to obtain an entry level certificate for new aspiring aviators by fifty percent. It also allows individuals with higher-level pilot certificates (e.g., private, commercial) to operate under sport pilot privileges without any new certificate, endorsement or test. Many established avionics players such as Garmin with certified avionics background, and Dynon with vast experimental aircraft avionics before the advent of SP/ LSA, are able to develop and market technical innovations such as glass cockpit synthetic vision for far less cost and time. The experience gained from the LSA/ SP regulation is driving changes in the GA rules & regulation: (a) FAA is currently evaluating allowing Private Pilots to operate GA airplanes with a driver’s license in lieu of a medical certificate under VFR conditions. (b) FAA is working with the industry in simplifying the Part 23 – Small Airplane Certification Process.
  • Systems Design and Management Tools for GA Airplanes Product Development Projects

    1. 1. Credit: Pipistrel Pantheria AIAA AVIATION 2013 Conference By Prasad Sundararajan Applying Systems Engineering Management Tools for Assessment of Product Development of Modern General Aviation Piston Airplanes
    2. 2. General Aviation Industry  The GA Marketplace  U.S Civil Pilot Population Light Sport Aircraft  FAA – LSA/ Sport Pilot Regulation  Special-Light Sport Airplanes Systems Design and Management Tools  Stakeholders Value Map: S-LSA Product Devl. Project  Design Structure Matrix: Allegro LSA Product Architecture  Domain Mapping Matrix: Customer Needs- Engine System  Modularity: Flight Design GA Airplane Products SDM Tools for GA Piston Airplanes Product Development
    3. 3. SDM Tools for GA Piston Airplanes Product Development Source: Active U.S. General Aviation Aircraft Types, GAMA 2012 Databook General Aviation Industry  GA is a $150 Billion Industry and employs about 1.2 million citizens  Globally, GA total aircrafts shipments in 2012 was 2,133  North America accounted for 49.7% of total shipments  GA exports accounted for nearly $5 billion of domestically manufactured airplanes Piston Engine Airplanes  In 2012, total piston engine airplanes manufactured was 881  Represent about 73% of total fleet in the U.S
    4. 4. SDM Tools for GA Piston Airplanes Product Development
    5. 5. SDM Tools for GA Piston Airplanes Product Development
    6. 6. Sport Pilot Certificate Privileges Limitations • Daytime Visual Flight Rules • Prohibited from Class A airspace. • Cross-country flying anywhere in the country • Prohibited from flying in Class B, C, or D airspace until receiving training and a logbook endorsement from an instructor. • Fly solo or with one passenger • No flights outside the U.S. without prior permission from the foreign aviation authority. • Fly in Class E and G airspace (and B, C, and D airspace with appropriate training). • No flights while carrying a passenger or property for compensation, hire, or • for furtherance of a business. • Fly up to 10,000 feet above mean sea level (MSL) or 2,000 above ground level (AGL) over mountains. • May not tow any object. • Allows sport pilots to fly production (standard airworthiness certificate) and experimental amateur-built aircraft that meet the definition of a light-sport aircraft. Allows rental of special light-sport aircraft (S-LSA). • Maximum speeds up to 138 mph in a one or two seat capable aircraft with a maximum stall speed of 51 mph. Source: EAA Sport Pilot Sourcebook, FAA Regulatory Brief SDM Tools for GA Piston Airplanes Product Development
    7. 7. SDM Tools for GA Piston Airplanes Product Development
    8. 8. SDM Tools for GA Piston Airplanes Product Development
    9. 9. SDM Tools for GA Piston Airplanes Product Development
    10. 10. SDM Tools for GA Piston Airplanes Product Development
    11. 11. SDM Tools for GA Piston Airplanes Product Development CTsw CTLS C4 (in development)
    12. 12. Systems Engineering design and management tools plays a vital role in airplane production. The introduction of Sport Pilot/ Light Sport Aircraft (SP/ LSA) regulations in 2004 by the FAA heralded a new aviation horizon in the United States. Light Sport Airplanes account for 20-25% of all General Aviation piston airplanes sold since 2009. In the next five years, LSA market share is expected to be between 33-50% of piston airplane sales (FAA Forecast) This paper presented one of the first product architecture based DSM for a Light Sport Airplane – Allegro LSA and a Stakeholders Visualization Map for a S-LSA product development (PD) project Special-Light Sport Airplanes (S-LSA) manufacturers are utilizing the fast developing state-of-the-art digital avionics given that a FAA certification is not a requirement for this category. New GA airplanes such as Pipistrel Panthera and Flight Design C4 represent the next generation light piston airplanes PD projects Findings/ Trends SDM Tools for GA Piston Airplanes Product Development

    ×