Porto's Summer Institute Presentation

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This is the presentation of Stella Porto at the Summer Institute event at UMUC, August 1st, 2011

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Porto's Summer Institute Presentation

  1. 1. DISTANCE EDUCATION THEORIES: WHY DO THEY MATTER TODAY? Stella C.S. Porto Master of Distance Education & E-Learning Graduate School of Management & TechnologyS. Porto – Summer Institute 2011 August, 2011 1
  2. 2. OVERVIEW•  Theory & theorists•  The industrial model: Peters•  The guided conversation: Holmberg•  The Transactional distance: Moore•  Connections•  Here & NowS. PORTO – SUMMER INSTITUTE 2011 August, 2011 2
  3. 3. THEORY AND THEORISTS “Everything that is recorded in the literature of a field makes up the theory of the field” (Moore & Kearsley, 2011) … then someone summarizes and organizes everything… More and more people use it and cite Voila’.. We have a theory! It is like a MAP… http://c.1asphost.com/Aspirincomic/Map_Theory.htmlS. PORTO – SUMMER INSTITUTE 2011 August, 2011 3
  4. 4. THEORY AND THEORISTS “If people in journeys of discovery have not read the theory”, summarized or not, “they are traveling without a map” (Moore & Kearsley, 2011) “Knowing the theory, therefore, is very valuable for everyone who wants to practice in distance education; for researchers it is indispensable” (Moore & Kearsley, 2011)S. PORTO – SUMMER INSTITUTE 2011 August, 2011 4
  5. 5. THEORY & THEORISTS•  Until very recently there was no general theory of the pedagogy of distance education•  First definition of DE … “…the family of instructional methods in which the teaching behaviors are executed apart from thelearning behaviors” (Moore, 1972 in Moore & Kearsley, 2011)S. PORTO – SUMMER INSTITUTE 2011 August, 2011 5
  6. 6. THEORY & THEORISTS DE theories have been classified in three groups: Theories of independence and autonomy Theories of industrialization of teaching Theories of interaction and communicationS. PORTO – SUMMER INSTITUTE 2011 August, 2011 6
  7. 7. THEORY & THEORISTS Boerje Holmberg (Sweden) Michael G. Moore (UK, USA) Otto Peters (Germany)S. PORTO – SUMMER INSTITUTE 2011 August, 2011 7
  8. 8. OTTO PETERS: THE INDUSTRIAL MODEL•  Once upon a time DE was just like correspondence courses… •  In fact it still is in many parts of the world!•  Peters explained in 1967 – “it becomes clear that distance study is a form of study complimentary to our industrial and technological age”•  The success of DE (at the time) depended on the use of such industrial modelS. PORTO – SUMMER INSTITUTE 2011 August, 2011 8
  9. 9. OTTO PETERS: THE INDUSTRIAL MODEL•  Mechanization and then automation•  Preparatory phases are essential steps;•  Systematic planning and organization •  Specialized roles in production•  Standardized products •  Increased concentration and centralization S. PORTO – SUMMER INSTITUTE 2011 August, 2011 9
  10. 10. BOERJE HOLMBERG: THE GUIDEDCONVERSATION•  Feelings of a personal relation between learner and teacher promotes study pleasure and motivation •  Well designed material can foster such feelings •  Intellectual pleasure & motivation support learning goals•  A friendly tone favors the feelings of this personal relationS. PORTO – SUMMER INSTITUTE 2011 August, 2011 10
  11. 11. MICHAEL G. MOORE: TRANSACTIONAL DISTANCE Autonomy StructureDialogue Michael G. MooreS. PORTO – SUMMER INSTITUTE 2011 August, 2011 11
  12. 12. MICHAEL G. MOORE: TRANSACTIONAL DISTANCEDIALOGUEDialogue is purposeful, Dialogue is not theconstructive and same as interaction.valued by both parties The extent and nature of dialogue depends on institutional, designer or teacher philosophies, the nature of the subject/content matter and environmental factors.S. PORTO – SUMMER INSTITUTE 2011 August, 2011 12
  13. 13. MICHAEL G. MOORE: TRANSACTIONAL DISTANCE STRUCTUREStructure is a variable thatrepresents elements incourse design, such aslearning objectives, contentthemes, presentations, casestudies, activities, Degree in which the learning pathassignments and tests. is (pre-)determined How tightly controlled the sequences and the course are. S. PORTO – SUMMER INSTITUTE 2011 August, 2011 13
  14. 14. MICHAEL G. MOORE: TRANSACTIONAL DISTANCESTRUCTURE + DIALOGUE Distance is a pedagogical phenomenon Higher TD: more structure, less dialogue. Lower TD: less structure, more dialogue.S. PORTO – SUMMER INSTITUTE 2011 August, 2011 14
  15. 15. MICHAEL G. MOORE: TRANSACTIONAL DISTANCEAUTONOMY The greater TD, the more responsibility is given to the learner Learners have different abilities and potential when it comes to making decisions about their own learningS. PORTO – SUMMER INSTITUTE 2011 August, 2011 15
  16. 16. CONNECTIONSS. PORTO – SUMMER INSTITUTE 2011 August, 2011 16
  17. 17. HERE & NOW How is the industrialized approach replicated in order to expand sustainable access?Is it relevant? Why? How do we apply the empathy How? approach within our teaching practice? Do changes in technology affect transactional distance?S. PORTO – SUMMER INSTITUTE 2011 August, 2011 17
  18. 18. HERE & NOW What kinds of changes and/or strategies we should use in our courses to enhance students autonomy?Is it relevant? Why? How much autonomy is expected How? from our students? How can we enhance our teaching practice through a balance of structure and dialogue?S. PORTO – SUMMER INSTITUTE 2011 August, 2011 18

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