Child education in india


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Child education in india

  1. 1. Lack of Child Education in India Sachin Kumar Pourush, Lecturer, SBIT Sonepat Lecturer, SBIT Sonepat Deptt. of Management, Shri Balwant Institute of Management Pallari, Near DPS Sonepat Sonepat +91- 95405 47060 Page | 1
  2. 2. ABSTRACTThe child education in India has grown manifolds over a last few decades in terms of volumeas well as female-male ratio due to the multiplicative numbers of expenditure that have beenbudgeted to the industry. But, despite the voluminous growth in expenditure and increasingnumbers, India has failed to provide education to one and sundry. This paper criticallyexamines the landmark judgments, legislation and conducive reforms in the primary andsecondary education in India. The analysis of growth rate of total expenditure to thecorresponding growth in the education system gives an analytical approach to the presentresearch. The study also envisages the present education scenario as a relative variable to thepre-existing scenario. Taking the cue from the periodical transformations in child educationsystem, the study extends to a comparison between India, as a developing country, to thedeveloped countries. The scope of study also considers the remarkable growth in theeducation sector such as development of SEDZs (Special Education Zones), rural education;state-wise education scenario, the World Bank’s contribution to the system and a cordialrelationship between GNI per capita to Gross Enrolment Rate for both primary and secondaryeducation separately. A sincere effort has been made to identify the crucial bottlenecks besidelack of child education system in India. The nature of study requires thorough examinationand extraction of secondary data from various national and international sources. The studysuggests some significant ways to curb out the current issue considering all the initiatives thathave undergone into partial or wholly execution in the recent past. Page | 2
  3. 3. IntroductionIndia has the largest population of young people in the world. The biggest challenge beforeIndia is to create opportunities for youth population to become the largest pool of skilled andtrained human resources. Considering India as the largest contributor to the world’sworkforce, that shall be approximately 136 million people and over the next ten years i.e.nearly 25% of the entire world’s additional workforce, China will add just 23 million. It isestimated that India has the capacity to create 500 million certified skilled workers by theyear 2020.The education, fundamental and higher, necessarily intersects and effectively engages withthe social and economic challenges of local national, regional and global contexts. Thesechallenges include the imperatives of economic growth and development, the ability tocompete globally, job creation and the reduction or elimination of unemployment andpoverty. According to a recent report from Morgan Stanley, “India will become the world’sfastest growing economy by 2013-15.” This shall all be possible due to a rapid inclination inliteracy rate or child education in India.The schools, primary and higher, should act as an incubator to create a mass educatedpopulation and should work with the public-private partnership (PPP) and renownedcorporate houses. To develop skill-set that can match the current requirement of the industryas well as developing global edge. Child education is also an experiential service and there isa significant information gap between institutional claims and the expectations of prospectivestudents. This creates challenges for education ministry in creating consistent perceptions andconfidence of quality.To become a knowledge economy, we need to keep developing our human capital base andcreating mass literate population to contribute to our growth, development andcompetitiveness in the global economy. Holistic reforms will be necessary to reorientclassroom teaching and learning objectives, starting as early as primary school and extendingthrough secondary and tertiary education.Research MethodologyThe nature of present study requires the analysis of secondary data only. Data has beencollected through thorough survey of library, online content and printed material like Page | 3
  4. 4. journals, magazines and newspapers to examine the relatively present status to the decade(s)ago or the historical times. Data has also been extracted from manuals; Educationdepartment’s newsletters examine the reforms and amendments made by the governmenttime to time.Education System in IndiaThe modern education system in India was first an implantation of British monarchs. SirCharles Wood’s dispatch of 1854 laid the foundation of present system of education. Thedispatch expressed purview of education as the diffusion of Arts, Science, Philosophy andliterature of Europe. The dispatch was later known as “Magna Carta” of Indian education.Education in India has been broadly categorized in primary education, secondary educationand tertiary or higher education. Further, they can be categorized aspre-primary level, primary level, elementary education, secondary education, undergraduatelevel and postgraduate level. It is provided by both the public sector and the private sectorand is funded from three strata viz. federal, state and local. Education system is under thecontrol of both the union and the state government. Although, some responsibilities lies onunion and state, having autonomy for others.Primary education is the education till the age of fourteen years. It has experiencedsignificant growth in attendance rate and expanding literacy to approximately two thirds oftotal population and thus cited as one of the main contributors to the economic rise of India.Secondary education encompasses 88.5 million children between the ages of 14 to 18 years.However, some enrolment figures cited that only 31 million of these children attend theschool, which means two-third of the population remained out of the school. Page | 4
  5. 5. 10 00 ue ,0 al in V s Data Courtesy: MHRD Fig 1: Growth in institutes in primary and secondary education from 1950 to 2006 academic yearsHistory of Indian EducationThe rich history of much admired and adopted Indian education system leads to the 3rdcentury BC. In the Monastic order, sages used to impart Vidya (knowledge) to theirdisciplines for the nobility in ancient India. Ancient India had the tradition of ‘Gurukuls’.Under this system students had to live at the ‘Ashram’ of the teacher and get the education.This form of the education is known as ‘Guru-Shishya Parampara’.In the period of 200 BCE to 400 CE, the Buddhist institutions started imparting practicaleducation like medicine, logic, grammar etc. These institutions were systematic and laid thefoundation stone for systematic education system for imparting knowledge and attracted anumber of foreign students.During British Raj, the modern European education came to India. The Raj was reluctant tointroduce mass education system and the whole existing educational and government systemwent through reformation. British increased the percentage of the population in primary andsecondary education from around 0.6% of the population in 1787 to over 3.5% of thepopulation in 1941. However, this was much lower than the equivalent figure for Europewherein 1911 between 8% and 18% of the population were in primary and secondaryeducation. In 1901, the literacy rate in India was only about 5% though by independence itwas nearly 20%. Page | 5
  6. 6. Post independence in 1947, the existing education minister envisaged strong centralgovernment control over education throughout the country, with a uniform educationalsystem. The government now had the powers to make national policies for educationaldevelopment and could regulate selected aspects of education throughout India. In 1966,National Policy on education was formulated and also reinforced the Programme of Action(POA) in 1996.Education Policies and LegislationsArticle 45, of the constitution of India originally stated: “The state shall endeavour toprovide, within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution, for freeand compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years”Education marks as a fundamental right of any citizen in India bounded by the constitution.As a result, every child in India is ought to be educated without any economic, caste, creed,social or regional and religion disparity which has been enforced with many legislationsincluding the ban of Child labor. The right to education bill was passed in 2008 regulates theadmissions, corporal punishment and regulations on employing teachers from primaryeducation.Post independence witnessed much policy which made reminiscence in the Existing mode ofEducation. The National Policy of Education (1986) and Program of Action (1992) lay downthe objectives and features of Indian education policy. National Policy of Education of 1968,1986 and modification in 1992, lead to the major legislations like The National Council ofTeacher Education Act (1993), University Grants Commission Act (1956), The CopyrightAct (1957), The Institutes of Technology Act (1961) and also laid down many objectives forthe development of education system in India but it has not been successful in achieving allof them. The early years of this century saw the unsuccessful attempts to induce adolescenteducation and legislation to foreign education in India which lead to wide spread protests. Ithas specified that the examination system should discourage the memorizing but it is what isgoing on. The education in India seems to encourage rote learning instead of experimentationand questioning. Moreover, there is some disparity in assessment as the state boards havedifferent standards of evaluation.The later years found a steep degradation in the standards of Indian Education and promotingeducation as a profit-generating activity which was strengthened with the Supreme Court Page | 6
  7. 7. judgment in the T.M.A. Pai case in 2002, inveterate into P.A. Inamdar’s case (2005) whichwas masked as an individual right to start any institution, which empowered anyone to startand run institutions, without ample facilities, overruling the backward and minoritiesreservation policies and making control agencies like the AICTE, MCI and NCTE powerlessto decide the standards of educational institutions, which marked higher level of deteriorationin educational standards. There was an attempt to stop the legislation to give effect to the 93rdconstitutional amendment, which was adopted by parliament unanimously in 2006.The next major twirl was providing and misunderstanding the reservation policies ineducation and providing a blind 27% reservation supportively argued based on an outdatedcensus data, for other backward class i.e. OBC, which led to the division of opportunities ineducation on caste origin. This act was to ensure social justice to students of the socially andeconomically backward classes by means of reserving 27 percent of the seats in CentralGovernment higher educational institutions for them, while increasing the number of seats asa whole so as to protect candidates in the general category, but was wider downbeatcomplications due to lack of intelligibility in purpose, plan and criteria’s and supportivesubstantiations.World Bank Support to Indian EducationThe World Bank has committed over $2 billion to education in India, since the year 2000. Itsupports India’s Integrated Child Development Services with several operations categorizedinto phase II and phase III. The projects include lessons learned from research and analysissuch as reaching out to the child which recommends and integrated approaches to earlychildhood development. The World Bank is also doing research to explore improvements inservice delivery using micro-planning and finding synergies among various social programsfor children.Challenges in Education SystemIndia has become the 3rd largest education system in the world after China and United States,valuing 6.5 billion Rupees. However, the education system in India faces many challengesand they are mostly linked with policy matters related to governance apart from others. Theyinclude concern about quality, inequality of access, homogenization of culture and decline inarts and science disciplines. Thus, despite growing investment in investment in education, Page | 7
  8. 8. 25% of its population is still illiterate. Only 15% of Indian students and just 7% of this 15% continue upto high school. Data Courtesy: Directorate of Education, Government of IndiaFig 2: Expenditure on Education from 1987 to 2006 Since almost last two decades, the basic education programs have expanded access to schools in India. But, the number of school children decreased from 25 million in 2003 to an Page | 8
  9. 9. estimated 8.1 million in 2009. Most of these still not enrolled are from marginalized socialgroups. The significant bottlenecks that were identified in a study, by Pratham1, are: 1. Reaching some 8 million children that are not yet enrolled is an uphill task. 2. Ensuring retention of all students till they complete their elementary education (8 th standard). 3. Ensuring education is of good quality so it improves learning levels and cognitive skills. 4. India still faces challenges in providing quality Early Childhood Development programs for all children.Secondary education yields social and economic benefits but constitutes the primary pitfall inthe education system today. Access, equity, management and quality need thereconsideration. In a study, it is observed that more than 95 percent of children attendprimary school, but just 40 percent of Indian adolescents attend secondary school viz. 9th to12th standard.Tertiary education system of India is one of the largest in the world with over ten millionstudents. Nevertheless, only one out of ten young people has access to higher education andthis is predominantly among the well off.SuggestionsThe most noticeable thing in the study conducted is reciprocally related expenditure for theindustry and the growth of the sector. Although, several landmark judgments and legislationshave been formed to provide an impetus to the industry like development of SpecialEducation Zones (SEDZs); establishment of National Education Policy; The NationalCouncil of Teacher Education Act, 1987 etc. But, even international educational initiativeshave not been win-win experiences. However, following measure can also be taken intoconsideration in order to improve the volume, uplift the quality of child education in India.Primary and secondary education needs to be expanded, especially among low and middleincome students. This will require reforms in the governance structure of primary education,decentralization and major investments in faculty development.1 Pratham is a Government of India initiative towards ensuring far reaching school education. Page | 9
  10. 10. To upgrade the quality standards curriculum and teaching practices are required to beupgraded to impart more relevant skills such as reasoning skills, problem-solving skills,learning-to-learn and critical and independent thinking.In a research, it is also credited that 25% of public sector teachers and 40% of public medicalworkers were absent during the survey. Among teachers who were paid to teach, absencerates ranged from 15% in Maharastra to 30% in Bihar. Only 1 in nearly 3000 public schoolshead teachers had ever dismissed a teacher for repeated absenteeism. Thus, a precautionarymeasure is to be taken to streamline the issue because participation in the knowledgeeconomy requires new set of human skills.Since education is fairly unlike industry or business; comparisons with ‘liberalization’ and‘globalization’ effected in 1991 for those sectors. Our demographic ‘dividend’ demands‘talent transformation’ on global standards and exposure to international higher educationsystems and processes has positive benefits.The educational system should highlight the importance of higher education and prepare thestudents right from the primary education to get oriented towards attaining advanced skillsets. With the collaborations of foreign partners this culture can be nurtured in a win-winsituation.Universalization of good quality basic education can be achieved through public-private-partnerships (PPP) which are needed to be expanded to tap into the potential offered by the60% of secondary schools which are privately managed in India.References [1] Shetty, N.R. 2011, Impact on the quality of education due to the advent of foreign universities, The Indian Journal of Technical Education: 16:20 [2] Hartmut Scharfe, “Education in Ancient India”, handbook of oriental studies, Sect 2: India Vol. 16. Leiden Brill, 2002. PP 355 [3] www/ [4] [5] The manual handbook of Directorate of Education Page | 10
  11. 11. [6] Annual report 2005-06, Department of Education and Literacy & Department of secondary and higher education, Ministry of HRD, Government of India[7] P. Ravindran, “Education in India: Barely A Pass-mark”, the hindu business line, 28 Dec 2005 Page | 11