P.s.menon health & safety


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P.s.menon health & safety

  1. 1. Aim and purpose The aim of this unit is to enable learners to develop knowledge of the legislation and regulations relating to health and safety in a business workplace in order to conduct an audit and carry out a risk assessment.
  2. 2. Learning outcomes On completion of this unit a learner should: 1 Understand how health and safety legislation and regulations affect a business working environment 2 Know the requirements for healthy, safe and productive working conditions 3 Understand the role and responsibilities of key personnel 4 Be able to assess and manage risk.
  3. 3. Unit content Understand how health and safety legislation and regulations affect a business working environment. Know the requirements for healthy, safe and productive working conditions Understand the role and responsibilities of key personnel Be able to assess and manage risk
  4. 4. Managing health and safety in your workplace Health and safety legislation
  5. 5. Health and safety legislation What are the main causes of ill health and accidents at work? Every year over 200 people are killed at work and several hundred thousand more are injured and suffer ill health. The biggest causes of days off work sick are aches and pains such as back problems and stress. The most common causes of serious accidental injury at work are slips and trips. The most common causes of death from accidents are falls from a height and being struck by vehicles in the workplace.
  6. 6. Health and safety legislation There are two main kinds of health and safety law. Some is very specific about what you must do, but some, such as the Health and Safety at Work etc Act 1974 (HSW Act), is general, requiring you to do what is ‘reasonably practicable’ to ensure health and safety. There are legal health and safety requirements that you have to meet. Two of the most important health and safety legislation affecting workplaces are - 1. The Health and Safety at Work, etc Act 1974 2. The Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999.
  7. 7. Health and safety legislation The Health and Safety at Work, etc Act 1974 The Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999 The Workplace (Health, Safety and Welfare) Regulations 1992 The Manual Handling Operations Regulations 1992 The Control of Asbestos at Work Regulations 2006 The Health and Safety (Display Screen Equipment) Regulations 1992 The Electricity at Work Regulations 1989 The Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations 1995 The Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations 2002 The Provision and Use of Work Equipment Regulations 1998 The Health and Safety (First Aid) Regulations 1981
  8. 8. The law Under the Health and Safety at Work etc Act 1974 (the HSW Act), you have to ensure the health and safety of yourself and others who may be affected by what you do or do not do. It applies to all work activities and premises and everyone at work has responsibilities under it, including the self- employed. The Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999 also apply to every workplace and require all risks to be assessed and controlled.
  9. 9. 1. The Health and Safety at Work, etc Act 1974 This Act provides a framework for ensuring the health and safety of all employees in any work activity and anyone who may be affected by work activities in eg employees and contractors, visitors etc. General duties and key sections of the act. Section 2 Duties of employers to employees To ensure, so far as is reasonably practicable, the health, safety and welfare of all employees. In particular: ➤ safe plant and systems of work ➤ safe use, handling, transport and storage of substances and articles
  10. 10. ➤ provision of information, instruction, training and supervision ➤ safe place of work, access and egress ➤ safe working environment with adequate welfare facilities ➤ a written safety policy together with organizational and other arrangements (if there are 5 or more employees) ➤ consultation with safety representatives and formation of safety committees where there are recognized trade unions. General duties and key sections of the act. Section 2 Duties of employers to employees
  11. 11. Section 3 Duties of employers to others affected by their undertaking A duty to safeguard those not in their employment but affected by the undertaking. This includes members of the public, contractors, patients, customers and students. Section 4 Duties of landlords or owners To ensure that means of access and egress are safe for those using the premises.
  12. 12. Section 6 Duties of suppliers Places duties on designers, manufacturers and suppliers to ensure that articles and substances are safe for use Section 7 Duties of Employees ➤ to take reasonable care for the health and safety of themselves and others affected by their acts or omissions ➤ to co-operate with the employer and others to enable them to fulfi l their legal obligations. General duties and key sections of the act.
  13. 13. Section 8 No person is to misuse or interfere with safety provisions. (sometimes known as the‘horseplay section’) Section 9 Employees cannot be charged for health and safety requirements such as personal protective equipment. Section 37 Personal liability of directors Where an offence is committed by a corporate body with the consent or connivance of, or is attributable to any neglect of a director or other senior officer of the body, both the corporate body and the person are liable to prosecution. Enforcement action can be taken for the violation of these rules.
  14. 14. The Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999 Employers duties undertake suitable and sufficient written risk assessments when there are 5 or more employees put in place effective arrangements for the planning, organization, control, monitoring and review of health and safety measures in the workplace (including health surveillance). Such arrangements should be recorded if there are more than four employees employ (to be preferred) or contract competent persons to help them comply with health and safety duties develop suitable emergency procedures. Ensure that employees and others are aware of these procedures and can apply them
  15. 15. provide health and safety information to employees and others, such as other employers, the self employed and their employees who are sharing the same workplace and parents of child employees or those on work experience co-operate in health and safety matters with other employers who share the same workplace provide employees with adequate and relevant health and safety training provide temporary workers and their contract agency with appropriate health and safety information  protect new and expectant mothers and young persons from particular risks under certain circumstances, as outlined in Regulation 6, provide health surveillance for employees. Employers duties
  16. 16. The information that should be supplied by employers under the regulations is: risks identified by any risk assessments including those notified to him by other employers sharing the same workplace the preventative and protective measures that are in place the emergency arrangements and procedures and the names of those responsible for the implementation of the procedures.
  17. 17. Employees duties Employees must: use any equipment or substance in accordance with any training or instruction given by the employer report to the employer any serious or imminent danger report any shortcomings in the employer’s protective health and safety arrangements.
  18. 18. The main external agencies that impact on the workspace.
  19. 19. The Workplace, (Health, Safety and Welfare) Regulations 1992 These regulations deal with physical conditions in the workplace and require employers to meet minimum standards in relation to a wide range of matters, which include: maintenance of buildings and equipment lighting provision of drinking water temperature rest facilities ventilation toilet facilities first aid.
  20. 20. The Manual Handling Operations Regulations 1992 These regulations require employers to minimize the health risks associated with manual handling, such as lifting, carrying, moving, holding, pushing, lowering, pulling or restraining an object, person or animal. Employers should: avoid the need to lift, carry, push, pull, lower or support loads wherever possible mechanize tasks where they cannot be avoided by the use of trolleys, barrows, lifts or hoists carry out risk assessments, which take into account the work task, the activity involved, individual capacity, working environment and other factors.
  21. 21. The Electricity at Work Regulations 1989 These place a duty on employers to assess all foreseeable risks associated with work activities involving electricity. Employers are required to install safe systems of working, with well-maintained equipment, covering everything from power lines to kettles. All installation and repairs should be undertaken by a qualified electrician or those who have appropriate technical knowledge, though some minor repairs, inspections, fitting of plugs, etc may be undertaken by suitably trained staff.
  22. 22. The Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations 1995 Under these regulations (often referred to as RIDDOR), certain work-related accidents are reportable by law to the Health and Safety Executive or the local authority. The following must be reported: death of any person a 'major injury' to any person at work hospital treatment of any person who is not at work (eg pupil/student)
  23. 23. an accident which results in a person at work being incapacitated for more than three consecutive days (excluding the day of the accident) specified dangerous occurrences, eg building collapse specified work-related diseases, eg mesothelioma and hepatitis. The following must be reported:
  24. 24. The Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations 2002 These regulations (often known as the COSHH regulations) require employers to assess and prevent (or at least adequately control) the risks to health from the use of any hazardous substances used in the workplace. A hazardous substance is one which has, by law, to be labelled as 'very toxic', 'toxic', 'harmful', 'irritant' or 'corrosive'. It therefore includes many chemical substances such as paints and cleaning materials, as well as wood dust.
  25. 25. The Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations 2002 The obligations to employers are to: assess the risks decide what precautions are needed take steps to reduce or adequately control exposure to hazardous substances ensure that control measures are utilised and maintained monitor exposure carry out health surveillance of employees who have been or are likely to be exposed have in place emergency procedures to deal with accidents/incidents ensure that employees are properly informed, trained and supervised.
  26. 26. Display Screen Equipment Regulation The Health and Safety (Display Screen Equipment) Regulations 1992 require employers to minimise the risks in VDU work by ensuring that workplaces and jobs are well designed. The Regulations apply where staff habitually use VDUs as a significant part of their normal work.
  27. 27. Employers have to: Analyze workstations, and assess and reduce risks. Employers need to look at: ■ the whole workstation including equipment, furniture, and the work environment; ■ the job being done; and ■ any special needs of individual staff
  28. 28. summary of key principles This section provides the Key Principles of information- handling practice mean. • Data may only be used for the specific purposes for which it was collected. • Data must not be disclosed to other parties without the consent of the individual whom it is about, unless there is legislation or other overriding legitimate reason to share the information (for example, the prevention or detection of crime). • It is an offence for Other Parties to obtain this personal data without authorization. Data Protection Act 1998
  29. 29. • Individuals have a right of access to the information held about them, subject to certain exceptions (for example, information held for the prevention or detection of crime). • Personal information may be kept for no longer than is necessary and must be kept up to date. • The departments of a company that are holding personal information are required to have adequate security measures in place. Those include technical measures (such as firewalls) and organisational measures (such as staff training). Data Protection Act 1998
  30. 30. Computer Misuse Act 1990 Sections 1-3 of the Act introduced three criminal offences: • Unauthorized access to computer material, punishable by 6 months' imprisonment or a fine "not exceeding level 5 on the standard scale" (currently £5000); • Unauthorized access with intent to commit or facilitate commission of further offences, punishable by 6 months/maximum fine on summary conviction or 5 years/fine on indictment; • Unauthorised modification of computer material, subject to the same sentences as section 2 offences.
  31. 31. Works subject to copyright • The Act simplifies the different categories of work which are protected by copyright, eliminating the specific treatment of engravings and photographs. • literary, dramatic and musical works (s. 3): these must be recorded in writing or otherwise to be granted copyright, and copyright subsists from the date at which recording takes place • artistic works (s. 4): includes buildings, photographs, engravings and works of artistic craftsmanship.
  32. 32. • sound recordings and films (s. 5) • broadcasts (s. 6): a broadcast is a transmission by wireless telegraphy which is intended for, and capable of reception by, members of the public. • cable programmes (s. 7). A cable programme is a part of a service which transmits images, sound or other information to two or more different places or to members of the public by any means other than wireless telegraphy. There are several exceptions, including general Internet use, which may be modified by Order in Council. • published editions (s. 8) means the published edition of the whole or part of one or more literary, dramatic or musical works.
  33. 33. The following works are exempted from copyright by the transitional provisions of Schedule 1: artistic works made before 1 June 1957 which constituted a design which could be registered under the Registered Designs Act 1949 c. 88 (or repealed measures) and which was used as a model for reproduction by an industrial process (para. 6); films made before 1 June 1957: these are treated as dramatic works (if they so qualify under the 1911 Act) and/or as photographs (para. 7); broadcasts made before 1 June 1957 and cable programmes transmitted before 1 January 1985 (para; 9). The Act as it received Royal Assent does not substantially change the qualification requirements of the author or the country of origin of the work, which are restated as ss. 153–156: these have since been largely modified, in particular by the Duration of Copyright
  34. 34. The Freedom of Information Act 2000 (c.36) is an Act of Parliament of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that creates a public "right of access" to information held by public authorities.
  35. 35. Chapter-2 Managing health and safety in your workplace Risk Assessment
  36. 36. A safe place of work In order to make a safe workplace You must:  make sure your buildings are in good repair.  maintain the workplace and any equipment so that it is safe and works efficiently.  put right any dangerous defects immediately, or take steps to protect anyone at risk.  take precautions to prevent people or materials falling from open edges, eg fencing or guard-rails.  fence or cover floor openings, eg vehicle examination pits, when not in use.  have enough space for safe movement and access, eg to machinery.
  37. 37. A safe place of work provide safe glazing, if necessary (eg protected, toughened or thick) which is n marked to make it easy to see.  make sure floors, corridors and stairs etc are free of obstructions, eg trailing cables.  provide good drainage in wet processes.  have windows that can be opened and cleaned safely. They should be designed to stop people falling  out or bumping into them when open. You may need to fit anchor points if window cleaners have to use harnesses.  provide weather protection for outdoor workplaces, if practical.  keep outdoor routes safe during icy conditions, eg salt/sand and sweep them.
  38. 38. Also think about:  siting machinery and furniture so that sharp corners do not stick out; not overloading floors  providing space for storing tools and materials  marking the edges of openings like vehicle pits  finding out the views of employees on the design of the workplace
  39. 39. Lighting You must provide:  good light – use natural light where possible but try to avoid glare a good level of local lighting at workstations where necessary suitable forms of lighting.  Some fluorescent tubes flicker and can be dangerous n with some rotating machinery because the rotating part can appear to have stopped  special fittings for flammable or explosive atmospheres, eg from paint spraying  well-lit stairs and corridors.
  40. 40. Moving around the premises You must have:  safe passage for pedestrians and vehicles – you may need separate routes.  level, even surfaces without holes or broken boards.  hand-rails on stairs and ramps where necessary.  safe doors, eg vision panels in swing doors, sensitive edges on power doors.  surfaces which are not slippery.  well-lit outside areas – this will help security
  41. 41. Designing workstations Make sure:  workstations and seating fit the worker and the work.  backrests support the small of the back and you must provide footrests if n necessary.  work surfaces are at a suitable height.  there is easy access to controls on equipment
  42. 42. Display screen equipment (DSE) What must employers do by law?  Identify what display screen equipment and users in your workplace are covered.  Assess workstations and meet the minimum requirements for them.  Plan the work so there are breaks or changes of activity.  On request provide eye and eyesight tests, and spectacles if special ones are necessary.  Provide training and information.
  43. 43. Cleanliness You must:  provide clean floors and stairs, which are drained and not slippery  provide clean premises, furniture and fittings (eg lights)  provide containers for waste materials  remove dirt, refuse and trade waste regularly  clear up spillages promptly  eliminate traps for dirt or germs, eg by sealing joints between surfaces  keep internal walls or ceilings clean. They may need painting to help easy cleaning.
  44. 44. Hygiene and welfare You must provide:  clean, well-ventilated toilets (separate for men and women unless each n convenience has its own lockable door);  wash basins with hot and cold (or warm) running water;  showers for dirty work or emergencies;  soap and towels (or a hand dryer);  skin cleansers, with nail brushes where necessary;  barrier cream and skin-conditioning cream where necessary;
  45. 45.  special hygiene precautions where necessary, eg where food is handled or n prepared;  drying facilities for wet clothes;  certain facilities for workers working away from base, eg chemical toilets in n some circumstances;  lockers or hanging space for clothing;  changing facilities where special clothing is worn You must provide:
  46. 46.  a clean drinking water supply (marked if necessary to distinguish it from the non-drinkable supply);  rest facilities, including facilities for eating food which would otherwise become n contaminated;  arrangements to protect non-smokers from discomfort caused by tobacco n smoke in any separate rest areas, eg provide separate areas or rooms for smokers and non- smoking or prohibit smoking in rest areas and rest rooms  rest facilities for pregnant women and nursing mothers You must provide:
  47. 47. Comfortable conditions You must provide:  a reasonable working temperature in workrooms – usually at least 16ºC, or 13ºC for strenuous work;  local heating or cooling where a comfortable temperature cannot be maintained throughout each workroom (eg hot and cold processes);  thermal clothing and rest facilities where necessary, eg for ‘hot work’ or cold stores;  good ventilation – avoid draughts;  heating systems which do not give off dangerous or offensive levels of fume into the workplace;  enough space in workrooms.  Remember that noise can be a nuisance as well as damaging to health
  48. 48. How to manage health and safety in your workplace  Know about the risks in your work.  Control the risks that need it.  Make sure the risks stay controlled The hazards & Risks A hazard is anything that might cause harm (eg chemicals, electricity, vehicles, working from ladders). Risk is the chance (big or small) of harm being done, as well as how serious that harm could be.
  49. 49. Table1 Examples of Hazards and Their Effects Workplace Hazard Example of Hazard Example of Harm Caused Thing Knife Cut Substance Benzene Leukemia Material Asbestos Mesothelioma Source of Energy Electricity Shock, electrocution Condition Wet floor Slips and Falls Process Welding Metal fume fever Practice Hard rock mining Silicosis
  50. 50. workplace hazards also include practices or conditions that release uncontrolled energy like:  an object that could fall from a height (potential or gravitational energy),  a run-away chemical reaction (chemical energy),  the release of compressed gas or steam (pressure; high temperature),  entanglement of hair or clothing in rotating equipment (kinetic energy), or  contact with electrodes of a battery or capacitor (electrical energy)
  51. 51. A common way to classify hazards is by category: biological - bacteria, viruses, insects, plants, birds, animals, and humans, etc., chemical - depends on the physical, chemical and toxic properties of the chemical. ergonomic - repetitive movements, improper set up of workstation, etc., physical - radiation, magnetic fields, pressure extremes (high pressure or vacuum), noise, etc, psychosocial - stress, violence, etc., safety - slipping/tripping hazards, inappropriate machine guarding, equipment malfunctions or breakdowns
  52. 52. What is risk? Risk is the chance or probability that a person will be harmed or experience an adverse health effect if exposed to a hazard. It may also apply to situations with property or equipment loss. Factors that influence the degree of risk include: how much a person is exposed to a hazardous thing or condition, how the person is exposed (e.g., breathing in a vapour, skin contact), and how severe are the effects under the conditions of exposure
  53. 53. Risk assessment is the process where you:  identify hazards,  analyze or evaluate the risk associated with that hazard, and  determine appropriate ways to eliminate or control the hazard.
  54. 54. Why is risk assessment important? Risk assessments are very important as they form an integral part of a good occupational health and safety management plan. They help to: Create awareness of hazards and risks. Identify who may be at risk (employees, cleaners, visitors, contractors, the public, etc). Determine if existing control measures are adequate or if more should be done. Prevent injuries or illnesses when done at the design or planning stage. Prioritize hazards and control measures.
  55. 55. What is the goal of risk assessment? The aim of the risk assessment process is to remove a hazard or reduce the level of its risk by adding precautions or control measures, as necessary. Know about the risks in your work The range of hazards vary from workplace to workplace, so it is important for all workers to note that they should: Be aware of the relevant hazards and corresponding controls. Work in accordance with training given and company procedures Raise any concerns regarding health and safety issues Raise any concern regarding shortfalls in personal ompetence
  56. 56. How to assess risks Look for all the ‘hazards’ in your work, considering what could realistically harm people. For each of these hazards think: How serious could the harm be? Is it a cut finger or months off work with a back injury? Who could be harmed, and how likely is that? Do you need to do more to control the risks?
  57. 57. How to assess the risks in your workplace Identify hazards. Evaluate the likelihood of an injury or illness occurring, and its severity. Consider normal operational situations as well as non- standard events such as shutdowns, power outages, emergencies, etc. Review all available heath and safety information about the hazard such as MSDSs, manufacturers literature, information from reputable organizations, results of testing, etc Identify actions necessary to eliminate or control the risk. Monitor and evaluate to confirm the risk is controlled.
  58. 58. How to assess the risks in your workplace Keep any documentation or records that may be necessary. Documentation may include detailing the process used to assess the risk, outlining any evaluations, or detailing how conclusions were made. When doing an assessment, you must take into account: the methods and procedures used in the processing, use, handling or storage of the substance, etc. the actual and the potential exposure of workers the measures and procedures necessary to control such exposure by means of engineering controls, work practices, and hygiene practices and facilities
  59. 59. Follow the five steps risk assessment process: Step 1 Identify the hazards Step 2 Decide who might be harmed and how Step 3 Evaluate the risks and decide on precautions Step 4 Record your findings and implement them Step 5 Review your assessment and update if necessary
  60. 60. Step 1 Identify the hazards Walk around your workplace and look at what could reasonably be expected to cause harm. Ask your employees or their representatives what they think. They may have noticed things that are not immediately obvious to you. Visit the HSE website (www.hse.gov.uk). HSE publishes practical guidance on where hazards occur and how to control them. There is much information here on the hazards that might affect your business. If you are a member of a trade association, contact them. Many produce very helpful guidance.
  61. 61. Check manufacturers’ instructions or data sheets for chemicals and equipment as they can be very helpful in spelling out the hazards and putting them in their true perspective. Have a look back at your accident and ill-health records – these often help to identify the less obvious hazards. Remember to think about long-term hazards to health (eg high levels of noise or exposure to harmful substances) as well as safety hazards.
  62. 62. Step 2 Decide who might be harmed and how For each hazard you need to be clear about who might be harmed. In each case, identify how they might be harmed, ie what type of injury or ill health might occur. For example, ‘shelf stackers may suffer back injury from repeated lifting of boxes’.
  63. 63. Remember: some workers have particular requirements, eg new and young workers, new or expectant mothers and people with disabilities may be at particular risk. Extra thought will be needed for some hazards; cleaners, visitors, contractors, maintenance workers etc, who may not be in the workplace all the time. members of the public, if they could be hurt by your activities; if you share your workplace, you will need to think about how your work affects others present, as well as how their work affects your staff – talk to them; and ask your staff if they can think of anyone you may have missed
  64. 64. Step 3 Evaluate the risks and decide on precautions Having spotted the hazards, you then have to decide what to do about them. The law requires you to do everything ‘reasonably practicable’ to protect people from harm. Look at what you’re already doing, think about what controls you have in place, how the work is organized. Then compare this with the good practice and see if there’s more you should be doing to bring yourself up to standard. In asking yourself this, consider: Can I get rid of the hazard altogether? If not, how can I control the risks so that harm is unlikely?
  65. 65. When controlling risks, apply the principles below, if possible in the following order: try a less risky option (eg switch to using a less hazardous chemical); prevent access to the hazard (eg by guarding); organize work to reduce exposure to the hazard (eg put barriers between pedestrians and traffic); issue personal protective equipment (eg clothing, footwear, goggles etc); and provide welfare facilities (eg first aid and washing facilities for removal of contamination).
  66. 66. Step 4 Record your findings and implement them Writing down the results of your risk assessment, and sharing them with your staff, encourages you to do this. When writing down your results, keep it simple, for example ‘Tripping over rubbish: bins provided, staff instructed, weekly housekeeping checks’, or ‘Fume from welding: local exhaust ventilation used and regularly checked’.
  67. 67. You need to be able to show that: a proper check was made; you asked who might be affected; you dealt with all the significant hazards, taking into account the number of people who could be involved; the precautions are reasonable, and the remaining risk is low; you involved your staff or their representatives in the process.
  68. 68. A good plan of action often includes a mixture of different things such as: a few cheap or easy improvements that can be done quickly, perhaps as a temporary solution until more reliable controls are in place; long-term solutions to those risks most likely to cause accidents or ill health; long-term solutions to those risks with the worst potential consequences; arrangements for training employees on the main risks that remain and how they are to be controlled; regular checks to make sure that the control measures stay in place; clear responsibilities – who will lead on what action, and by when.
  69. 69. Remember, prioritize and tackle the most important things first. As you complete each action, tick it off your plan.
  70. 70. Step 5 Review your risk assessment and update if necessary Every year or so formally review where you are, to make sure you are still improving, or at least not sliding back. Look at your risk assessment again. Have there been any changes? Are there improvements you still need to make? Have your workers spotted a problem? Have you learnt anything from accidents or near misses? Make sure your risk assessment stays up to date. If there is a significant change in the work condition/ environment, update the risk assessment, or write an yearly review date update the risk assessment .
  71. 71. Chapter-3 Managing health and safety in your workplace Controlling Hazards
  72. 72. Controlling Hazards The goal of controlling hazards is to prevent workers from being exposed to occupational hazards. A combination of methods usually provides a safer workplace . The most effective method of controlling hazards is to control at the source by eliminating the hazard or by substituting a hazardous agent or work process with a less dangerous one.
  73. 73. How can you identify health and safety problems?  observe your workplace;  investigate complaints from workers;  examine accident and near-miss records;  examine sickness figures;  use simple surveys to ask your co-workers about their health and safety concerns;  use check-lists to help you inspect your workplace;  learn the results of inspections that are done by the employer, the union or anyone else;  read reports or other information about your workplace.
  74. 74. Generally, there are five major categories of control measures: Elimination • removing it completely Substitution • replacing one hazardous agent or work process with a less dangerous one. Engineering controls • changing a piece of machinery Administrative controls Personal protective equipment. • ear and eye protection, respirators, and protective clothing. •
  75. 75. Remember that:- ➤ elimination ➤ substitution ➤ changing work methods/patterns ➤ reduced or limited time exposure ➤ engineering controls (e.g. isolation, insulation and ventilation) ➤ good housekeeping ➤ safe systems of work ➤ training and information ➤ personal protective equipment ➤ welfare ➤ monitoring and supervision ➤ review.
  76. 76. Proper control of gases and vapours in a laboratory.
  77. 77. Welfare – washing facilities
  78. 78. PPE used for loading a textile dye vessel.
  79. 79. Health risk – checking on the contents
  80. 80. Office.
  81. 81. Road repair.
  82. 82. Workshop
  83. 83. Roof repair/Unloading
  84. 84. Tripping hazards.
  85. 85. Slips, trips and falls on the same level The highest reported injuries are reported in the food and related industries. Older workers, especially women, are the most severely injured group from falls resulting in fractures of the hips and/or femur. Slip hazards are caused by: ➤ wet or dusty floors ➤ the spillage of wet or dry substances – oil, water, fl our dust and plastic pellets used in plastic manufacture ➤ loose mats on slippery floors ➤ wet and/or icy weather conditions ➤ unsuitable
  86. 86. Trip hazards are caused by: ➤ loose floorboards or carpets ➤ obstructions, low walls, low fi xtures on the fl oor ➤ cables or trailing leads across walkways or uneven surfaces. Leads to portable electrical hand tools and other electrical appliances (vacuum cleaners and overhead projectors). Raised telephone and electrical sockets are also a serious trip hazard (this can be a signifi cant problem when the display screen workstations are re-orientated in an office)
  87. 87. ➤ rugs and mats – particularly when worn or placed on a polished surface poor housekeeping – obstacles left on walkways, rubbish not removed regularly ➤ poor lighting levels – particularly near steps or other changes in level ➤ sloping or uneven fl oors – particularly where there is poor lighting or no handrails ➤ unsuitable footwear – shoes with a slippery sole or lack of ankle support.
  88. 88. Falls from work at height • These accidents are often concerned with falls of greater than about 2 m and often result in fractured bones, serious head injuries, loss of consciousness and death. • Twenty-five per cent of all deaths at work and 19% of all major accidents are due to falls from a height. • Falls down staircases and stairways, through fragile surfaces, off landings and stepladders and from vehicles, all come into this category. • Injury, sometimes serious, can also result from falls below 2 m, for example, using swivel chairs for access to high shelves.
  89. 89. Falling from a height – tower scaffold
  90. 90. Collisions with moving vehicles • These can occur within the workplace premises or on the access roads around the building. • It is a particular problem where there is no separation between pedestrians and vehicles or where vehicles are speeding. • Poor lighting, blind corners, the lack of warning signs and barriers at road crossing points also increase the risk of this type of accident. • Eighteen per cent of fatalities at work are caused by collisions between pedestrians and moving vehicles with the greatest number occurring in the service sector (primarily in retail and warehouse activities).
  91. 91. Being struck by moving, falling or flying objects • This causes 18% of fatalities at work and is the second highest cause of fatality in the construction industry. • It also causes 15% of all major and 14% of over three-day accidents. • Moving objects include, articles being moved, moving parts of machinery or conveyor belt systems, and fl ying objects are often generated by the disintegration of a moving part or a failure of a system under pressure. • Falling objects are a major problem in construction (due to careless working at height) and in warehouse work (due to careless stacking of pallets on racking). • The head is particularly vulnerable to these hazards. Items falling off high shelves and moving loads are also signifi cant • hazards in many sectors of industry.
  92. 92. Striking against fixed or stationary objects • This accounts for between 1200 and 1400 major accidents each year. • Injuries are caused to a person either by colliding with a fixed part of the building structure, work in progress, a machine member or a stationary vehicle or by falling against such objects. • The head appears to be the most vulnerable part of the body to this particular hazard and this is invariably caused by the misjudgment of the height of an obstacle.
  93. 93. • It is a very common injury during maintenance operations when there is, perhaps, less familiarity with particular space restrictions around a machine. • Effective solutions to all these hazards need not be expensive, time consuming or complicated. • Employee awareness and common sense combined with a good housekeeping regime will solve many of the problems.
  94. 94. (a) Typical warehouse vehicle loading/unloading area with separate pedestrian access
  95. 95. (b) barriers to prevent collision with tank surrounds/bunds.
  96. 96. Internal roadway with appropriate markings;
  97. 97. unsafe stacks of heavy boxes
  98. 98. Separate doors for vehicles and pedestrians.
  99. 99. Handling goods onto a truck in a typical docking bay.
  100. 100. Manual handling – there are many potential hazards. Main injury sites caused by manual handling accidents
  101. 101. Mechanical aids to lift patients in hospital. A pallet truck
  102. 102. Manual handling hazards and injuries
  103. 103. The main elements of a good lifting technique 1. Check suitable clothing and assess load. Heaviest side to body. 2. Place feet apart – bend knees. 3. Firm grip – close to body 4. slight bending of back, hips and knees at start 5. Life smoothly to knee level and the waist level. No further bending of back. 6. With clear visibility move forward without twisting. Keep load close to the waist. 7. Turn by moving feet. Keep head up do not look at load. 8. Set load down at waist level 9. or to knee level and then floor..
  104. 104. OFFICE SAFETY Introduction Despite common beliefs that the office provides a safe environment in which to work, many hazards exist which cause thousands of injuries and health problems each year among office workers. Since one-third of the work force is in offices, even low rates of work- related injuries and illnesses can have an immense impact on employee safety and health. Today’s modern offices are substantially different from the office environment of 20 years ago. Sweeping changes have occurred in the American workplace as a result of new office technology and automation of office equipment. Consequently, office workers are faced with many more hazards
  105. 105. •In addition to obvious hazards such as a slippery floor or an open file drawer, a modern office may also contain hazards such as poor lighting, noise, poorly designed furniture and equipment, and machines which emit noxious gases and fumes. •Even the nature of office work itself has produced a whole host of stress-related symptoms and musculoskeletal strains. •For example, long hours at the video display terminal (VDT) can cause pains in the neck and back, eyestrain, and a general feeling of tension and irritability.
  106. 106. Leading Types of Disabling Accidents It is estimated that office workers sustain 76,000 fractures, dislocations, sprains, strains, and contusions each year. The leading types of disabling accidents that occur within the office are: • Falls • Strains and over-exertion • Struck by or striking objects • Caught in or between objects. • In addition, office workers are also injured as a result of foreign substances in the eye, spilled hot liquids, burns from fire, and electric shock.
  107. 107. In recent years, illness has increased among the office worker population. This may be attributed, in part, to the increased presence of environmental toxins within the office and to stress- producing factors associated with the automated office. Resulting illnesses may include respiratory problems, skin diseases, and stress-related conditions.
  108. 108. Plant machinery
  109. 109. •Sources of air pollution in the office that can cause health problems include: •Natural agents (e.g., carbon monoxide, microorganisms, radon) •Synthetic chemicals (e.g., formaldehyde, cleaning fluids, cigarette smoke, asbestos). An adequate office ventilation system which delivers quality indoor air and provides for comfortable humidity and temperature is a necessity.
  110. 110. Where printing or copying machines are present, an exhaust ventilation system which draws particulates and gases away from the employees' breathing zone should be present. Office machines and ventilation system components should be checked and maintained on a regular basis.
  111. 111. Common Office Safety and Health Hazards - Illumination Lighting problems in the office cause: • Glare • Shadows • Visual problems (i.e., eye strain, fatigue, double- vision, etc.). • Poor lighting also can be a contributing factor in accidents.
  112. 112. Controls to prevent poor lighting conditions include: • Regular maintenance of the lighting system • Light-colored dull finish on walls, ceilings, and floors to reduce glare • Adjustable shades on windows • Indirect lighting
  113. 113. Common Office Safety and Health Hazards - Noise In an office, workers can be subjected to many noise sources, such as: • Video display terminals • High-speed printers • Telephones • Human voices. Noise can produce tension and stress, as well as damage to hearing.
  114. 114. Some of the numerous measures available to control unwanted noise include: • Place noisy machines in an enclosed space • Use carpeting, draperies, and acoustical ceiling tiles to muffle noise • Adjust telephone volume to its lowest level • Rearrange traffic routes within the office to reduce traffic within and between work areas.
  115. 115. Common Office Safety and Health Hazards - Physical Layout/Housekeeping • Poor design and/or poor housekeeping can lead to crowding, lack of privacy, slips, trips, and falls. The following are important factors related to office layout and orderliness: • At least 3 feet distance between desks and at least 50 square feet per employee • Keep telephone and electrical cords out of aisles • Group employees who use the same machines • Office machines should be kept away from edges of desks and tables • Regular inspection, repair, and replacement of faulty carpets • Place mats inside building entrances • Proper placement of electrical, telephone, and computer wires.
  116. 116. • Common Office Safety and Health Hazards - Exits/Egress • Blocked or improperly planned means of egress can lead to injuries as a result of slips, trips, and falls. • If, during an emergency, employees become trapped due to improper egress, more serious injuries or fatalities may result.
  117. 117. Controls to ensure proper means of egress include: • All exit access must be at least 28 inches wide • Generally two exits should be provided • Exits and access to exits must be marked • Means of egress, including stairways used for emergency exit, should be free of obstructions and adequately lit • Employees must be aware of exits and trained in procedures for evacuation
  118. 118. • Common Office Safety and Health Hazards - Fire Hazards • A serious problem associated with office design is the potential for creating fire hazards. • Another danger found in modern offices is combustible materials (e.g., furniture, rugs, fibers) which can easily ignite and often emit toxic fumes.
  119. 119. • A number of steps can be taken to reduce office fire hazards: • Store unused records/papers in fire resistant files or vaults • Use flame-retardant materials • Smoke only in designated areas and use proper ashtrays • Fire extinguishers and alarms should be conspicuously placed and accessible
  120. 120. Common Office Safety and Health Hazards - Handling and Storage Hazards Improper lifting can cause musculoskeletal disorders such as sprains, strains, and inflamed joints. • Office materials that are improperly stored can lead to hazards such as objects falling on workers, poor visibility, and fires. • There are several controls which can reduce handling and storage hazards. • Materials should not be stored on top of cabinets. • Heavy objects should be stored on lower shelves and materials stacked neatly. • Materials should be stored inside cabinets, files, or lockers whenever possible.
  121. 121. • Materials must not be stored in aisles, corners, or passageways. • Fire equipment should remain unobstructed. • Flammable and combustible materials must be identified and properly stored. • Material Safety Data Sheets must be provided for each hazardous chemical identified. • An effective control program incorporating employee awareness and training and ergonomic design of work tasks can reduce back injuries.
  122. 122. Common Office Safety and Health Hazards - Electrical Equipment • Electrical accidents in an office usually occur as a result of faulty or defective equipment, unsafe installation, or misuse of equipment. The following guidelines should be adhered to when installing or using electrical equipment: • Equipment must be properly grounded to prevent shock injuries • A sufficient number of outlets will prevent circuit overloading •
  123. 123. • Avoid the use of poorly maintained or non-approved equipment • Cords should not be dragged over nails, hooks, or other sharp objects • Receptacles should be installed and electric equipment maintained so that no live parts are exposed • Machines should be disconnected before cleaning or adjusting. Generally, machines and equipment should be locked or tagged out during maintenance. Common Office Safety and Health Hazards - Electrical Equipment
  124. 124. Common Office Safety and Health Hazards - Office Furniture Defective furniture or misuse of chairs or file cabinets by office workers can lead to serious injuries. Listed here are controls related to chairs and cabinets: • Chairs should be properly designed and regularly inspected for missing casters, shaky legs, and loose parts . • Do not lean back in a chair with your feet on a desk • Do not scoot across the floor while sitting on a chair • Never stand on a chair to reach an overhead object • Open only one file drawer at a time • Do not locate file cabinets close to doorways or in aisles • Use drawer handles to close file drawers
  125. 125. Common Office Safety and Health Hazards - Office Machinery Machines with ingoing nip points or rotating parts can cause lacerations, abrasions, fractures, and amputations if not adequately guarded. Machines such as conveyors, electric hole punches, and paper shredders with hazardous moving parts must be guarded so that office workers cannot contact the moving parts. Fans must have substantial bases and fan blades must be properly guarded.
  126. 126. Common Office Safety and Health Hazards - Ladders, Stands, and Stools, chairs etc Improper use of ladders, ladder stands, and stools can lead to falls. The following controls will help reduce ladder related injuries: • Workers should always face the ladder when climbing up or down • Ladders should be inspected regularly to ensure they are in good condition • The top of a ladder should not be used as a step • Ladders must only be used when they are fully open and the spreaders are locked. •
  127. 127. Common Office Safety and Health Hazards - Office Tools • Misuse of office tools, such as pens, pencils, paper, letter openers, scissors, and staplers, can cause cuts, punctures, and related infections. Injuries can be prevented by following precautions when using these materials: • Paper cutters - Keep blade closed when not in use. A guard should be provided and fingers should be kept clear • Staplers - Always use a staple remover. Never test a jammed stapler with your thumb • Pencils, pens, scissors, etc. - Store sharp objects in a drawer or with the point down. Never hand someone a sharp object point first.
  128. 128. Common Office Safety and Health Hazards - Photocopying Machines Potential health hazards associated with photocopying machines include: • Toxic chemicals • Excessive noise • Intense light. • Photocopying machines can also be a source of indoor air pollution when used in offices that are not well ventilated.
  129. 129. Use the controls listed below to reduce hazards: Keep the document cover closed Reduce noise exposure by isolating the machine Place machines in well-ventilated rooms away from workers' desks Have machines serviced routinely to prevent chemical emissions Avoid skin contact with photocopying chemicals Clean all spills and dispose of waste properly.
  130. 130. Common Office Safety and Health Hazards - Video Display Terminals Health hazards related to video display terminal (VDT) use involve: • Radiation • Noise • Eye irritation • Low-back, neck, and shoulder pain • Stress. Studies have shown that the radiation levels emitted from VDTs are well below those allowed by current standards. To minimize noise, VDTs should not be clustered and sound absorbent screens can be used if needed.
  131. 131. Common Office Safety and Health Hazards - Video Display Terminals Proper ergonomic design includes the relation of the operator to the screen, background, lighting, and operator's posture. All of these design elements should be carefully tailored to prevent discomfort. The keyboard position, document holder, screen design, characters, and color are all factors to consider.
  132. 132. • Vision testing should be conducted before office workers operate VDTs and annually thereafter. Work breaks and variation of tasks enable VDT operators to rest their eyes. • Postural strain related to VDT use can be relieved by performing simple exercises. • Finally, a training program should be conducted to inform workers of the capabilities of the equipment they are using.
  133. 133. EXIT
  134. 134. Maintenance Planning and Scheduling Training - DAY 2 - powerpoint SAMPLE[1] - Shortcut.lnk