Hydraulic turbines

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  • 1. SPONDAN S. BORA
  • 2. Definition Hydraulic Turbine is a prime mover that uses the energy of flowing water and converts it into the mechanical energy in the form of rotation of runner wheel. Also termed as ‘water turbines’.
  • 3. Flow sheet of hydroelectric power plant
  • 4. Classification  Based on hydraulic action of water  Based on direction of flow  Based on head of water and quantity of flow  Based on specific speed  Based on disposition of turbine shaft  Based on name of originator (commonly used turbines)
  • 5. Based on hydraulic action of water  Impulse turbine : One in which all the energy of water is converted to kinetic energy before the water strikes the vanes of the runner wheel. This is done by passing the flow through nozzle or some guidelines. The runner is rotated by the force of water and water passes over the wheel at atmospheric pressure. Ex- Pelton Wheel
  • 6. Impulse Turbine
  • 7.  Reaction Turbine : Here, water entering the runner wheel of the turbine has both kinetic energy and pressure energy that is total head of water striking the runner wheel ,consist partly of pressure head. E.g- Francis turbine, Propeller turbine, Kaplan turbine
  • 8. Reaction Turbine (Kaplan Turbine)
  • 9. Based on direction of flow  Radial flow turbine : A radial flow turbine is a turbine in which the water as it move along the vane flow towards the axis of rotation or away from it. Radial flow turbine is of two types: I. Inward flow turbine : If the flow of water is towards the axis of rotation, its called inward flow turbine. II. Outward flow turbine : If the flow of water is away from the axis of rotation , its called outward flow turbine.
  • 10. Radial Flow Turbine
  • 11.  Axial flow turbine : Its the turbine in which water enters the runner wheel parallel to the direction of axis of rotation of runner. Ex- Kaplan turbine, Propeller turbine  Tangential flow turbine : Its the turbine in which water strikes the runner wheel tangentially to the path of rotation. Ex- Pelton turbine
  • 12. Axial Flow Turbine
  • 13.  Mixed flow turbine : It’s the turbine in which the direction of flow is partly radial and partly axial. Water enters the blade radially and comes out axially parallel to the turbine shaft.
  • 14. Based on head of water and quantity of flow  High head turbine : when head is above 250 m Ex- Pelton wheel  Medium head turbine : when head is between 60m – 250m Ex- Francis turbine  Low head turbine : When head is between 15-60 m Ex- kaplan turbine  Very low head turbine: When is head is less than 15m Ex- Propeller turbine
  • 15. Based on specific speed Specific speed 10-35 35-60 60-300 300-1000 Types of turbine Pelton wheel with one nozzle Pelton wheel with two or more nozzle, Multi jet pelton wheel Francis turbine Kaplan turbine
  • 16. Based on disposition of turbine shaft  Turbine shaft may be either vertical or horizontal. Pelton turbine usually have horizontal shafts whereas the rest have vertical shafts.
  • 17. Based on name of originator  Pelton wheel : Tangential flow impulse turbine used for high head of water.  Francis turbine : Inward flow reaction turbine used for medium head of water.  Kaplan turbine : Axial flow adjustable blades reaction turbine used for low head of water.  Propeller turbine : Fixed blades axial flow reaction turbine used for very low head of water.
  • 18. Francis Turbine Propeller Turbine Kaplan Turbine
  • 19. THANK YOU