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Service Science:Progress & Directions Mega-Topics for IT-Enabled Service Research<br />Jim Spohrer, IBM<br />See http://ww...
Why Service Matters to IBM<br />Revenue Growth by Segment<br />
Why Universities Matter to IBM<br />
IBM UP & “5 R’s”<br />1. Research<br />Awards focus on grand challenge problems and big bets<br />https://www.ibm.com/deve...
Research: Award Programs<br />
What improves Quality-of-Life? Service System Innovations<br />20/10/10<br />A. Systems that focus on flow of things that ...
Smarter Planet/SSME Awards (Sample of 192)<br />Column’s Explained in More Detail on Previous Slide<br />
US National Academy of Engineering Grand Challenges<br />A. Systems that focus on flow of things humans need<br />1. Trans...
“I am an IBMer: Building A Smarter Planet”https://jobs3.netmedia1.com/cp/find.ibm.jobs/location/<br />IBM Employees<br />~...
Many team-oriented service projects completed<br />(resume: outcomes, accomplishments & awards)<br />Many disciplines (13)...
Systems that focus on flows of things <br />Systems that govern<br />Systems that support people’s activities<br />transpo...
Jobs: Expert Thinking & Complex Communications<br />Increasing usage of job descriptive terms<br />Expert Thinking<br />(d...
Pervasive Force: Leveraging Technology to Advance Service<br />Strategy Priorities <br />Development Priorities<br />Execu...
Mega-Topics<br />Super-Colleague<br />Humanitarian and labor productivity (augmentation) applications of Watson technology...
Holistic Service Systems<br />Nation<br />State/Province<br />City/Region<br />Luxury<br />Resort<br />Hotels<br />Univers...
World Population & Service System Scaling<br />
Thank-You! Questions?<br />“Instrumented, Interconnected, Intelligent – Let’s build a Smarter Planet.” – IBM<br />“If we a...
IBM has 426,000 employees worldwide<br />2010 Financials<br /><ul><li> Revenue - $ 99.9B
 Net Income - $ 14.8B
 EPS - $ 11.52
 Net Cash  - $11.7B</li></ul>21% of IBM’s revenue in growth market countries; growing at 13% in late 2010<br />More than 4...
Service Growth: The World<br />World’s Large Labor Forces<br />A = Agriculture, G = Goods, S = Service<br />US shift to se...
Priorities: Succeeding through Service Innovation -  A Framework for Progress<br />(http://www.ifm.eng.cam.ac.uk/ssme/)<br...
COMMUNICATIONS<br />PRODUCTS<br />WORKFORCE<br />TRANSPORTATION<br />SUPPLY CHAIN<br />BUILDINGS<br />Evolution: SSME+D (f...
What is a Service System? What is Service Science?…customers just name <your favorite provider>…researchers just name <you...
Time<br />14B<br />Big Bang<br />(Natural<br />World)<br />10K<br />Cities<br />(Human-Made<br />World)<br />bees (social<...
Service System Ecology: Conceptual Framework<br />Resources: People, Technology, Information, Organizations<br />Stakehold...
Value Configuration<br />Density<br />Resource Integrator/Beneficiary<br />Resource Integrator/Beneficiary<br />(“Firm”)<b...
What is value?<br />	Value depends on the capabilities a system has to survive and create beneficial change in its environ...
B. Service Client<br /><ul><li>Individual
Organization
Public or Private</li></ul>A. Service Provider<br /><ul><li>Individual
Organization
Public or Private</li></ul>Forms of<br />Service Relationship<br />(A & B co-create value)<br />Forms of<br />Service Inte...
Business, dimensions of
Products, goods and material systems
Information, codified knowledge</li></ul>Gadrey, J. (2002).  The misuse of productivity concepts in services: Lessons from...
Rights<br />No-Rights<br />2. Technology<br />1. People<br />Physical<br />4.. SharedInformation<br />3. Organizations<br ...
Value propositions are the building blocks of service system networks<br />Second foundational premise <br />of service sc...
Competitor       Provider         Customer         Authority<br />A<br />S<br />P<br />C<br />(substitute)<br />OO<br />OO...
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  1. 1. Service Science:Progress & Directions Mega-Topics for IT-Enabled Service Research<br />Jim Spohrer, IBM<br />See http://www.slideshare.net/spohrer<br />
  2. 2. Why Service Matters to IBM<br />Revenue Growth by Segment<br />
  3. 3. Why Universities Matter to IBM<br />
  4. 4. IBM UP & “5 R’s”<br />1. Research<br />Awards focus on grand challenge problems and big bets<br />https://www.ibm.com/developerworks/university/research<br />2. Readiness<br />Access to IBM tools, methods, and course materials to develop skills<br />https://www.ibm.com/developerworks/university/academicinitiative<br />3. Recruiting<br />Internships and full-time positions working to build a smarter planet<br />http://www.ibm.com/jobs<br />4. Revenue<br />Public-private partnerships build great universities and strengthen regions<br />http://www.ibm.com/services/us/gbs/bus/html/bcs_education.html<br />5. Responsibility<br />Community service provides access to expertise/resources<br />http://www.ibm.com/ibm/ibmgives/<br />
  5. 5. Research: Award Programs<br />
  6. 6. What improves Quality-of-Life? Service System Innovations<br />20/10/10<br />A. Systems that focus on flow of things that humans need (~15%*)<br />1. Transportation & supply chain<br />2. Water & waste recycling/Climate & Environment<br />3. Food & products manufacturing<br />4. Energy & electricity grid/Clean Tech<br />5. Information and Communication Technologies (ICT access)<br />B. Systems that focus on human activity and development (~70%*)<br />6. Buildings & construction (smart spaces) (5%*)<br />7. Retail & hospitality/Media & entertainment/Tourism & sports (23%*)<br />8. Banking & finance/Business & consulting (wealthy) (21%*)<br />9. Healthcare & family life (healthy) (10%*)<br />10. Education & work life/Professions & entrepreneurship (wise) (9%*)<br />C. Systems that focus on human governance - security and opportunity (~15%*)<br />11. Cities & security for families and professionals, non-profits (property tax)<br />12. States/regions & commercial development opportunities/investments (sales tax)<br />13. Nations/NGOs & citizens rights/rules/incentives/policies/laws (income tax)<br />2/7/4<br />* = US Labor % in 2009.<br />2/1/1<br />7/6/1<br />1/1/0<br />5/17/27<br />1/0/2<br />24/24/1<br />2/20/24<br />7/10/3<br />5/2/2<br />3/3/1<br />0/0/0<br />0/19/0<br />1/2/2<br />Quality of Life = Quality of Service + Quality of Jobs + Quality of Investment-Opportunities<br />“61 Service Design 2010 (Japan) / 75 Service Marketing 2010 (Portugal)/78 Service-Oriented Computing 2010 (US)”<br />
  7. 7. Smarter Planet/SSME Awards (Sample of 192)<br />Column’s Explained in More Detail on Previous Slide<br />
  8. 8. US National Academy of Engineering Grand Challenges<br />A. Systems that focus on flow of things humans need<br />1. Transportation & Supply Chain<br />Restore and enhance urban infrastructure<br />2. Water & Waste/Climate & Green tech<br />Provide access to clear water<br />3. Food & Products<br />Manager nitrogen cycle<br />4. Energy & Electricity<br />Make solar energy economical<br /> Provide energy from fusion<br /> Develop carbon sequestration methods<br />5. Information & Communication Technology<br />Enhance virtual reality<br /> Secure cyberspace<br /> Reverse engineer the brain<br />B. Systems that focus on human activity & development<br />6. Buildings & Construction (smart spaces)<br />Restore and enhance urban infrastructure<br />7. Retail & Hospitality/Media & Entertainment (tourism)<br />Enhance virtual reality<br />8. Banking & Finance/Business & Consulting<br />9. Healthcare & Family Life<br />Advance health informatics<br /> Engineer better medicines<br /> Reverse engineer the brain<br />10. Education & Work Life/Jobs & Entrepreneurship<br />Advance personalized learning<br /> Engineer the tools of scientific discovery<br />C. Systems that focus on human governance<br />11. City & Security<br />Restore and improve urban infrastructure<br /> Secure cyberspace<br /> Prevent nuclear terror<br />12. State/Region & Development<br />13. Nation & Rights<br />
  9. 9. “I am an IBMer: Building A Smarter Planet”https://jobs3.netmedia1.com/cp/find.ibm.jobs/location/<br />IBM Employees<br />~10% Consultant<br />~10% Sales<br />~5% Architect<br />~5% Project Manager<br />~45% Specialists<br />~25% Enterprise Operations<br />Project Mix <br />From 90-10 to 80-20:<br />B2B – Business to Business<br />B2G – Business to Government<br />~10%<br />1. Consultant<br />(trusted advisor to customer)<br /><ul><li> a value proposition to addressproblems or opportunities andenhance value co-creationrelationships</li></ul>~5%<br />~10%<br />3. Architect<br />(systems engineer, IT & enterprise architect)<br /><ul><li>An elegant solution design that satisfiesfunctional and non-functionalconstraints across thesystem life-cycle</li></ul>2. Sales<br /><ul><li>a signed contract thatdefines work, outcomes, solution,rewards and risks for all parties</li></ul>~5%<br />4. Project Manager<br />(often with co-PM from customer side)<br />a detailed project plan thatbalances time, costs, skills availability,and other resources, as well asadaptive realization of plan<br />~45%<br />~25%<br />5. Specialists<br />(systems engineer, Research, engineer, <br />Industry specialist, application, technician, <br />data, analyst, professional, agent)<br /><ul><li>a compelling working system(leading-edge prototype systemsfrom Research)</li></ul>6. Enterprise Operations<br />Administrative Services, Other, <br />Marketing & Communications<br />Finance, Supply Chain, Manufacturing, <br />Human Resources, Legal, <br />General Executive Management <br />
  10. 10. Many team-oriented service projects completed<br />(resume: outcomes, accomplishments & awards)<br />Many disciplines (13)<br />(understanding & communications)<br />Many systems (13)<br />(understanding & communications)<br />Deep in one discipline<br />(analytic thinking & problem solving)<br />Deep in one system<br />(analytic thinking & problem solving)<br />Skills for 21st Century: T-Shaped Innovators Ready for T-eamwork<br />SSME(D) = Service Science Management Engineering (and Design)<br />
  11. 11. Systems that focus on flows of things <br />Systems that govern<br />Systems that support people’s activities<br />transportation & <br />supply chain<br />healthcare<br />& family<br />retail &<br />hospitality<br />ICT &<br />cloud<br />city<br />secure<br />food &<br />products<br />education <br />&work<br />state<br />scale<br />nation<br />laws<br />energy <br />& electricity<br />water & <br />waste<br />building & <br />construction<br />banking<br />& finance<br />behavioral sciences<br />Customer<br />Provider<br />Authority<br />Competitors<br />People<br />Technology<br />Information<br />Organizations<br /> resources<br />stakeholders<br />e.g., marketing<br />management sciences<br />Stackholders (Customers, Providers, etc.)<br />e.g., operations<br />political sciences<br />e.g., public policy<br />learning sciences<br />e.g., game theory<br /> and strategy<br />cognitive sciences<br />e.g., psychology<br />system sciences<br />Resources (People, Technology, etc.) <br />e.g., industrial eng.<br />information sciences<br />e.g., computer sci<br />organization sciences<br />e.g., knowledge mgmt<br />social sciences<br />History<br />(Data Analytics)<br />Future<br />(Roadmap)<br />change<br />Change (History, Future)<br />e.g., econ & law<br />decision sciences<br />e.g., statistics<br />run professions<br />Run<br />Transform<br />(Copy)<br />Innovate<br />(Invent)<br />e.g., knowledge worker<br /> value<br />Value (Run, Transform, Innovate)<br />transform professions<br />e.g., consultant<br />innovate professions<br />e.g., entrepreneur<br />Service Systems & Current Academic Disciplines<br />
  12. 12. Jobs: Expert Thinking & Complex Communications<br />Increasing usage of job descriptive terms<br />Expert Thinking<br />(deep)<br />Complex Communication<br />(broad)<br />Routine Manual<br />Non-routine Manual<br />Routine Cognitive<br />Based on U.S. Department of Labor’ Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT)<br />Levy, F, & Murnane, R. J. (2004). The New Division of Labor:How Computers Are Creating the Next Job Market. Princeton University Press.<br />
  13. 13. Pervasive Force: Leveraging Technology to Advance Service<br />Strategy Priorities <br />Development Priorities<br />Execution Priorities<br />Stimulating <br />Service Innovation<br />Fostering Service<br />Infusion and Growth<br />Effectively Branding <br />and Selling Services<br />Enhancing <br />Service Design <br />Improving Well-Being <br />through <br />Transformative Service<br />Enhancing the Service <br />Experience through<br />Cocreation<br />Creating and Maintaining <br />a Service Culture<br />Optimizing <br />Service Networks <br />and Value Chains<br />Measuring and<br />Optimizing the Value of<br />Service <br />Priorities: Research Framework <br /> for the Science of Service<br />Source: Global Survey of Service Research Leaders (Ostrom et al 2010)<br />
  14. 14. Mega-Topics<br />Super-Colleague<br />Humanitarian and labor productivity (augmentation) applications of Watson technology<br />E.g., Intelligent assistant that has read everything you should have read & can talk with you about it<br />Super-Service<br />Beyond self-service (toward invisible super-colleagues and intelligent environments)<br />e.g, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=44f5A8PCWiU<br />Home Health<br />Technology-enabled home health systems (invisible super-doctor-nurse intelligent environments)<br />e.g., http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6Cf7IL_eZ38<br />ManAg Servitization<br />Manufacturing & Agriculture factory of the future service system with customer co-creation<br />e.g., https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nd5WGLWNllA)<br />Crowd Sourcing<br />Instrumented people and city service systems (fun read – World Wide Mind, Collective Intelligence)<br />e.g. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=anKiEoxkpxM<br />Whole-Service Sustainability<br />IT-enabled smart cities with universities at the core as living labs (Holistic Service Systems research)<br />City, University Sci-Tech Parks & Incubators, University, K-12 & Neighborhoods<br />E.g., http://www.service-science.info/archives/1056 <br />
  15. 15. Holistic Service Systems<br />Nation<br />State/Province<br />City/Region<br />Luxury<br />Resort<br />Hotels<br />University<br />Colleges<br />K-12<br />Hospital<br />Medical<br />Research<br />Family<br />(household)<br />Person<br />(professional)<br />Examples: Nations, States, Cities, Universities, Luxury Hotels, Cruise Ships, Households<br />Subsystems: Transportation, Water, Food, Energy, Communications, Buildings, Retail, Finance, Health, Education, Governance, etc. <br />Definition: A service system that can support its primary populations, independent of all external service systems, for some period of time, longer than a month if necessary, and in some cases, indefinitely<br />Balance independence with interdependence, without becoming overly dependent<br />For-profits<br />start-ups<br />Non-profits<br />~25-50% of start-ups are new IT-enabled service offerings<br />
  16. 16. World Population & Service System Scaling<br />
  17. 17. Thank-You! Questions?<br />“Instrumented, Interconnected, Intelligent – Let’s build a Smarter Planet.” – IBM<br />“If we are going to build a smarter planet, let’s start by building smarter cities” – CityForward.org<br />“Universities are major employers in cities and key to urban sustainability.” – Coalition of USU<br />“Cities learning from cities learning from cities.” – Fundacion Metropoli<br />“The future is already here… It is just not evenly distributed.” – Gibson<br />“The best way to predict the future is to create it/invent it.” – Moliere/Kay<br />“Real-world problems may not/refuse to respect discipline boundaries.” – Popper/Spohrer<br />“Today’s problems may come from yesterday’s solutions.” – Senge<br />“History is a race between education and catastrophe.” – H.G. Wells<br />“The future is born in universities.” – Kurilov<br />“Think global, act local.” – Geddes<br />Dr. James (“Jim”) C. Spohrer<br />Innovation Champion & Director, IBM University Programs (IBM UP) WW<br />spohrer@us.ibm.com<br />
  18. 18. IBM has 426,000 employees worldwide<br />2010 Financials<br /><ul><li> Revenue - $ 99.9B
  19. 19. Net Income - $ 14.8B
  20. 20. EPS - $ 11.52
  21. 21. Net Cash - $11.7B</li></ul>21% of IBM’s revenue in growth market countries; growing at 13% in late 2010<br />More than 40% of IBM’s workforce conducts business away from an office<br />IBM operates in 170 countries around the globe<br />Number 1 in patent generation for 18 consecutive years ; 5,896 US patents awarded in 2010<br />Smarter<br />Planet<br />5 Nobel Laureates<br />9 time winner of the President’s National Medal of Technology & Innovation - latest award for Blue Gene Supercomputer<br />
  22. 22. Service Growth: The World<br />World’s Large Labor Forces<br />A = Agriculture, G = Goods, S = Service<br />US shift to service jobs<br />2010<br />2010<br />(A) Agriculture:<br />Value from <br />harvesting nature<br />40yr Service<br />Growth <br />S<br />%<br />G<br />%<br />A <br />%<br />Labor<br />% WW<br />Nation<br /> 142%<br />29<br />22<br />49<br />25.7<br />China<br /> 35%<br />23<br />17<br />60<br />14.4<br />India<br />(G) Goods:<br />Value from <br />making products<br /> 23%<br />76<br />23<br /> 1<br /> 5.1<br />U.S.<br /> 34%<br />39<br />16<br />45<br /> 3.5<br />Indonesia<br />(S) Service:<br />Value from<br />IT augmented workers in smarter systems<br />that create benefits for customers <br />and sustainably improve quality of life.<br /> 61%<br />66<br />14<br />20<br /> 3.0<br />Brazil<br /> 64%<br />69<br />21<br />10<br /> 2.4<br />Russia<br /> 45%<br />67<br />28<br /> 5<br /> 2.2<br />Japan<br /> 19%<br />20<br />10<br />70<br /> 1.6<br />Nigeria<br /> 37%<br />26<br />11<br />63<br /> 2.1<br />Bangladesh<br /> 42%<br />64<br />33<br /> 3<br /> 1.4<br />Germany<br />CIA Handbook, International Labor Organization<br />Note: Pakistan, Vietnam, and Mexico now larger LF than Germany<br />
  23. 23. Priorities: Succeeding through Service Innovation - A Framework for Progress<br />(http://www.ifm.eng.cam.ac.uk/ssme/)<br />Source: Workshop and Global Survey of Service Research Leaders (IfM & IBM 2008)<br />1. Emerging demand<br />5. Call for actions<br />2. Define the domain<br />3. Vision and gaps<br />4. Bridge the gaps<br />Stakeholder<br />Priorities<br />Education<br />Research<br />Business<br />Government<br />Service <br />Systems<br />Customer-provider interactions that enable value cocreation<br />Dynamic configurations of resources: people, technologies, organisations and information<br />Increasing scale, complexity and connectedness of service systems<br />B2B, B2C, C2C, B2G, G2C, G2G service networks<br />Service Innovation<br />Growth in service GDP and jobs<br />Service quality <br />& productivity<br />Environmental friendly & sustainable<br />Urbanisation &<br />aging population<br />Globalisation & technology drivers<br />Opportunities for businesses, governments and individuals<br />The white paper offers a starting point to - <br />Service <br />Science<br />To discover the underlying principles of complex service systems<br />Systematically create, scale and improve systems<br />Foundations laid by existing<br />disciplines<br />Progress in academic studies and practical tools<br />Gaps in knowledge and skills<br />Develop programmes & qualifications<br />Skills<br />& Mindset<br />Encourage an interdisciplinary approach<br />Knowledge<br />& Tools<br />Develop and improve service innovation roadmaps, leading to a doubling of investment in service education and research by 2015<br />Employment<br />& Collaboration<br />Policies <br />& Investment<br />Glossary of definitions, history and outlook of service research, global trends, and ongoing debate<br />
  24. 24. COMMUNICATIONS<br />PRODUCTS<br />WORKFORCE<br />TRANSPORTATION<br />SUPPLY CHAIN<br />BUILDINGS<br />Evolution: SSME+D (for Design) for a Smarter PlanetWhat is Smarter Planet? Harmonized smarter systems.<br />INSTRUMENTED<br />We now have the ability to measure, sense and see the exact condition of practically everything.<br />INTERCONNECTED<br />People, systems and objects can communicate and interact with each other in entirely new ways.<br />INTELLIGENT<br />We can respond to changes quickly and accurately, and get better results by predicting and optimizing for future events.<br />IT NETWORKS<br />
  25. 25. What is a Service System? What is Service Science?…customers just name <your favorite provider>…researchers just name <your favorite discipline><br />Design/ <br />Cognitive Science<br />Systems<br />Engineering<br />“service science is<br />the interdisciplinary study of <br />service systems &<br />value-cocreation”<br />“a service system is a human-made system<br />to improve customer-provider interactions,<br />or value-cocreation”<br />Marketing<br />Computer Science/<br />Artificial Intelligence<br />Operations<br />Economics & Law<br />
  26. 26. Time<br />14B<br />Big Bang<br />(Natural<br />World)<br />10K<br />Cities<br />(Human-Made<br />World)<br />bees (social<br />division-of-labor)<br />transistor<br />60<br />200M<br />Where is the “Real Science” in SSME+D?<br />In the interdisciplinary sciences that study the natural and human-made worlds…<br /> Unraveling the mystery of evolving hierarchical-complexity in new populations…<br />To discover the world’s structures and mechanisms for computing non-zero-sum<br />writing<br />(symbols and scribes)<br />ECOLOGY<br />written laws<br />money<br />(coins)<br />Sun<br />Earth<br />bacteria<br />(uni-cell life)<br />sponges<br />(multi-cell life)<br />universities<br />clams (neurons)<br />printing press (books)<br />trilobites (brains)<br />steam engine<br />
  27. 27. Service System Ecology: Conceptual Framework<br />Resources: People, Technology, Information, Organizations<br />Stakeholders: Customers, Providers, Authorities, Competitors<br />Measures: Quality, Productivity, Compliance, Sustainable Innovation<br />Access Rights: Own, Lease, Shared, Privileged<br />
  28. 28. Value Configuration<br />Density<br />Resource Integrator/Beneficiary<br />Resource Integrator/Beneficiary<br />(“Firm”)<br />(“Customer”)<br />Value Co-creation<br />Service-dominant logic <br />Service is the application of competences for the benefit of another entity<br />Serviceis exchanged for service<br />Value is always co-created<br />Goods are appliances for delivery<br />Alleconomies are service economies<br />All businesses are service businesses<br />Vargo, S. L. & Lusch, R. F. (2004). Evolving to a new dominant logic for marketing. Journal of Marketing, 68, 1 – 17.<br />
  29. 29. What is value?<br /> Value depends on the capabilities a system has to survive and create beneficial change in its environment. <br /> Taking advantage of the service another system offers means incorporating improved capabilities. <br /> Value can be defined as system improvement in an environment. <br /> All ways that systems work together to improve or enhance one another’s capabilities can be seen as being value creating. <br />Vargo, S. L., Maglio, P. P., and Akaka, M. A. (2008). On value and value co-creation: A service systems and service logic perspective. European Management Journal, 26(3), 145-152.<br />
  30. 30. B. Service Client<br /><ul><li>Individual
  31. 31. Organization
  32. 32. Public or Private</li></ul>A. Service Provider<br /><ul><li>Individual
  33. 33. Organization
  34. 34. Public or Private</li></ul>Forms of<br />Service Relationship<br />(A & B co-create value)<br />Forms of<br />Service Interventions<br />(A on C, B on C)<br />Forms of<br />Responsibility Relationship<br />(A on C)<br />Forms of<br />Ownership Relationship<br />(B on C)<br />C. Service Target: The reality to be <br /> transformed or operated on by A, <br /> for the sake of B<br /><ul><li>People, dimensions of
  35. 35. Business, dimensions of
  36. 36. Products, goods and material systems
  37. 37. Information, codified knowledge</li></ul>Gadrey, J. (2002). The misuse of productivity concepts in services: Lessons from a comparison between France and the United States. In J. Gadrey & F. Gallouj (Eds). Productivity, Innovation, and Knowledge in Services: New Economic and Socio-economic Approaches. Cheltenham UK: Edward Elgar, pp. 26 – 53. <br />What is a service system? <br /> Service involves at least two entities applying competences and making use of individual and shared resources for mutual benefit. <br /> We call such interacting entities service systems. <br />Spohrer, J., Maglio, P. P., Bailey, J. & Gruhl, D. (2007). Steps toward a science of service systems. Computer, 40, 71-77.<br />
  38. 38. Rights<br />No-Rights<br />2. Technology<br />1. People<br />Physical<br />4.. SharedInformation<br />3. Organizations<br />Not-Physical<br />Resources are the building blocks of service systems<br />First foundational premise <br />of service science<br />Service system entities<br />dynamically configure<br />four types of resources<br />The named resource is<br />Physical<br />or<br />Not-Physical<br />(physicists resolve disputes)<br />The named resource has<br />Rights<br />or<br />No-Rights<br />(judges resolve disputes<br />within their jurisdictions)<br />Formal service systems can contract<br />Informal service systems can promise/commit<br />Trends & Countertrends (Evolve and Balance):<br />Informal <> Formal<br />Social <> Economic<br />Political <> Legal<br />Routine Cognitive Labor <> Computation<br />Routine Physical Labor <> Technology<br />Transportation (Atoms) <> Communication (Bits)<br />Qualitative (Tacit) <> Quantitative (Explicit)<br />Spohrer, J & Maglio, P. P. (2009) Service Science: Toward a Smarter Planet. In Introduction to Service Engineering. Editors Karwowski & Salvendy. Wiley. Hoboken, NJ..<br />
  39. 39. Value propositions are the building blocks of service system networks<br />Second foundational premise <br />of service science<br />Service system entities<br />calculate value from multiple<br />stakeholder perspectives<br />A value propositions can<br />be viewed as a request from<br />one service system to another<br />to run an algorithm<br />(the value proposition)<br />from the perspectives of <br />multiple stakeholders according<br />to culturally determined<br />value principles.<br />The four primary stakeholder<br />perspectives are: customer, <br />provider, authority, and competitor<br />Value propositions coordinate & motivate resource access<br />Spohrer, J & Maglio, P. P. (2009) Service Science: Toward a Smarter Planet. In Introduction to Service Engineering. Editors Karwowski & Salvendy. Wiley. Hoboken, NJ..<br />
  40. 40. Competitor Provider Customer Authority<br />A<br />S<br />P<br />C<br />(substitute)<br />OO<br />OO<br />LC<br />LC<br />SA<br />SA<br />PA<br />PA<br /> value-proposition<br /> change-experience<br /> dynamic-configurations<br />time<br />service = value-cocreation<br />B2B<br />B2C<br />B2G<br />G2C<br />G2B<br />G2G<br />C2C<br />C2B<br />C2G<br />***<br />provider resources<br />Owned Outright<br />Leased/Contract<br />Shared Access<br />Privileged Access<br />customer resources<br />Owned Outright<br />Leased/Contract<br />Shared Access<br />Privileged Access<br />Access rights are the building blocks of service system ecology(culture and shared information)<br />Third foundational premise <br />of service science<br />Service system entities<br />reconfigure access rights to<br />resources by mutually agreed to<br />value propositions<br /><ul><li>Access rights
  41. 41. Access to resources that are owned outright (i.e., property)
  42. 42. Access to resource that are leased/contracted for (i.e., rental car, home ownership via mortgage, insurance policies, etc.)
  43. 43. Shared access (i.e., roads, web information, air, etc.)
  44. 44. Privileged access (i.e., personal thoughts, inalienable kinship relationships, etc.)</li></ul>Spohrer, J & Maglio, P. P. (2009) Service Science: Toward a Smarter Planet. In Introduction to Service Engineering. Editors Karwowski & Salvendy. Wiley. Hoboken, NJ..<br />
  45. 45. Rights<br />No-Rights<br />2. Technology<br />1. People<br />Physical<br />4.. SharedInformation<br />3. Organizations<br />Not-Physical<br />A<br />S<br />P<br />C<br />Premises of service science: What service systems do<br />Service system entities<br />dynamically configure (transform)<br />four types of resources<br />Service system entities<br />calculate value from multiple<br /> stakeholder perspectives<br />Service system entities<br />reconfigure access rights <br />to resources by mutually agreed <br />to value propositions<br />Spohrer, J & Maglio, P. P. (2009) Service Science: Toward a Smarter Planet. In Introduction to Service Engineering. Editors Karwowski & Salvendy. Wiley. Hoboken, NJ..<br />
  46. 46. Teaching SSME+D<br /><ul><li>Service Management:Operations, Strategy,and Information Technology
  47. 47. By Fitzsimmons and Fitzsimmons, UTexas</li></ul>Fitzsimmons & Fitzsimmons<br />Graduate Students<br />Schools of Engineering & Businesses<br />Teboul<br />Undergraduates<br />Schools of Business & Social Sciences<br />Busy execs (4 hour read)<br />Ricketts<br />Practitioners<br />Manufacturers In Transition<br />And 200 other books…<br />Zeithaml, Bitner, Gremler; Gronross, Chase, Jacobs, Aquilano; Davis, Heineke; Heskett, Sasser, Schlesingher; Sampson; Lovelock, Wirtz, Chew; Alter; Baldwin, Clark; Beinhocker; Berry; Bryson, Daniels, Warf; Checkland, Holwell; Cooper,Edgett; Hopp, Spearman; Womack, Jones; Johnston; Heizer, Render; Milgrom, Roberts; Norman; Pine, Gilmore; Sterman; Weinberg; Woods, Degramo; Wooldridge; Wright; etc.<br />URL: http://www.cob.sjsu.edu/ssme/refmenu.asp<br /><ul><li>Service Is Front Stage:Positioning services forvalue advantage
  48. 48. By James Teboul, INSEAD
  49. 49. Reaching the Goal: How Managers Improve a Services Business Using Goldratt’s Theory of Constraints
  50. 50. By John Ricketts, IBM</li></li></ul><li>SSE<br />SSE<br />SSE<br />SSE<br />SSE<br />SSE<br />SSE<br />SSE<br />SSE<br />SSE<br />F<br />F<br />F<br />F<br />F<br />F<br />F<br />F<br />F<br />F<br />Front-Stage Marketing/Customer Focus<br />Based on Levitt, T (1972) Production-line approach to service. HBR.<br />“Everybody is in service... Something is wrong… <br />The industrial world has changed faster than our taxonomies.”.<br />B<br />B<br />B<br />B<br />B<br />B<br />B<br />B<br />B<br />B<br />e.g., Citibank<br />F<br />F<br />F<br />Service<br />System Entity<br />Product-Service-System<br />Product<br />Business<br />Service<br />Business<br />F<br />B<br />B<br />B<br />B<br />e.g., IBM<br />Back-Stage Operations/Provider Focus<br />Reality: “Product-Service-System” Networks<br />
  51. 51. TECHNOLOGY IMMERSION<br />Primary<br />School<br />Any Device Learning<br />Secondary<br />School<br />PERSONAL LEARNING PATHS<br />Workforce<br />Skills<br /> Individuals Learning Continuum<br />Student-Centered Processes<br />Higher<br />Education<br />Continuing<br />Education<br />KNOWLEDGE SKILLS<br />Learning Communities<br />Intelligent<br /><ul><li> Aligned Data
  52. 52. Outcomes Insight</li></ul>GLOBAL INTEGRATION<br />Economic<br />Sustainability<br />Instrumented<br /><ul><li>Student-centric
  53. 53. Integrated Assessment</li></ul>Services Specialization<br />Institutions Learning Continuum<br />Interconnected<br /><ul><li>Shared Services
  54. 54. Interoperable Processes</li></ul>ECONOMIC ALIGNMENT<br />Systemic View of Education<br />Vision for the Educational Continuum: Individuals & Institutions Learning<br />The<br />Educational<br />Continuum<br />http://www-935.ibm.com/services/us/gbs/bus/html/education-for-a-smarter-planet.html<br />34<br />
  55. 55. Fun: CityOne Game to Learn “CityInvesting”<br />Serious Game to teach problem solving for real issues in key industries, helping companies to learn how to work smarter. Energy, Water, Banking, Retail<br />http://www.ibm.com/cityone<br />
  56. 56. Priority 1: Urban Sustainability & Service Innovation Centers<br />A. Research: Holistic Modeling & Analytics of Service Systems<br />Modeling and simulating cities will push state-of-the-artcapabilities for planning interventions in complex system of service systems<br />Includes maturity models of cities, their analytics capabilities, and city-university interactions<br />Provides an interdisciplinary integration point for many other university research centers that study one specialized type of system<br />Real-world data and advanced analytic tools are increasingly available<br />B. Education: STEM (Science Tech Engineering Math) Pipeline & LLL<br />City simulation and intervention planning tools can engage high school students and build STEM skills of the human-made world (service systems)<br />Role-playing games can prepare students for real-world projects<br />LLL = Life Long Learning<br />C. Entrepreneurship: Job Creation<br />City modeling and intervention planning tools can engage university<br /> students and build entrepreneurial skills<br />Grand challenge competitions can lead to new enterprises<br />
  57. 57. Population<br />Challenges<br />Opportunities<br />Careers<br />Cities as Holistic Service Systems: All the systems<br />A. Flow of things<br />1. Transportation: Traffic congestion; accidents and injury<br />2. Water: Access to clean water; waste disposal costs<br />3. Food: Safety of food supply; toxins in toys, products, etc.<br />4. Energy: Energy shortage, pollution<br />5. Information: Equitable access to info and comm resources<br />B. Human activity & development<br />6. Buildings: Inefficient buildings, environmental stress (noise, etc.)<br />7. Retail: Access to recreational resources<br />8. Banking: Boom and bust business cycles, investment bubbles<br />9. Healthcare: Pandemic threats; cost of healthcare<br />10. Education: High school drop out rate; cost of education<br />C. Governing<br />11. Cities: Security and tax burden<br />12. States: Infrastructure maintenance and tax burden<br />13. Nations: Justice system overburdened and tax burden<br />Example: Singapore<br />
  58. 58. Universities as Holistic Service Systems: All the systems<br />A. Flow of things<br />1. Transportation: Traffic congestion; parking shortages.<br />2. Water: Access costs; reduce waste<br />3. Food: Safety; reduce waste.<br />4. Energy: Access costs; reduce waste<br />5. Information: Cost of keeping up best practices.<br />B. Human activity & development<br />6. Buildings: Housing shortages; Inefficient buildings<br />7. Retail: Access and boundaries. Marketing.<br />8. Banking: Endowment growth; Cost controls<br />9. Healthcare: Pandemic threat. Operations.<br />10. Education: Cost of keeping up best practices..<br />C. Governing<br />11. Cities: Town & gown relationship.<br />12. States: Development partnerships..<br />13. Nations: Compliance and alignment.<br />
  59. 59. Understanding the Human-Made World <br />Also see: <br />Symbolic Species, Deacon<br />Company of Strangers, Seabright<br />Sciences of the Artificial, Simon<br />See Paul Romer’s Charter Cities Video: http://www.ted.com/talks/paul_romer.html <br />
  60. 60. Where are the opportunities? Everywhere!<br />
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