Permission to use granted on request to: firstname.lastname@example.orgReference presentation as:Spohrer, JC (2013) Data Science + Urban Science + Service Science = Smarter Planet. Milano, Italy. Monday June 17, 2013. URL: http://www.slideshare.net/spohrer/data-urban-service-science-20130617-v2
The sciences that study systems that nature has evolved do not include the word “science”The sciences that study systems that our species has designed do include the word “science”Complexity Science, Organization Science, Social Sciences study both naturally evolved and human designed systemsSystems Science is perhaps the most general of the sciences – and studies all types of systems from a transdisciplary perspective.Both sciences and applied arts are driven by imagination, data and experience play a role, but imagination (i.e., creativity) is the fundamental driver of progress (i.e., better explanation of systems) and change (i.e., better change that does more with less).
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Data_sciencePagerank (map-reduce & hadoop) – helping people find what they are most likely looking forRecommendation systems – helping people find what they most likely want to buy
35 Zettabytes - IDC
http://www.santafe.edu/research/cities-scaling-and-sustainability/Cities get larger wealth creation and innovation get faster2x size in city 15% increase wealth, innovation, negative effectsCities shrink time and space, and concentrate and accelerate social interactionsNetwork constraints …
Ricardo’s law of association of comparative advantage (beyond division of labor, includes learning curve effects – do more of what you do best, less of what you do least well)Outsourcing and self-service upward spiral of capabilities (employee productivity improvements lead to customer-self-service)Improve strongest and weakest network links capabilities (swim-lane competitions accelerate learning and balance routine (boredom) and challenge (anxiety))
- What is ISSIP?ISSIP = the International Society of Service Innovation ProfessionalsISSIP is pronounced I-ZIPISSIP was founded by industry and academic collaborators to promote service innovations for an interconnected world.AmmarRayes, a Cisco DE, is the founding President of ISSIP.Charlie Bess, an HP Fellow, is the founding Vice President of ISSIP.Jeff Welser, Director IBM Almaden Service Research, is the VP elect for ISSIP.I am one of the founding Board members, as well as chair of the ISSIP SIG Education and Research.ISSIP SIG Education and Research aims to increase the quantity and quality of service science related courses and degree programs.ISSIP SIG Education and Research aims to increase the number of T-shaped service innovators in business and society.
- What is a service platform?A service platform provides access to places and entities to scale the benefits of new knowledge globally and rapidly.IBM’s Watson natural language and question answering capability will become available for smart phone app developers as a service platform.Watson specializes in ranking queries that related semantic classes and instances, so for the classes “Explorers” and “Dates” - the instance “Columbus” is highly correlated with “1492″ and less so with “1506″ and “1451″.IBM Smarter Cities Intelligent Operations Center is a service platform for scaling business solutions that improve the performance of urban regions.IBM itself can be viewed as a service platform for scaling businesses and solutions with some 120 acquisitions in the last ten years alone.Pharmaceutical companies be viewed as service platforms for scaling the benefits of new molecules.Franchises are service platforms for scaling the benefits of new knowledge globally and rapidly.Cities with high use airports can become negative-service platforms when they scale human viruses negative consequences globally and rapidly.
- What is service science?ISSIP embraces the service-dominant-logic definition of service.Service is defined, not as the tertiary economic sector, but more generally as the application of knowledge for mutual benefits.Service innovations scale the benefits of new knowledge, globally and rapidly (and for businesses profitably).Service innovations includes technology platforms (e.g., smart phones), organizational platforms (e.g., franchises) and others platforms for scaling.Service science is the rigorous study of service systems and value co-creation phenomena, both collaborative and competitive mechanisms.Value co-creation is a kind of win-win outcome – for example, when customers build their own furniture they can get higher quality components, but lower costs.Performance measures of service systems include quality, productivity, compliance, and innovativeness.Types of service systems entities include people, businesses, universities, cities, states, and nations.Performance measures of a service ecology include resilience, sustainability, competitive parity, and quality-of-life (learning rates & knowledge burden).
- What is a T-shaped professional?T-shaped professionals have both depth and breadth.An I-shaped professional may be an expert, but lacks skills for interacting with other disciplines, sectors, and/or regions/cultures.Pi-shapes and M-shapes have depth in two or three areas, but most employees today are I-shapes.An organization or nation with more T-shapes is more likely to have higher performance teamwork as well as more boundary spanning innovations.The T-shaped metaphor has been used for at least a couple decades, but ISSIP is working on making the concept more rigorous.=======From I to T to Pi-shapes … and beyond! IBM needs graduates who can work on multidisciplinary, multisector, multicultural teams… T-shapes have depth and breadth … Disciplines from computer science to marketing to social sciences to arts & humanitiesSectors from transportation to energy to healthcare to governmentCultures from US to Europe to China to India to Latin America to Africa to Middle East and more!!
- How is this related to your work at IBM with universities?At IBM I helped start IBM’s Venture Capital Group, Service Research area in IBM Research, and now run IBM’s University Programs worldwide.IBM University Programs is concerned with the 6 R’s – research, readiness (skills), recruiting, revenue (universities are like small cities), responsibility, and regions.Part of IBM Smarter Planet strategy is to help universities increase the quantity and quality of start-ups (Smart Camps).IBM also wants to help start-ups scale up globally and rapidly.Universities are the most important drivers of innovation in a knowledge economy, and more and more startups come from universities.Many businesses instead of hiring a student with a new degree, would rather hire that same student after they have entrepreneurial experience, even if the start-up failed.Most start-ups fail, but they create T-shaped people – which is what businesses want to improve performance of teams and boundary spanning innovations.IBM acquires about one company a month for last ten years (see the IBM M&A wikipedia page)By one estimate, 2/3 of these acquisitions started in a university-based entrepreneurial ecosystem.SSME (Service Science Management and Engineering), Smarter Planet, Big Data Analytics, Data Science, Smarter Cities, and Urban Science – are all related.IBM University Programs uses the 6 R’s to advance IBM’s Smarter Planet strategy, and increase the number of T-shaped innovators.
Why service scientists are interested in universities…. They are in many ways the service system of most central importance to other service systems…Graph based on data from Source: http://www.arwu.org/ARWUAnalysis2009.jspAnalysis: Antonio Fischetto and Giovanna Lella (URome, Italy) students visiting IBM AlmadenDynamicgraphybased on Swissstudents work:http://www.upload-it.fr/files/1513639149/graph.htmlUS isstill “off the chart” – China projected to be “off the chart” in lessthan 10 years: US % of WW Top-RankedUniversities: 30,3 % US % of WW GDP: 23,3 %CorrelatingNation’s (2004) % of WW GDP to % of WW Top-Ranked UniversitiesUS isliterally “off the chart” – butincluding US make high correlationevenhigher: US % of WW Top-RankedUniversities: 33,865 % US % of WW GDP: 28,365 %
http://www.bls.gov/emp/ep_chart_001.htmhttp://theeconomiccollapseblog.com/archives/student-loan-debt-hell-21-statistics-that-will-make-you-think-twice-about-going-to-collegePosted below are 21 statistics about college tuition, student loan debt and the quality of college education in the United States....#1 Since 1978, the cost of college tuition in the United States has gone up by over 900 percent.#2 In 2010, the average college graduate had accumulated approximately $25,000 in student loan debt by graduation day.#3 Approximately two-thirds of all college students graduate with student loans.#4 Americans have accumulated well over $900 billion in student loan debt. That figure is higher than the total amount of credit card debt in the United States.#5 The typical U.S. college student spends less than 30 hours a week on academics.#6 According to very extensive research detailed in a new book entitled "Academically Adrift: Limited Learning on College Campuses", 45 percent of U.S. college students exhibit "no significant gains in learning" after two years in college.#7 Today, college students spend approximately 50% less time studying than U.S. college students did just a few decades ago.#835% of U.S. college students spend 5 hours or less studying per week.#950% of U.S. college students have never taken a class where they had to write more than 20 pages.#1032% of U.S. college students have never taken a class where they had to read more than 40 pages in a week.#11 U.S. college students spend 24% of their time sleeping, 51% of their time socializing and 7% of their time studying.#12 Federal statistics reveal that only 36 percent of the full-time students who began college in 2001 received a bachelor's degree within four years.#13Nearly half of all the graduate science students enrolled at colleges and universities in the United States are foreigners.#14 According to the Economic Policy Institute, the unemployment rate for college graduates younger than 25 years old was 9.3 percent in 2010.#15One-third of all college graduates end up taking jobs that don't even require college degrees.#16 In the United States today, over 18,000 parking lot attendants have college degrees.#17 In the United States today, 317,000 waiters and waitresses have college degrees.#18 In the United States today, approximately 365,000 cashiers have college degrees.#19 In the United States today, 24.5 percent of all retail salespersons have a college degree.#20 Once they get out into the "real world", 70% of college graduates wish that they had spent more time preparing for the "real world" while they were still in school.#21Approximately 14 percent of all students that graduate with student loan debt end up defaulting within 3 years of making their first student loan payment.http://www.citytowninfo.com/career-and-education-news/articles/georgetown-university-study-shows-a-bachelors-degree-in-stem-pays-off-11102002About 65 percent of individuals with bachelor's degrees in STEM subjects commanded greater salaries than those with master's degrees in non-STEM fields, according to a Georgetown press release. Likewise, 47 percent of college graduates with bachelor's degrees in STEM fields earn higher wages than those with doctoral degrees in non-STEM subjects.
Edu-Impact.Com: Growing Importance of Universities with Large, Growing EndowmentsRecently visited Yang building at StanfordOne of the greenest buildings on the planetBut if it does not evolve in 20 years it will not be the greenest buildingVisited supercomputers – we have two at IBM Almaden – there was a time they were in the top 100 supercomputers in the world – not any more ….So a Moore’s law of buildings is more than cutting waste in half every year, it is also about the amount of time it takes to structural replace the material with newer and more modern materials that provide benefits…
What are the largest and smallest service system entities that have the problem of interconnected systems?Holistic Service Systems like nations, states, cities, and universities – are all system of systems dealing with flows, development, and governance.=============\\Nations (~100)States/Provinces (~1000)Cities/Regions (~10,000)Educational Institutions (~100,000)Healthcare Institutions (~100,000)Other Enterprises (~10,000,000)Largest 2000>50% GDP WWFamilies/Households (~1B)Persons (~10B)Balance/ImproveQuality of Life, generation after generationGDP/CapitaQuality of ServiceCustomer ExperienceQuality of JobsEmployee ExperienceQuality of Investment-OpportunitiesOwner ExperienceEntrepreneurial ExperienceSustainabilityGDP/Energy-Unit% Fossil% RenewableGDP/Mass-Unit% New Inputs% Recycled Inputs
The Up-Skill CyclePeople flow through the system of entities… As they flow they are upskilled….Entities:Mature IBM Business Unit: From mature-business unitAcquired-IBM Business Unit: From IBM “acquired company” business unitUniversity: From university roleVenture: From venture that spun off from a universityOther: None of the aboveOne possible pathA long-time IBMer is in an IBM business unit doing, say “finance”The IBMer’s business unit receives the 5% annual budget cutThe IBMer moves to a new IBM acquisition to help the new acquisition adopt/learn IBM finance proceduresAfter that the IBMer moves to a university as an IBMer on CampusThe IBMer might work in a department/discipline, in the university incubator, or a university start-up, or even be a student at the universityEventually the IBMer signs up to be pat of a new venture that is spinning off from the universityThe new venture is aligned with IBM via HW, SW, or other IBM offerings/strategyIBM helps scale up the new venture globalIBM might decide to acquire the new ventureThe IBM in the acquired new venture helps the new venture become a high growth business unit of IBMAfter the new IBM business unit asymptotes on revenue and profit improves, it has become a mature business unitNow the IBMer is back in a mature business unit, and the cycle repeats…A long-time IBMer is in an IBM business unit doing, say “finance”The IBMer’s business unit receives the 5% annual budget cutTransitions:Self-loop IBMer stays in mature business unitIBMer transitions from mature business unit to a newly acquired IBM acquisitionIBMer transitions from mature business unit to a university roleIBMer transitions from mature business unit to a new venture that spun off from a universityIBMer transitions from mature business unit to an entity not mentioned above (some where else)
Big Data in business has grown over 60 years from ~10MB to 100PB or a billion times :MB -> GB -> TB –> PB All that Big Data from 1950 can easily be handled by one person’s smart phoneService science is now taught in over 500 universities that we know of and probably at least 2x more that we don’t know about…The number of service science conferences and service science related journals has also expanded
From IBM Christopher BishopGlobally interconnectedData from embedded devicesDriving new and evolving business models
From IBM Christopher Bishop
Data urban service science 20130617 v2
Data Science +Urban Science +Service Science =Smarter PlanetJim SpohrerDirector IBM University ProgramsJune 17, 2013
Sciences & Applied Arts• All sciences study systems– Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Information andComputer Science, Service Science, etc.• All applied arts change systems– Management, Engineering, Design Arts, PublicPolicy seek to apply rigorous scientific knowledgeto create better worlds to inhabit
Information & Computer Science• “The single strongest impulse for introducingcomputers on campuses in the mid-1950s didnot come from the schools themselves orfrom any federal agency, but instead fromIBM.”
Data Science• “Data science incorporates varying elementsand builds on techniques and theories frommany fields… with the goal of extractingmeaning from data and creating dataproducts.”
By 2020, 35 Zettabytes per year• What’s big today will look small in a decadeGoogle processes> 24 Petabytes of datain a single dayFacebook processes10 Terabytes of data everydayThe Hadron Collider at CERNgenerates 40 Terabytesof data / secFor every session, NY StockExchange captures 1 Terabyteof trade informationTwitter processes7 Terabytes of data every day250,000,000 tweets2 Billion Internet users in 2011By 2013, annual internet trafficwill reach 667 Exabytes
Urban Science• Urban science is an interdisciplinary field thatstudies diverse urban issues and problems
Service Science• The transdisciplinary study of service, theapplication of knowledge for mutual benefits(value co-creation phenomena), in an ecologyof interacting many-to-many, nested,networked viable service system entities.
IBM University Programs9Those in-the-know say, “IBM is helping to build a Smarter Planet…”
IBM University Programs10Smarter Planet = Smarter SystemsINSTRUMENTEDWe now have the ability tomeasure, sense and seethe exact condition ofpractically everything.INTERCONNECTEDPeople, systems and objectscan communicate andinteract with each other inentirely new ways.INTELLIGENTWe can respond to changesquickly and accurately,and get better resultsby predicting and optimizingfor future events.WORKFORCEPRODUCTSSUPPLY CHAINCOMMUNICATIONSTRANSPORTATION BUILDINGSIT NETWORKS
IBM University Programs11City challengesRyan Chin:Smart Cities
IBM University Programs12Smart Startup: Streetline
IBM University Programs17Four commandments for cities of the future: Eduardo Paes at TED2012
IBM University Programs18SC IOC as a Platform for Innovation
IBM University Programs1919 Identifies entrepreneurs developingbusinesses aligning with our Smarter Planetvision. SmartCamp finalists raised more than$50m and received significant press inWall Street Journal, Forbes andBloomberginHealthcare SmartCamp kickstart - Miami - May 15, 2012Apply by April 27thSmarterCities SmartCamp kickstart - New York - May 24, 2012Apply by May 3rdNorth America Regional SmartCamp - Boston - June 20 & 21, 2012Apply by May 25thapply now at www.ibm.com/isv/startup/smartcampExclusive Networking andMentoring eventNorth America SmartCamp lead: Eric Apse, email@example.comUniversity Programs lead: Dawn Tew, firstname.lastname@example.org
IBM University Programs20What are the trends?Digital ImmigrantBorn: 1988Graduated College: 2012Digital NativeBorn: 2012Enters College: 2030
IBM University Programs21Transportation: Self-driving carsSteve Mahan:Test “Driver”
IBM University Programs22Water: Circular Economy
IBM University Programs23Manufacturing: Circular EconomyRyan Chin:Urban MobilityBaxter: Building the FutureMaker-Bot: Replicator 2
IBM University Programs24Energy: Artificial Leaf
IBM University Programs25Technology: Cognitive Computing
IBM University Programs2626Example: Leading Through Connections with…Universities Collaborate with IBM Research to Design Watsonfor the Grand Challenge of Jeopardy !Assisted in the development of the OpenAdvancement of Question-Answering Initiative(OAQA) architecture and methodologyPioneered an online natural language questionanswering system called START, which provided theability to answer questions with high precision usinginformation from semi-structured and structuredinformation repositoriesWorked to extend thecapabilities of Watson, with afocus on extensive common senseknowledgeFocused on large-scaleinformation extraction,parsing, and knowledgeinference technologiesWorked on a visualization component to visuallyexplain to external audiences the massively parallelanalytics skills it takes for the Watson computingsystem to break down a question and formulate arapid and accurate response to rival a human brain Provided technological advancement enabling acomputing system to remember the full interaction,rather than treating every question like the first one -simulating a real dialogueExplored advanced machine learningtechniques along with rich textrepresentations based on syntactic andsemantic structures for the Watson’soptimizationWorked on information retrievaland text search technologieshttp://w3.ibm.com/news/w3news/top_stories/2011/02/chq_watson_wrapup.html
IBM University Programs27Buildings: Circular EconomyChina Broad Group:30 Stories in 15 Days
IBM University Programs28Retail & Hospitality: Social Media
IBM University Programs29Finance: Crowd Funding
IBM University Programs30Health: Robotics & 3D Printing
IBM University Programs31Education: Challenge-Based Sport
IBM University Programs32Government: Parameterized Meta-Rules• Innovativeness• Equity– Improveweakestlink• Sustainability• Resiliency
IBM University Programs33Competitive Parity – Achieved.• The NFL touts parity—the ideathat any team can win on anygiven Sunday. But this year,parity has truly run wild.• Through six weeks, 11 of theNFLs 32 teams are 3-3.• The Journal asked the statisticalgurus of Massey-PeabodyAnalytics to run a coin-flipsimulation…
IBM University Programs342030 and Beyond…. Government, Health, Education, Finance, etc.
Questions• What is ISSIP?• What is a service platform?• What is service science?• What is a T-shaped professional?• How is this related to your work at IBM with universities?• What are the important future trends you see?
IBM University Programs50Measuring Quality-of-Life?A. Systems that focus on flow of things that humans need (~15%*)1. Transportation & supply chain2. Water & waste recycling/Climate & Environment3. Food & products manufacturing4. Energy & electricity grid/Clean Tech5. Information and Communication Technologies (ICT access)B. Systems that focus on human activity and development (~70%*)6. Buildings & construction (smart spaces) (5%*)7. Retail & hospitality/Media & entertainment/Tourism & sports (23%*)8. Banking & finance/Business & consulting (wealthy) (21%*)9. Healthcare & family life (healthy) (10%*)10. Education & work life/Professions & entrepreneurship (wise) (9%*)C. Systems that focus on human governance - security and opportunity (~15%*)11. Cities & security for families and professionals (property tax)12. States/regions & commercial development opportunities/investments (sales tax)13. Nations/NGOs & citizens rights/rules/incentives/policies/laws (income tax)0/19/02/7/42/1/17/6/11/1/05/17/271/0/224/24/12/20/247/10/35/2/23/3/10/0/01/2/2Quality of Life = Quality of Service + Quality of Jobs + Quality of Investment-Opportunities* = US Labor % in 2009.“61 Service Design 2010 (Japan) / 75 Service Marketing 2010 (Portugal)/78 Service-Oriented Computing 2010 (US)”
IBM University Programs52NestingMatryoska dolls:Origin Japanese
IBM University Programs53I am nested in at least 10 systemsLevel AKA ~No. People ~No. Entities Example0. Individual Person 1 10,000,000,000 Jim1. Family Household 10 1,000,000,000 Spohrer’s2.Neighborhood Street 100 100,000,000 Kensington3. Community Block 1000 10,000,000 Bird Land4. Urban-Zone District 10,000 1,000,000 SC Unified5. Urban-Center City 100,0000 100,000 Santa Clara6.Metro-Region County 1,000,000 10,000 SC County7. State Province 10,000,000 1,000 CA8. Nation Country 100,000,000 100 USA9. Continent Union 1,000,000,000 10 NAFTA10. Planet World 10,000,000,000 1 UN
IBM University Programs54TimeECOLOGY~14BBig Bang(NaturalWorld)~10KCities(Human-MadeWorld)sun (energy)writing(symbols and scribes,stored memoryand knowledge)earth(molecules &stored energy)written laws(governance andstored control)bacteria(single-cell life)sponges(multi-cell life)money(governedtransportable valuestored value,“economic energy”)universities(knowledge workers)clams (neurons)trilobites (brains)printing press (books)steam engine (work)200Mbees (socialdivision-of-labor)60transistor(routinecognitive work)Evolution of Natural Systems & Service SystemsUnraveling the mystery of evolving hierarchical-complexity in new populations…To discover the world’s architectures and mechanisms for computing non-zero-sum
IBM University Programs55AutomobileTechnological Acceleration0 25 50 100 125 15075Years2550100TelephoneElectricityRadioTelevisionVCRPCCellular%PenetrationYEARS
IBM University Programs56•iPhone/iPad app developer•wireless marketing director•microfinance infrastructure designer•3D content developer for movies, TV•social network manager•deploying technology into the cloud•organic solar cell development•digital image managementMany top in-demand jobs in 2011 did not exist in 2005!56
IBM University Programs57 57U.S Department of Laborestimates that today’s learnerwill have 10-14 jobs…by the age of 38!
IBM University Programs58 Estimates are 85% of the jobs today’s learners will be doinghaven’t been invented yet theyll be using technologies that dont exist to solve problems we dont yet know are problems58
IBM University Programs59Five historical cycles …
IBM University Programs60~100 years of US job transformationsSource: US Bureau of Economic Analysis; McKinsey Global Institute Analysis