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Communication satellite

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Starsight: http://starsightproject.com

Starsight: http://starsightproject.com

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  • 1. SATELLITE IMAGES FORSURVEILLANC, SECURITY & EMERGENCY MANGAMENT
  • 2. OVERVIEW•This project will enable government or companies to manage satelliteimaging technology for surveillance and security missions: g g gy y– Sabotage– Population•The main application described will help to fight against pipelines &terrorist sabotages. However, many others will be pointed.•This proposal includes all necessary elements to get completeindependence (facilities, own technology, training,...). SATELLITE IMAGE TECHNOLOGY APPLICATIONS SATELLITE IMAGES / VIDEO FOR SURVEILLANCE AND SECURITY FEBRUARY, FEBRUARY, 2011 Text
  • 3. SATELLITE IMAGE TECHNOLOGYSTAGE 1 Image from satelliteSTAGE 2 Data collecting and pre- processing gSTAGE 3 Analyzing. Layer structureSTAGE 4 Prevention and countermeasure SATELLITE IMAGES FOR SURVEILLANCE AND SECURITY FEBRUARY, 2011
  • 4. STAGE 1: IMAGE FROM SATELLITESThere are two alternatives to get the source images:1.1 Buying them to satellite images distributors distributors.2. Receiving them directly with hardware equipment (antenna systems). It is necessary to select some technical t s ecessa y se ect so e tec ca specs to get successful information from satellites: •The most suitable satellite/s. •The image sensor. •The frequency range. •The desired resol tion The resolution. •The size of area inspected. •The delay between two consecutives images. •Day/night conditions. •Color or black and white images. SATELLITE IMAGES FOR SURVEILLANCE AND SECURITY FEBRUARY, FEBRUARY, 2011
  • 5. STAGE 2: DATA COLLECTING AND PREPROCESSING Before processing the image to analyze the results and reaching conclusions, there are several issues to consider: 1.The preprocessing level. Distortions caused by the sensors sensibilities must be radio-metrically corrected. 2.Distortions caused by relief must be y ortho-rectified. 3.Image must be compared with cartography to get accurate results. 4.The format file must be suitable to analyze the images. th iSATELLITE IMAGES FOR SURVEILLANCE AND SECURITY FEBRUARY, FEBRUARY, 2011
  • 6. STAGE 3: ANALYZING. LAYER STRUCTURE A lot of aspects will be analyzed for each case. Sorting out every aspect a layer will be aspect, obtained. Every layer will have an influence depending on the cause relationship with the threat. Combining all the influence, a risk map will be g p worked outSATELLITE IMAGES FOR SURVEILLANCE AND SECURITY FEBRUARY, FEBRUARY, 2011
  • 7. STAGE 4: PREVENTION AND COUNTERMEASURESThere must be a very closed plan to involve as many authorities groups asppossible to react together against threats. That includes army, policy, security g g y, p y, ymanagement, civilian protection, fire department,… The most accurate the planis, the fastest and most effective reaction will be possible.CONCEPT:1. Getting images.2. Detecting threats.3. Alerting the authorities.4. Acting to avoid or mitigate damages.SECURITY COUNTERMEASURES WILL HELP TO TO:1. Mitigate causalities.2. Minimize damages to the corporate infrastructure.3. Restoring services at the earliest time possible after a security related incident. SATELLITE IMAGES FOR SURVEILLANCE AND SECURITY FEBRUARY, FEBRUARY, 2011
  • 8. APPLICATIONSSATELLITE IMAGES FOR SURVEILLANCE AND SECURITY FEBRUARY, FEBRUARY, 2011
  • 9. PIPELINE SABOTAGES (I)A very important security problem is terrorism. There are manykinds f terrorism. Oki d of t i One of th most common t f the t type which i t k hi h is takenplace in Iraq in last years is PIPELINE SABOTAGES. Then there is a study to show how satellite images can help to prevent pipeline sabotages. sabotages However this study can be applied to most of the terrorism ways. ways Finally, many other applications of this technology will be include. SATELLITE IMAGES FOR SURVEILLANCE AND SECURITY FEBRUARY, FEBRUARY, 2011
  • 10. PIPELINE SABOTAGES (II) The Iraqi pipeline network has q pp suffered many attacks in the last few years. It has become in one of the main objectives to terrorist groups. The starting point is knowing perfectly the pipeline map and its features.SATELLITE IMAGES FOR SURVEILLANCE AND SECURITY FEBRUARY, FEBRUARY, 2011
  • 11. PIPELINE SABOTAGES (III) Accessing to a database g registering pipelines sabotages helps to create patterns. If we are able to detect some common factors in the sabotages, we will be able of PREDICTING new attacks attacks. So, satellite images of the exact p place, around in time, are , , decisive to create patterns. That is achieved identifying HOTSPOTS. HOTSPOTSSATELLITE IMAGES FOR SURVEILLANCE AND SECURITY FEBRUARY, FEBRUARY, 2011
  • 12. PIPELINE SABOTAGES (IV) HOTSPOTS Temperatures anomalies above T t li b a certain threshold calculated by suitable algorithms using the IR bands of certain sensors such as MODIS (Terra, Aqua), AATSR (Envisat) or SEVIRI (MSG). (MSG)SATELLITE IMAGES FOR SURVEILLANCE AND SECURITY FEBRUARY, FEBRUARY, 2011
  • 13. PIPELINE SABOTAGES (V) Here is a distribution of pipeline and MODIS hotspots during 2003, 2004, 2005 and 2006. Historic hotspots distributions can h l t prevent f help to t from new hotspots.SATELLITE IMAGES FOR SURVEILLANCE AND SECURITY FEBRUARY, FEBRUARY, 2011
  • 14. PIPELINE SABOTAGES (VI) There is a great amount of factors to be evaluated for drawing a vulnerability pipeline map. Each layer correspond to one of this factor. thi f t Not all the factors have the same importance to our proposal That proposal. is why each factor will be multiplied by a specific coefficient.SATELLITE IMAGES FOR SURVEILLANCE AND SECURITY FEBRUARY, FEBRUARY, 2011
  • 15. PIPELINE SABOTAGES (VII) Factor A: •Proximity to populated areas •Availability of public transportation near pipelines ility Factor B: •Location of additional infrastructures near the pipeline L ti f dditi li f t t th i li ulnerabi Factor C: •Impact in the national and international economy Factor D:Increasing vu •Unfenced sections •Lack of buffered-protected areas •Areas without surveillance Factor E: •Pipeline above the ground Factor F: •Pipeline in remote areas •Pipeline protected by patrols SATELLITE IMAGES FOR SURVEILLANCE AND SECURITY FEBRUARY, FEBRUARY, 2011
  • 16. PIPELINE SABOTAGES (VIII) Co b Combining all the factors in g a t e acto s the layer structure, it is possible to design a VULNERABILITY MAPMAP. It helps definitely to PREVENTION TASKS.SATELLITE IMAGES FOR SURVEILLANCE AND SECURITY FEBRUARY, FEBRUARY, 2011
  • 17. OTHER APPLICATIONS (I)Besides avoiding pipeline sabotage, there are so many applications inwhich satellite images can help definitely (military and civilian):1. Defense & Security. Target surveillance.2.2 Communications3. Non removable Natural Resources4. Sustentable development & risk management5.5 Agriculture and forest forest.6. Cartography & territory order.7. Population migrating.8.8 Natural di N t l disasters. Fi t Fires.9. Climatology.10. Pollution.11. Hydrology. Land evolution. SATELLITE IMAGES FOR SURVEILLANCE AND SECURITY FEBRUARY, FEBRUARY, 2011
  • 18. DEFENSE & SECURITY. TARGET SURVEILLANCE (I)Permanent imaging very definite areas helps to watch over them,and prevent potential terrorist attacks There are a lot of indicators attacks.to alert from attacks, such as: unusual people movements, vehiclesparked in forbidden areas,… 1. Government buildings. 2. Religious exhibitions. 3. Humanitarian aids convoys. 4. Factories. 5. Airports. 6. Armaments store. SATELLITE IMAGES FOR SURVEILLANCE AND SECURITY FEBRUARY, FEBRUARY, 2011
  • 19. DEFENSE & SECURITY. TARGET SURVEILLANCE (II) NECESSITY: • Multiplying the sources of information to strengthen monitoring of the territories • Detect and monitor changes in sensitive areas • Organizing the operations of peacekeeping RESULTS: RESULTS • The remote mapping of vast territories • The daily monitoring of borders and ports • The detection and accurate identification Infrastructure • Geographical databases to prepare surveillance missionsSATELLITE IMAGES FOR SURVEILLANCE AND SECURITY FEBRUARY, FEBRUARY, 2011
  • 20. COMMUNICATIONS NECESSITY: • Mapping the reception areas and identify difficult areas • Maintaining and developing the existing telecommunications infrastructure • Optimizing the location of broadcasters to increase network coverage RESULTS: • Ratings fine land occupation • Database for a 3D interactive simulation of the implementation of new infrastructureSATELLITE IMAGES FOR SURVEILLANCE AND SECURITY FEBRUARY, FEBRUARY, 2011
  • 21. NON- NON-REMOVABLE NATURAL RESOURCES NECESSITY: • Perfect exploring the geological and hydrological resources • Optimizing the implementation of new mining and oil infrastructure • Assessing the impact of farms on the environment • Conduct a national inventory of water resources RESULTS: RESULTS • Locating potential sites of exploitation • Maps of natural hazards impact on industrial activity i i • Mapping of ground deformation associated with a holding • Maps of potential water resources surface or undergroundSATELLITE IMAGES FOR SURVEILLANCE AND SECURITY FEBRUARY, FEBRUARY, 2011
  • 22. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT & RISK MANAGEMENT NECESSITY: • Preserving the environment around industrial projects • Implement plans for p p p prevention of natural or industrial risks • Identify and monitor natural protection zones • Control the development of tourism activities RESULTS: • Regular monitoring of sites at risk (industries, g g ( , infrastructure at sea) • Update mapping of sensitive areas and coastal • Tourist maps accurate and easy to updateSATELLITE IMAGES FOR SURVEILLANCE AND SECURITY FEBRUARY, FEBRUARY, 2011
  • 23. AGRICULTURE (I) NECESSITY: • Evaluate with precocity surfaces and agricultural production • Anticipate risks and assess their impacts (pollution, drought, floods) • Monitoring the implementation of agricultural regulations and environmental protection • Meet the wooded areas and monitor the development of plantations RESULTS: • Accurate and reliable agricultural statistics before harvest b f h t • Remote control of large areas under cultivation • Early warning system in case of changes y g y g • Inventory and management of forestry (plantations, logging, fire prevention)SATELLITE IMAGES FOR SURVEILLANCE AND SECURITY FEBRUARY, FEBRUARY, 2011
  • 24. AGRICULTURE (II)Satellite images technology can help to identify exactly which use isggiven to the land. Agricultural resources are basics in economy of g ymany countries. Both information and surveillance missions are possible. Studies can focus on which species are cultivated and the way they are grown up. SATELLITE IMAGES FOR SURVEILLANCE AND SECURITY FEBRUARY, FEBRUARY, 2011
  • 25. CARTOGRAPHY(I) NECESSITY • Topographic databases constitute reference • Study and implement the schemes of urban and rural • Create and update cadastral parcelling • Optimizing road and rail networks • Organize the census of the population regularly RESULTS • Topographic maps at 1:25 000, consistent with international standards • The classification of different urban structures • The update of information cadastral 1:50 000 to 1:10 000 • Simulations and choice of paths of roads and railways • The definition of areas to prepare a censusSATELLITE IMAGES FOR SURVEILLANCE AND SECURITY FEBRUARY, FEBRUARY, 2011
  • 26. CARTOGRAPHY(II)A territory can be closely defined using satellite imagery. There are y y g g yseveral issues to consider: 1. 3D mapping. 2. Heights map. 3. Terrain textures. 4. Natural borders. 5. Sea level.Combining all thi f tC bi i ll this features very accurate maps would b b ilt t ld be built. SATELLITE IMAGES FOR SURVEILLANCE AND SECURITY FEBRUARY, FEBRUARY, 2011
  • 27. POPULATION MIGRATING (I)Usually this movements are caused by natural disasters, wars, militarydecisions,…First of all, a database including all these causes can point a possibility ofdetecting population migration.TheTh easiest way t verify thi migrations i t analyze night satellite i t to if this i ti is to l i ht t llitimages. One image should be previous to the cause and the other mustbe later.Differences between these images (basically lights in city or villages) canbe the proof to identify population migrating. SATELLITE IMAGES FOR SURVEILLANCE AND SECURITY FEBRUARY, FEBRUARY, 2011
  • 28. POPULATION MIGRATING (II) Muzaffarabad MuzaffarabadManshira Manshira Disappearing Increasing Lights / lights Ephemeral Lights Appear A SATELLITE IMAGES FOR SURVEILLANCE AND SECURITY FEBRUARY, FEBRUARY, 2011
  • 29. NATURAL DISASTERS There is a wide spectrum of possible natural disaster to study. These phenomena are usually difficult to detect before taking place, although in very specific conditions there may be some indicators to alert and to start the prevention protocol. However, the importance of this point is to evaluate the consequences of natural disasters. An estimation of damages is always a need need.SATELLITE IMAGES FOR SURVEILLANCE AND SECURITY FEBRUARY, FEBRUARY, 2011
  • 30. FIRESSatellite images technology can support fire detection. It can not be aprevent task, but it helps to identify some features: 1. Fire breaks. 2. Fire temperature. 3. Best options to extinguish the fire. 4. Area burned. SATELLITE IMAGES FOR SURVEILLANCE AND SECURITY FEBRUARY, FEBRUARY, 2011
  • 31. CLIMATOLOGYBesides meteorological information, satellites helps to forecast localweather phenomena There are several to stand out: phenomena. 1. Hurricanes. 2. Tsunamis. 3. Tornadoes. 4. Acid rain. 5. Sandstorms. 6. Monsoons. SATELLITE IMAGES FOR SURVEILLANCE AND SECURITY FEBRUARY, FEBRUARY, 2011
  • 32. POLLUTION Pollution is being considered as a front page problem. Many efforts have been carried on to reduce it as much as possible. possible Analyzing satellite images can help to po t point which areas produce great c a eas p oduce g eat amounts of pollution. Whit this useful data, a “pollution plan” can be developed. This photograph shows how pollution affects t S th E t A i ff t to South-East Asia.SATELLITE IMAGES FOR SURVEILLANCE AND SECURITY FEBRUARY, FEBRUARY, 2011
  • 33. HIDROLOGY Nowadays a good management of water reservoirs is essential. Getting satellite images within a short g g period of time, floods or droughts can be evaluated. Comparing images can makes easy to get results results. Moreover water flows of rivers, lakes, swamps,..., would be sort out. p , ,SATELLITE IMAGES FOR SURVEILLANCE AND SECURITY FEBRUARY, FEBRUARY, 2011
  • 34. LAND EVOLUTIONSome very particulars phenomena can b studied very accurately withS ti l h be t di d t l iththe technology here proposed. Changes in their size, growing updirection,… All desired parameters are available. Deserts Glaciers Deforestation SATELLITE IMAGES FOR SURVEILLANCE AND SECURITY FEBRUARY, FEBRUARY, 2011
  • 35. CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE PROTECTIONBUILDINGSBRIDGESHOSPITALSMARKET PLACEUSING 3 TECHNOLOGIES:- SATELLITE IMAGING- LOCAL CAMERA ZONES- GIS (Geographic Information System) SATELLITE IMAGES FOR SURVEILLANCE AND SECURITY FEBRUARY, FEBRUARY, 2011
  • 36. PROPOSAL FOR A SATELLITE IMAGE PROCESSING CENTER1.-1 COMERCIAL SATELLITES AVALAIBLE2.- IMAGE ADQUISITION3.-3 RESOLUTION4.- FACILITIES5.-5 TRAINING6.- ECONOMIC PROPOSAL SATELLITE IMAGES FOR SURVEILLANCE AND SECURITY FEBRUARY, FEBRUARY, 2011
  • 37. SATELLITES ORBITSThere are 2 types of satellites useful for this project considering their orbits:1. Geostationary orbit: the satellite is always “fixed” over the same point of earth(period about 24 hours) hours).2. Polar orbit: the satellite is moving over the earths surface (period about 100minutes).The use of each type will depend in a daily based need according with the alarmsand the technicians & politics decisions.The license of images are restricted to country borders. GEOSTATIONARY ORBIT POLAR ORBIT SATELLITE IMAGES FOR SURVEILLANCE AND SECURITY FEBRUARY, FEBRUARY, 2011
  • 38. SATELLITES AVAILABLE List of some COMERCIAL satellites watching at any time during their orbits:1.1 LANDSAT 7 9. 9 NOAA (AVHRR)2. LANDSAT5 10. MSG (SEVIRI)3. SPOT 4-5 from 2.5 to 20 meters resolution 11. RESURS 014. FORMOSAT-2 from 2 to 8 meters resolution 12. EROS A15. KOMPSAT-2 from 1 to 4 meters resolution 13. ENVISAT6. QUICKBIRD 14. WORLDVIEW 17. IKONOS 2 15. TERRA8.8 EOS M1 (MODIS) 16. 16 AQUA SATELLITE IMAGES FOR SURVEILLANCE AND SECURITY FEBRUARY, FEBRUARY, 2011
  • 39. FUTURE SATELLITES1.1 PLÉIADES 1 & 2. Very high resolution 2 resolution. - standard 50-centimeter - ortho-rectified products p - daily revisit capabilities - perfect complement to SPOT 6 and 72. SPOT 6 & 7 continuity SPOT 5 mission with the same 60-kilometer swath and improved 60 kilometer 2-meter resolution SATELLITE IMAGES FOR SURVEILLANCE AND SECURITY FEBRUARY, FEBRUARY, 2011
  • 40. IMAGES ADQUISITIONS Images can be ordered either from archive or by tasking the satellites. For large volumes, the best solution is to locally receive the telemetry from the satellites. satellitesRECEIVING GROUND STATION Ground telemetry stations for direct acquisition from satellite once it passes over the station in real time.WEB TECHNOLOGY Quasi real time (few hours after acquisition) images are recorded on board the Q i l ti (f h ft i iti ) i d d b d th satellites, downloaded in north pole European receiving station and sent via secure encrypted ftp.ALTIMETRIC DATABASE Location accuracy, called reference3d, that allows ortho-rectification of images from various sources and offers a unique reference. Immediately available over any country. y Cost efficient and can be considered as a national GIS (while setting up a traditional national GIS will take years and costs a lot of millions of Euros). SATELLITE IMAGES FOR SURVEILLANCE AND SECURITY FEBRUARY, FEBRUARY, 2011
  • 41. RESOLUTIONHIGH RESOLUTION (HR) satellites cover a very wide swath, enabling them to portray a much larger picture of the situation on the ground, groundVERY HIGH RESOLUTION (VHR) satellites provide greater detail and pinpoint accuracy. The full constellation will operate simultaneously to provide monitoring of large areas and very tight coverage over small areas at the same time, thereby giving users the best capability for surveillance, situational awareness and analyst interpretation in surveillance near real-time. SATELLITE IMAGES FOR SURVEILLANCE AND SECURITY FEBRUARY, FEBRUARY, 2011
  • 42. FACILITIES (I) Satellite Center Military Civil Defense/Security Population Environment MappingPropose a wide range of images plus the technical expertise to receive, archive, process, etc. Thoseimages and in downstream to use them in various applications for developing projects. SATELLITE IMAGES FOR SURVEILLANCE AND SECURITY FEBRUARY, FEBRUARY, 2011
  • 43. FACILITIES (II)BUILDING LOCALLY SPECIFIC OFFER (TBD *)ANTENNA 6M COMPATIBLE WITH GEO&POLAR 3.4 m for SPOT satellites and, in a smaller circle of visibility, ENVISAT and FORMOSAT-2. 4.5 m or 5.4 m for ENVISAT and FORMOSAT-2, and receive future satellites KOMPSAT-2, TerraSAR-X, THEOS and PLEIADES.TERMINAL COMPATIBLE FOR EACH SATELLITE COMPATIBILITY GROUP R ESOLUTION AVERAGE Terminal is the system that allows the acquisition, inventory, storage, processing and production data transmitted by the satellite digital sensors.INSTALLATIONS INCLUDE: (TBD*) (TBD )• ZONE STUDY• BUILDINGS PROJECT• SOFTWARE• HARDWARE• COMMUNICATIONS• ANTENNAS SYSTEM(*)Specific offer has to be made based on precise specifications that will consider the localcontext, the area to be imaged, the repetivity of viewing, the best combination of images fromdifferent satellites. SATELLITE IMAGES FOR SURVEILLANCE AND SECURITY FEBRUARY, FEBRUARY, 2011
  • 44. FACILITIES (III)There is the possibility of programming satellites to get the better data for eachapplication. ppDepending on the solution, it might be possible to get the experience, de data andthe collaboration of many other centres around the world.SERVICES INCLUDED:System: installation, delivery acceptance testing, training on site, hot-line and maintenance materials and softwareOperations: interfaced to Spot Image for programming and daily assistance relating to the operations stations pApplications: implement support for information centers at the "foot of the antenna" for defense, agriculture, mapping and maritime surveillance with transfer of technology or know-how training and surveillance, know-how, technical assistance SATELLITE IMAGES FOR SURVEILLANCE AND SECURITY FEBRUARY, FEBRUARY, 2011
  • 45. TRAINING (I)Training is basic to get complete technological independence. However, technical supportwill be provided to launch such an ambitious problem.We understand formation as an intrinsic part of a project.It will consist in theory and practicing with real tests.It is a complete program developed in about 6 8 months depending on needs 6-8 months, needs.It is included training in Spain to 12 technicians, 4 maintenance and 2 officials. GETTING INDEPENDENCE • SOFTWARE FORMATION. • HARDWARE FORMATION. • ACQUIRING KNOW HOW. HOW • HABITUATING TO THE TOOLS. • PRACTICING. REAL TESTS. •TECHNICAL SUPPORT. • SOLVING PROBLEMS. SATELLITE IMAGES FOR SURVEILLANCE AND SECURITY FEBRUARY, FEBRUARY, 2011
  • 46. CONCLUSIONS (I)Nowadays satellite features encourage to use their potential.This project allows to have technological independency for managing surveillance and security missions.NASA, ESA and EUSC supports this technology.Satellite imaging can help to take high level control over a lot of aspects. Not only military, but also civilian applications can be p y y, pp carried on.Prevention - alert – countermeasures. They are the three logical stages to manage security. SATELLITE IMAGES FOR SURVEILLANCE AND SECURITY FEBRUARY, FEBRUARY, 2011
  • 47. CONCLUSIONS (II)There i only one t h lTh is l technology, b t l t of applications. but lots f li tiHardware, software, installations,…, would be provided; even formation to employees employees.Know how will let to investigate new fields in future.Other applications not described in this document would be studied. SATELLITE IMAGES FOR SURVEILLANCE AND SECURITY FEBRUARY, FEBRUARY, 2011
  • 48. THANKS!Contact : Yannick Gaillac,email: y.gaillac@starsightproject.comMob : +44 7968 761 952 www.aerosertec.com / www.starsightproject.com