IIT Intro to Mainframe Technologies Lesson Plans
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  • 1. ILLINOIS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGYINTRODUCTION TO MAINFRAME TECHNOLOGY:COURSE AND LESSON PLANSITM 597: SPECIAL PROBLEM IN ITRAY TRYGSTADBYSEAN P. MCBRIDECHICAGO, IL17 NOVEMBER 2012AD MAIOREM DEI GLORIAM
  • 2. Table of ContentsCourse Outcomes......................................................................................................................3Lesson 1: What is a Mainframe? ..........................................................................................4Lesson 2: Mainframe Hardware and Clustering ............................................................6Lesson 3: z/OS Overview........................................................................................................7Lesson 4: z/OS User Interfaces.............................................................................................8Lesson 5: Working with Data Sets.......................................................................................9Lesson 6: Batch Processing, Job Entry Subsystem (JES), and Job ControlLanguage (JCL)........................................................................................................................ 10Lesson 7: z/OS Application Development..................................................................... 11Lesson 8: z/OS Application Development II................................................................. 13Lesson 9: z/OS Database Managers................................................................................. 14Lesson 10: z/OS Transaction Managers......................................................................... 15Lesson 11: z/OS HTTP and JEE Servers.......................................................................... 16Lesson 12: Mainframes and Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA)...................... 17Lesson 13: System Programming..................................................................................... 18Lesson 14: z/OS Networking and Security.................................................................... 19Lesson 15: Final Exam.......................................................................................................... 20
  • 3. Course OutcomesAt the end of this course, you will be able toExplain the function of the mainframe, z/OS, and the major z/OS subsystemsin a modern heterogeneous data centerUse the TSO/E, ISPF, and UNIX interfaces for basic mainframe systemsprogramming and application programming taskApply the skills attained from other ITM courses (Java development, TCP/IPnetwork administration, UNIX/Linux administration, security management,etc.) in the mainframe domainPursue follow-on self-study using the IBM Master the Mainframe Contest andthe System z Mastery Certification Exam
  • 4. Lesson 1: What is a Mainframe?Outcome: Be able what a mainframe is to a non-technical person in two minutes.ObjectivesDefine the term mainframe (Knowledge)Explain how businesses make use of mainframe processing power, thetypical uses of mainframes, and how mainframe computing differs fromother types of computing (Comprehension)Identify the major types of workloads for which mainframes are best suited(Comprehension)Name five jobs or responsibilities that are related to mainframe computing(Knowledge)Identify, distinguish, and explainthe five mainframe operating systems(Comprehension)ReadingsRead The Economist, “Old dog, new tricks” athttp://www.economist.com/blogs/schumpeter/2012/09/ibms-mainframesRead “The Path Less Traveled: Recent grad finds a new IT career on themainframe” at http://destinationz.org/Academia/Articles/Recent-Grad-Finds-a-New-IT-Career-on-the-Mainframe.aspxRead “The Age of the Mainframe” by Compuwarehttp://insidetechtalk.com/mainframehistory/Read “System 360 Revolution”Read What on Earth is a Mainframe, chapter 1Read Intro to the New Mainframe, chapter 1Study QuestionsWhat is a mainframe today? How did the term arise? Is it still appropriate?(Knowledge)Why is it important to maintain system compatibility for older applications?Why not simply change existing application programming interfaceswhenever improved interfaces become available? (Comprehension)Can you find examples of mainframe use in your everyday experiences?Describe them and the extent to which mainframe processing is apparent tousers. Examples might include the following:o Popular websites that rely on mainframe technology as the back-endserver to support online transactions and databases.o Multi tiered applications that interface with mainframe resources.o Mainframes used in your locality. These might include banks andfinancial centers, major retailers, transportation hubs, and the healthand medical industries. (Application)
  • 5. [Grad Student] Why might organizations be concerned about a futureshortage of mainframe professionals? Why has such a shortage occurred?What does this mean for organizations that rely on mainframe technologiesand IT professionals considering specializing in the mainframe? (Analysis)ExerciseRecord a video between 90 and 120 seconds where you explain what amainframe is to a person that has never heard of the technology before. Postthe video to YouTube and e-mail the professor a link to the video no laterthan [the Sunday before the third lecture at Midnight]
  • 6. Lesson 2: Mainframe Hardware and ClusteringOutcome: Be able to explain how mainframe hardware design reflects a distinctarchitectural style of computingObjectivesIdentify the unique features of System/360 and IBM System z hardwaredesign (Comprehension)Define the term channel (Knowledge)Explain the purpose of the channel subsystem (Comprehension)Explain the different types of specialty processors and distinguish theirfunctionality from general processors (Comprehension)Name the dominantcharacter-encoding scheme onmainframes (Knowledge)and explain how these sorts of systems can successfully communicate withcomputers with differing character encoding schemes (Comprehension)Define Parallel Sysplex (Knowledge) and explain how this technology can beused toachieve continuous availability Comprehension)Define dynamic workload balancing (Knowledge)Define the concept of a single system image (Knowledge)Define z/Enterprise (Knowledge) and distinguish it from traditionalz/Architecture (Comprehension)ReadingsRead What on Earth is a Mainframe, chapter 2Read Intro to the New Mainframe, chapter 2Study QuestionsWhat is a channel? (Knowledge)What are the advantages of having a dedicated channel subsystem?(Comprehension)What is the mainframe technology that allows forhardware levelpartitioning? (Knowledge) What is the function of this technology?(Comprehension)What is the mainframe technology used for software level virtualization?(Knowledge) Under which circumstances would an IT organization usesoftware virtualization rather than hardware virtualization?(Comprehension)What are specialty processors? (Why would someone want to run aprocessor at sub-capacity? How does this relate to software pricing(Comprehension)What is z/Enterprise? How does this depart from traditional z/Architecture?What is the utility of this sort of hybrid system? (Comprehension)[Grad Students] How does Parallel Sysplex technology compare to clusteringtechnology in distributed systems? (Analysis)
  • 7. Lesson 3: z/OS OverviewOutcome: Be able to articulate how z/OS differs from other sorts of serveroperating systems and be able to connect to z/OS using a 3270 Terminal EmulatorObjectivesList several defining characteristics of the z/OS operating system(Knowledge)Recognize why z/OS has been more evolutionary than other computeroperating systems (Knowledge)Give examples of how z/OS differs from a single-user operating system(ComprehensionExplain the concept of virtual storage and its use in z/OS (Comprehension)State the relationship between pages, frames, and slots (Knowledge)Explain the purpose of the z/OS Workload Manager (Comprehension)ReadingsRead What on Earth is a Mainframe, chapter 3Read Intro to the New Mainframe, chapter 3Study QuestionsHow does z/OS differ from a single-user operating system? (Comprehension)What is the purpose of virtual storage? (Knowledge)What role does workload management play in a z/OS system?(Comprehension)What is the relationship between Operating System/360 and the modernz/OS? Why do you think this differ so much from the evolution of theMicrosoft operating systems? (Knowledge)[Grad Student] Why do companies have to purchase additional software ontop of the base z/OS operating system to have a complete system? Why notsimply include all of the software with the operating system? Was there evera time when IBM bundled all of this software together? (Analysis)ExercisesComplete IIT Mainframe Lab One
  • 8. Lesson 4: z/OS User InterfacesOutcome: Understand the different ways that users interact with z/OS and be ableto perform basic tasks on TSO/E, ISPF, and UNIXObjectivesIdentify the different methods of interacting with z/OS (Knowledge) anddistinguish the appropriate interface for various use cases (Comprehension)Use the traditional TSO READY prompt to execute several basic TSO/Ecommands (Application)Use the pseudo-graphical ISPF interface (Application)Use the UNIX interface on z/OS, including the z/OS UNIX command shell andthe ISPF-based interface (Application)ReadingsRead What On Earth is a Mainframe section entitled “The 3270 Terminal –Your Windows to the Mainframe,” pages 65-67Read Intro to the New Mainframe, chapter 4Read “Rational Developer for z/OS: A New Paradigm for MainframeDevelopment” at http://enterprisesystemsmedia.com/article/rational-developer-for-z-os-a-new-paradigm-for-mainframe-developmentRead “z/OSMF Simplifies System Management” athttp://enterprisesystemsmedia.com/article/z-osmf-simplifies-system-managementStudy QuestionsIf you need help with an ISPF panel, what should you first attempt?(Knowledge)Most mainframers use the pseudo-graphical ISPF for most tasks. Under whatcircumstances would mainframers use TSO commands? (Comprehension)What are the advantages and disadvantages of the z/OSMF interface over thetraditional x3270 “green screen” interface? Do you think that z/OSMF willreplace “green screens?” Why or why not? Why do you think that so fewmainframe organizations have z/OSMF installed? (Analysis)[Grad Student] Why did IBM integrate UNIX into the mainframe OS? How didthis change the trajectory of mainframe technology? (Analysis)ExercisesComplete IIT Mainframe Lab Two
  • 9. Lesson 5: Working with Data SetsOutcome: Employ ISPF facilities to locate, create, and edit z/OS data setsObjectivesExplain the concept of a data set (Comprehension)Identify different types of data sets (Knowledge)Describe data set naming conventions and record formats (Comprehension)List some access methods for managing data and programs (Knowledge)Explain what catalogs and VTOCs are used for (Comprehension)Create, delete, and modify data sets (Application)Explain the differences between UNIX file systems and z/OS data sets.(Comprehension)Describe the z/OS UNIX file systems use of data sets. (Comprehension)ReadingsReview What on Earth is a Mainframe “z/OS Files are Weird,” pages 51-52.Read Intro to the New Mainframe, chapter 5Study QuestionsWhat is a data set? (Comprehension) What types of data sets are used onz/OS? (Knowledge)Why do data set names need to be unique in z/OS? (Comprehension)What is the purpose of a Partitioned Data Set (PDS)? (Knowledge)Do application programs use libraries? Why or why not? (Comprehension)What information about a data set is stored in a catalog? What DD operandswould be required if a data set were not in the catalog? (Comprehension)What is the difference between the master catalog and a user catalog?(Knowledge)
  • 10. Lesson 6: Batch Processing, Job Entry Subsystem (JES), and JobControl Language (JCL)Outcome: Construct and use JCL to submit batch workloads to JES and check theoutput of those jobs using SDSFObjectivesExplain how JES governs the flow of work through a z/OS system(Comprehension)Explain the functionality of the most commonly used JCL keywords(Comprehension)Explain the relationship between a data set name, a JCL DD name, and the filename within a program. (Comprehension)Create a simple job and submit it for execution (Application)Use the System Display and Search Facility (SDSF) to check the output of abatch job (Application)Explain the concept of batch processing and how work is initiated andmanaged in the system (Comprehension)Identify the sorts of workloads best suited for batch processing (Knowledge)ReadingsRead Intro to the New Mainframe, chapters 6 and 7Study QuestionsWhat is batch processing? (Comprehension)Why does z/OS need a Job Entry Subsystem (JES)? (Comprehension)What does the acronym SPOOL stand for? How does this relate to batchprocessing? (Knowledge)What are some of the jobs performed by an initiator? (Knowledge)What is the functionality of the JOB, EXEC, and DD statements in JCL?(Knowledge)WhatisthedifferencebetweenJCLandaJCLPROC? What is the benefit of using aJCL PROC? (Comprehension)[Grad Student] How has globalization and the rise of online commerceimpacted the idea of a batch window? (Analysis)ExercisesComplete IIT Mainframe Lab Three
  • 11. Lesson 7: z/OS Application DevelopmentOutcome:Use ISPF to develop and run basic mainframe programs using JCL, C,REXX, and JavaObjectivesList several common programming languages for z/OS (Knowledge)Compare and contrast high level languages and Assembler (Analysis)Explain the relationship between a data set name, a DD name, and the filename within a program (Comprehension)Explain how the use of z/OS Language Environment affects the decisionsmade by the application designer (Comprehension)Explain the purpose of a compiler and a link-editor (Comprehension)Write, compile, link-edit, and execute a simple program on z/OS(Application)ReadingsRead What on Earth is a Mainframe, chapter 6Read Intro to the New Mainframe, chapters 9 and 10Study QuestionsWhy does IBM continue to enhance the COBOL and PL/I compilers?(Comprehension)What role do interpreted languages, such as CLISTs and REXX, play inmainframe development and operations? (Comprehension)What is an HLL? What are some of the advantages of writing in an HLL versusAssembler language? Why might it be better to write a program in Assemblerlanguage? (Knowledge)How doprograms written in one language call programs written in anotherlanguage? Why would you want to have this capability? (Comprehension)What does a developer have to do to be able to execute COBOL source code?What about Assembler source code? What about Java source code?(Knowledge)What is the purpose of a procedure library?What is the difference between a linkage editor and a binder?(Comprehension)How are copybooks and cataloged procedure libraries similar? (Knowledge)What is the purpose of a compiler? What are the inputs and outputs?(Knowledge)What is the difference between an object deck and a load module?(Knowledge)What are the advantages and disadvantages of using Java on the mainframe?How might Java be used for batch processing? (Analysis)
  • 12. [Grad Student] Many of the oldest programs on the mainframe are written inAssembler. Why might this be a problem? What actions would you take ifyou were responsible for these programs? (Analysis)ExercisesComplete IIT Mainframe Lab Four
  • 13. Lesson 8: z/OS Application Development IIUse this time to complete IIT Mainframe Lab Four
  • 14. Lesson 9: z/OS Database ManagersOutcome: Explain the mainframe’s architectural advantages for running largedatabases and use SPUFI to enter and execute simple SQL commands on z/OSObjectivesExplain the two database models found on the mainframe and identify themost commonly-use software implementations of these models(Comprehension)Explain the advantages of the mainframe architecture for large-scaledatabases (Comprehension)Explain why legacy mainframe applications may not be using a standardizeddatabase manager (Comprehension)Use the SQL Processing Using File Input to enter and execute simple SQLqueries on z/OS (Application)Identify the sorts of workloads best suited for IMS (Knowledge)Describe the structure of the IMS DB subsystem (Comprehension)ReadingsRead What on Earth is a Mainframe, chapter 5Read Intro to the New Mainframe, chapter 12Study QuestionsWhat are the advantages of using an Off-The-Shelf database manager? Whatsorts of problems would you expect from a legacy mainframe app thatinternally processes and stores data using VSAM files? (Comprehension)How does the hierarchical model of IMS differ from the relational model ofDB2? (Comprehension)What aspects of the mainframe paradigm make System z and z/OS a superiordatabase platform to x86 and RISC-based systems? (Analysis)[Grad Student] Is Oracle available on the mainframe? Is it available on z/OS?If not, how do customers typically run Oracle on the mainframe? How do thedynamics of IBM-Oracle relationship affect how customers use Oracle on themainframe? (Analysis)
  • 15. Lesson 10: z/OS Transaction ManagersOutcome: Explain the conObjectivesDefine the term “transaction” and identify the typical requirements of atransaction management system (Comprehension)List the attributes common to most transaction systems (Knowledge)Explain the role of CICS in online transaction processing (Comprehension)Describe CICS programs, CICS transactions, and CICS tasks (Comprehension)Explain what the term web enabling means with regards to legacy CICS apps.(Comprehension)Discuss the components of the IMS transaction manager. (Comprehension)ReadingsRead Intro to the New Mainframe, chapter 11Study QuestionsWhat are the defining characteristics of a transaction? (Comprehension)What does the mnemonic ACID mean? (Knowledge)What role does a sync point manager have in a two-phase commit?(Knowledge)What are five activities that you regularly do that directly or indirectly relyon CICS in some form? (Analysis)How do you define resources in CICS? (Knowledge)What are the major components of IMS, and what are their tasks?(Knowledge)[Grad Student] How could a company connect a front-end Microsoft .NETapplication to a back-end CICS application? (Analysis)[Grad Student] Why are multitasking and multithreading important to onlinetransaction processing? (Analysis)
  • 16. Lesson 11: z/OS HTTP and JEE ServersObjectivesExplain the functionality of the z/OS HTTP Server (Comprehension)Explain thepurpose of a JEE server such as WebSphere Application Server(Comprehension)Explain the reasons that an organization might choose to run WebSphereApplication Server under z/OS (Analysis)Explain how WAS can connect to the CICS, DB2, and IMS subsystems in z/OS(Knowledge)ReadingsRead Intro to the New Mainframe, chapters 13 and 14Study QuestionsWhat are the three modes that the z/OS HTTP Server can run in?(Knowledge)What is the purpose of the WAS plugin for the z/OS HTTP Server?(Knowledge)What are at least three reasons for running WebSphere Application Serverunder z/OS? (Comprehension)Name the WAS connectors for DB2, CICS, and IMS (Knowledge)How is the architecture of browsers accessing rich JEE applications on themainframe similar to the teleprocessing architecture of “dummy” terminalsaccessing 3270 apps such as TSO? How is it different? (Analysis)[Grad Student] What is the Liberty Profile? How does this relate to WAS forz/OS? How does this relate to CICS? (Analysis)
  • 17. Lesson 12: Mainframes and Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA)ObjectivesExplain the concepts of messaging handing and queuing (Comprehension)Describe the asynchronous flow of messages (Comprehension)Explain the function of a queue manager (Comprehension)List three z/OS-related adapters for MQ (Knowledge)Define Service-Oriented Architecture (Knowledge)Define an Enterprise Service Bus and identify the dominant ESB on z/OS(Knowledge)ReadingsRead What on Earth is a Mainframe, pages 76-80Read Intro to the New Mainframe, chapter 15Watch the YouTube video “WAS Liberty Profile and MQTT on a Raspberry Picontrolling a house 50 miles away” athttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rH_SmgmyVUoRead The Value of IBM System z and z/OS in Service-Oriented Architecture,chapters 1 and 2. Available athttp://www.redbooks.ibm.com/abstracts/redp4152.htmlStudy QuestionsWhy would a company use messaging and queuing between heterogeneousplatforms instead of direct communication via TCP/IP or other standardtransport protocols? (Comprehension)What are the differences between WebSphere MQ and SOAP and RESTfulinterfaces? (Comprehension)Why has WebSphere MQ become such a dominant middleware product?(Knowledge)What are the advantages of a loosely coupled system such as Service-Oriented Architecture? (Comprehension)What is the role of an Enterprise Service Bus (ESB) in a Service-OrientedArchitecture (SOA)?(Comprehension)AfterService-Oriented Architecture has been implemented, how do serviceswriting in COBOL running CICS on a mainframe communicate with a .NETservice running on Windows Server on x86? (Analysis)[Grad Student] What do you think would be the biggest challengesimplementing SOA on a mainframe? (Analysis)
  • 18. Lesson 13: System ProgrammingObjectivesDiscuss the responsibilities of a z/OS system programmer (Comprehension)Explain system libraries, their use, and methods for managing their content(Comprehension)List the different types of operator consoles (Knowledge)Describe the process of performing an IPL of a system (Comprehension)Explain the concept of system modifications (Comprehension)Explain how SMP/E can help you install and maintain products, and monitorchanges to products (Comprehension)ReadingsRead What on Earth is a Mainframe, chapter 8Read Intro to the New Mainframe, chapters 16 and 17Study QuestionsWhat are the responsibilities of a systems programmer? What is this roletypically called outside of a mainframe context? (Knowledge)What is the function of the master scheduler subsystem? (Knowledge)What are the different types of operator consoles? Why are consoleoperations often automated? (Comprehension)What occurs during an IPL of z/OS?What sorts of tasks require a mainframe to be re-IPLed? (Knowledge)What are the three types of IPLs? (Knowledge)What purpose does SMP/E serve in a z/OS system? (Knowledge)What are the four types of SYSMODs? How are they different?(Comprehension)[Grad Student] What is the importance of an orderly change managementprocess in a large systems enterprise? (Analysis)ExercisesComplete IIT Mainframe Lab Five
  • 19. Lesson 14: z/OS Networking and SecurityObjectivesExplain the concept of a security manager and how it interfaces with theoperating system (Comprehension)Explain the concept of risk assessments and security policies(Comprehension)Explain how security policies are implemented on a mainframe system(Comprehension)Explain how the SNA networking model differs from the TCP/IP model(Comprehension)Explain how TCP/IP is used to transport data between SNA applications(Comprehension)Define Virtual Telecommunication Access Method (VTAM) (Knowledge)ReadingsRead What on Earth is a Mainframe, pages 65-75Read Intro to the New Mainframe, chapters 18 and 17Study QuestionsWhy is a security manager important for a mainframe system? What does itactually do? (Comprehension)What different security managers are available for mainframes? Why wouldsomeone pick one over the other? (Knowledge)What components are common between the SNA and TCP/IP networklayers? (Knowledge)Does a business need to rewrite SNA business applications to web-enable theapplication? (Analysis)What is the difference between an SNA subarea network and APPN topology?(Knowledge)[Grad Student] How does the concept of “security by obscurity” impact z/OSapplications? Is this a good or bad thing? (Analysis)ExercisesComplete IIT Mainframe Lab Five
  • 20. Lesson 15: Final ExamComplete and Submit the Final Exam to the instructor.