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Epidemiological study of physical fitness and physical activity in Flanders
Epidemiological study of physical fitness and physical activity in Flanders
Epidemiological study of physical fitness and physical activity in Flanders
Epidemiological study of physical fitness and physical activity in Flanders
Epidemiological study of physical fitness and physical activity in Flanders
Epidemiological study of physical fitness and physical activity in Flanders
Epidemiological study of physical fitness and physical activity in Flanders
Epidemiological study of physical fitness and physical activity in Flanders
Epidemiological study of physical fitness and physical activity in Flanders
Epidemiological study of physical fitness and physical activity in Flanders
Epidemiological study of physical fitness and physical activity in Flanders
Epidemiological study of physical fitness and physical activity in Flanders
Epidemiological study of physical fitness and physical activity in Flanders
Epidemiological study of physical fitness and physical activity in Flanders
Epidemiological study of physical fitness and physical activity in Flanders
Epidemiological study of physical fitness and physical activity in Flanders
Epidemiological study of physical fitness and physical activity in Flanders
Epidemiological study of physical fitness and physical activity in Flanders
Epidemiological study of physical fitness and physical activity in Flanders
Epidemiological study of physical fitness and physical activity in Flanders
Epidemiological study of physical fitness and physical activity in Flanders
Epidemiological study of physical fitness and physical activity in Flanders
Epidemiological study of physical fitness and physical activity in Flanders
Epidemiological study of physical fitness and physical activity in Flanders
Epidemiological study of physical fitness and physical activity in Flanders
Epidemiological study of physical fitness and physical activity in Flanders
Epidemiological study of physical fitness and physical activity in Flanders
Epidemiological study of physical fitness and physical activity in Flanders
Epidemiological study of physical fitness and physical activity in Flanders
Epidemiological study of physical fitness and physical activity in Flanders
Epidemiological study of physical fitness and physical activity in Flanders
Epidemiological study of physical fitness and physical activity in Flanders
Epidemiological study of physical fitness and physical activity in Flanders
Epidemiological study of physical fitness and physical activity in Flanders
Epidemiological study of physical fitness and physical activity in Flanders
Epidemiological study of physical fitness and physical activity in Flanders
Epidemiological study of physical fitness and physical activity in Flanders
Epidemiological study of physical fitness and physical activity in Flanders
Epidemiological study of physical fitness and physical activity in Flanders
Epidemiological study of physical fitness and physical activity in Flanders
Epidemiological study of physical fitness and physical activity in Flanders
Epidemiological study of physical fitness and physical activity in Flanders
Epidemiological study of physical fitness and physical activity in Flanders
Epidemiological study of physical fitness and physical activity in Flanders
Epidemiological study of physical fitness and physical activity in Flanders
Epidemiological study of physical fitness and physical activity in Flanders
Epidemiological study of physical fitness and physical activity in Flanders
Epidemiological study of physical fitness and physical activity in Flanders
Epidemiological study of physical fitness and physical activity in Flanders
Epidemiological study of physical fitness and physical activity in Flanders
Epidemiological study of physical fitness and physical activity in Flanders
Epidemiological study of physical fitness and physical activity in Flanders
Epidemiological study of physical fitness and physical activity in Flanders
Epidemiological study of physical fitness and physical activity in Flanders
Epidemiological study of physical fitness and physical activity in Flanders
Epidemiological study of physical fitness and physical activity in Flanders
Epidemiological study of physical fitness and physical activity in Flanders
Epidemiological study of physical fitness and physical activity in Flanders
Epidemiological study of physical fitness and physical activity in Flanders
Epidemiological study of physical fitness and physical activity in Flanders
Epidemiological study of physical fitness and physical activity in Flanders
Epidemiological study of physical fitness and physical activity in Flanders
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Epidemiological study of physical fitness and physical activity in Flanders

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  • 1. Epidemiological study of physical fitness and physical activity in Flanders Renaat Philippaerts1, William Duquet (†)2, Johan Lefevre3 1Department of Movement and Sports Sciences, Ghent University 2Faculty of Physical Education and Physiotherapy, VUBrussel 3Department of Biomedical Kinesiology, KULeuven
  • 2. Welcome in Gent 3th most historical city in the world (National Geographic, 2008) 1.Wachau (Austria) 2.Ontario (Canada) 3.Gent (Belgium)
  • 3. 1. Policy Research Centre in Flanders 2. Frame of reference 3. Computerised questionnaires 4. Results 5. Time & Money: some facts Renaat Philippaerts Department of Movement and Sports Sciences
  • 4. 1. Policy Research Centers 12 Policy Research Centers - according to the policy domains: - Sport, physical activity and health, - Culture, - Tourism and leisure - Transportation, - Gender and equality, - Education, ... - provide evidence-based knowledge to policy makers, ministers, …
  • 5. 1. Policy Research Centers - Periods of 5 years: - 2001-2006, 2007-2011, … - Consortium between universities, colleges, administrations and scientific institutions - Budget over 5 years for each center - 4.000.000 – 5.000.000 €
  • 6. Policy Research Center for Sport, Physical Activity and Health (SPAH) supported by the Flemish Government (2001-2006: 4.214.200 euro)
  • 7. 1. Policy Research Centers Theme I: Current status of physical activity, fitness and health in Flanders Theme II: Associations between physical activity, fitness and health Theme III: Development of intervention strategies for specific target groups (school, obese, internet use, elderly, …) Theme IV: prevalence of injuries due to physical activity and sports
  • 8. 2. Frame of reference Consensus model of Bouchard & Shephard, 1994
  • 9. 2. Frame of reference Theme I: Current status of physical activity, fitness and health in Flanders “Correct assessment of physical activity (PA) behavior and energy expenditure (EE) related to physical activity is essential to study the effects of physical activity on fitness and potential health benefits”
  • 10. 3. Computerised questionnaire How to quantify physical activity? Physical activity is a complex concept, determined by different indicators: – Frequency – Duration – Intensity → different methods
  • 11. 3. Computerised questionnaire Activity energy expediture ‣ Different activities contribute to AEE ‧ PA during occupation ‧ PA during leisure time – sport activities ‧ Home and household activities ‧ Transportation ‧ Personal care Renaat Philippaerts Department of Movement and Sports Sciences
  • 12. 3. Computerised questionnaire Criterion methods Objective methods - Heart rate monitoring (HRM) - Activity monitors (pedometers and accelerometers) (AM) - Combination of HRM and AM
  • 13. 3. Computerised questionnaire Criterion methods Objective methods Subjective methods - Survey techniques (questionnaires) - Self-reported - Paper and pencil - Electronic surveys - Interviewer-assisted
  • 14. 3. Computerised questionnaire Advantages paper-pencil Q: 1. The only method feasible for a large number of people 2. Inexpensive 3. Specific activities can be identified together with frequency and duration (intensity?)
  • 15. 3. Computerised questionnaire Advantages paper-pencil Q: 4. Q does not influence the subject’s activities 5. Using energy tables: conversion to AEE/ADMR 6. Usable over a wide range of age 7. Good reliability
  • 16. 3. Computerised questionnaire Limitations paper-pencil Q: 1. Recall their activities accurately? - overstimation - underestimation 2. Questions are not clear 3. Instrument is age and group specific 4. Time consuming: encoding, analyzing
  • 17. 3. Computerised questionnaire Limitations paper-pencil Q: 5. “human errors” 6. Difficult to assess validity
  • 18. 3. Computerised questionnaire Tecumseh/Minnesota Five City/7 day recall Baecke Godin-Shephard Framingham Lipid Research Clinic Baecke Modification Zutphen Q ? Yale PA Q PASE Amsterdam Growth Study Q … IPAQ
  • 19. 3. Computerised questionnaire Computerised questionnaires Computer delivered questionnaires … What? Why?
  • 20. 3. Computerised questionnaire Advantages: 1. administration to a large number of people simultaneously 2. subjects cannot omit questions (no missing data) 3. software can skip superfluous questions 4. subjects report more honestly undesirable behavior
  • 21. 3. Computerised questionnaire Advantages: 5. avoiding all sources of coding errors 6. reducing hours of data entry: less expensive 7. explanation of difficult words or questions by film clips …and all advantages of P-P Q
  • 22. 3. Computerised questionnaire Limitations: 1. development of software (need of technicians) 2. development can be expensive 3. dependent on hardware, server, …
  • 23. 3. Computerised questionnaire Children-adolescents - McMurray RG et al., 1998, Med Sci Sports Exerc 30: 1238-1245. - Ridley K et al., 2001, Pediat Exerc Sci 13: 35-46. - Philippaerts RM et al., 2006, Int J Sports Med 27: 131-136. Adults - Vandelanotte C et al., 2005, Journal for Physical Activity and Health 2 (1): 63-75. - Matton L et al., 2007, Res Quarterly Exerc Sport 78 (4): 293- 306.
  • 24. BACKOFFICE
  • 25. 3. Computerised questionnaire The concept of the FPACQ - similar to IPAQ - specific sub-components - indication of intensity - calculation of EE by using METs - one single administrator Renaat Philippaerts Department of Movement and Sports Sciences
  • 26. 3. Computerised questionnaire The concept of the FPACQ - all data are directly saved and encoded - additional variables are directly calculated by the software - immediate feedback is possible Renaat Philippaerts Department of Movement and Sports Sciences
  • 27. 3. Computerised questionnaire From FPACQ to IPACQ ?? - translation to other languages - pilot studies: reliability and validity in international context renaat.philippaerts@UGent.be johan.lefevre@faber.kuleuven.be Renaat Philippaerts Department of Movement and Sports Sciences
  • 28. 4. Results 2001: Subjects (12-18 yrs) N % Girls 3738 61.1 Boys 2379 38.9 Total 6117 100 Representative sample according to the different educational systems (free, state, official) This study was supported by the Flemisch Agency for the promotion of Sport BLOSO
  • 29. 4. Results 2002-2004: Adults 46 communities (ad random) 28840 subjects (age 18-75) (ad random) 22830 with known telephone number 18453 reached 5170 participated 5170/18453 = 28%
  • 30. 4. Results
  • 31. Boys 12-18 years
  • 32. Girls 12-18 years Dansen 26,0 Zwemmen 18,1 Fitness 17,0 Fietssporten 15,1 Paardensport 10,6 Tennis 10,5 Atletiek 9,1 Turnen 7,6 Volleybal 5,9 Basketbal 5,5 0 10 20 30 40 50 Percentage
  • 33. Results: boys Inactivity: TV and computer games hrs/wk 29 Age: ns 27 SES: L >< H 25 Age x SES: ns 23 low 21 middle high 19 17 15 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 age (yr)
  • 34. Results: girls Inactivity: TV and computer games hrs/wk 27 Age: ** 25 SES: L,M >< H Age x SES: ns 23 low 21 middle 19 high 17 15 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 age (yr)
  • 35. Results: boys Passive transport (car, bus, train, …) hrs/wk 6 Age: ** 5 SES: ns Age x SES: ns 4 low 3 middle 2 high 1 0 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 age (yr)
  • 36. Results: girls Passive transport (car, bus, train, …) hrs/wk 6 Age: ** 5 SES: L >< H Age x SES: ns 4 low 3 middle 2 high 1 0 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 age (yr)
  • 37. Results: boys Sport participation leisure time: no difference Active transport: no difference Total activity: no difference Frequency moderate activities: no difference Frequency heavy activities: no difference
  • 38. Results: girls Leisure time sport participation hrs/wk 6 Age: ns 5 SES: L >< M >< H Age x SES: * 4 low 3 middle 2 high 1 0 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 age (yr)
  • 39. Results: girls Total activity (sports + active transport + school sports + PE) hrs/wk 16 Age: ** 14 SES: L >< M >< H Age x SES: ns 12 low middle 10 high 8 6 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 age (yr)
  • 40. Results: girls Frequency moderate activities days/wk 3 Age: ** SES: L,M >< H Age x SES: ** 2 low middle 1 high 0 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 age (yr)
  • 41. Results: girls Frequency heavy activities n/wk 3 Age: ** SES: L,M >< H Age x SES: * 2 low middle 1 high 0 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 age (yr)
  • 42. 4. Results In Flanders: Boys are more physically active than girls Girls are more prone to sedentary behavior Physical activity declines with age in youth
  • 43. Prevalence over Overweight 25 > BMI <30
  • 44. Prevalence of Obesitas BMI > 30
  • 45. Health-related sport activity for age and gender • > 1.5 h/week % • > 3.5 MET’s (intensity) • according PA guidelines
  • 46. Prevalence of sport inactivity (no sport activity at all) %
  • 47. 4. Results Sedentary behaviour
  • 48. Prevalence of sedentarity PAL < 1.55 (kcal/kg/h or MET) %
  • 49. Prevalence of Hypertension SP > 140 mmHg or DP > 90 mmHg %
  • 50. Profiel M ANNEN 45-49 jaar P10 P25 P50 P75 P90 170.0 172.0 176.0 180.0 186.0 G estalte (cm ) 70.0 73.0 80.0 89.0 109.0 G ew icht (kg) 22.2 23.9 25.5 28.5 31.6 BM I (kg/m 2) 15.2 19.1 23.0 26.6 30.5 Vetpercentage (% ) 8.0 14.0 21.0 27.0 32.0 Lenigheid Zittend reiken (cm ) 35.0 42.0 49.0 56.0 62.0 Statische kracht Handknijpkracht (kg) 521.0 557.5 612.4 685.5 703.8 W andeltest (m ) 116.0 120.7 130.0 140.0 150.0 Systolische bloeddruk (m m Hg) 73.3 78.7 82.0 90.0 95.3 Diastolische bloeddruk (m m Hg) 3.9 4.3 4.9 5.4 6.0 Longinhoud (l) 164.0 186.0 209.0 236.0 265.0 Totaal cholesterol (m g/100m l) 0.0 0.0 0.0 3.0 8.0 Uren sport (u/w eek) 4.5 9.0 16.0 21.0 28.0 Kijkindex (u/w eek)
  • 51. Recommendations to the policy %
  • 52. 5. Time & Money: some facts Budget epidemiological study 2.000.000 € (2001-2006) Subjects • PA: 6117 boys and girls: in a 3-month period • PA & PF & Health test battery: 5170 men and women: during ca. 50 weeks (about 100 subjects per week)
  • 53. 5. Time & Money: some facts Staff: • 3 promotors • 1 director (on pay roll) • 1 administrator (on pay roll) • 1 test manager (on pay roll) • 3 PhD students (on pay roll) • Call center (1 year: 12 students) (on pay roll) • 4 physicians (free lance), • 2 nurses (free lance) • 8 part-time administrators and test leaders (on pay roll) • ca. 25 master students
  • 54. Thank you !

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