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Bio diesel

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  • 1. BIO-DIESEL30/05/2006 Inglês II 1
  • 2. What is Bio-Diesel? • Bio-Diesel is a biodegradable and non-toxic alternative fuel produced from new or used vegetable oil that is produced from renewable vegetable resources, like: soy bean, olive, palm tree, peanut, etc. • And the best of all, It can be used in any Diesel engine without modification.30/05/2006 Inglês II 2
  • 3. We can make our own Bio-Diesel? • Anybody can make bio-diesel. Its easy and its better than the petro-diesel fuel. Its much cleaner, better for the environment and better for health. If we make it from used cooking oil its not only cheap but youll be recycling a troublesome waste product. Heres how we can do it.30/05/2006 Inglês II 3
  • 4. First stage 1) Filter the oil; 2) Remove the water from the oil by heating the oil to 60 deg C, maintain the temperature for 15 minutes and then put the oil into a settling tank for at least 24 hours. Make sure you never empty the settling tank more than 90%; 3) Measure the volume of oil to be processed; 4) Heat the oil to 35 deg C to make sure that all solid fats are melted; 5) Measure 0.08 litres of methanol (use only 99%+ pure) for each litre of oil and add to the heated oil; 6) Mix for five minutes;30/05/2006 Inglês II 4
  • 5. First stage 7) For each litre of oil add 1 millilitre of 95% sulphuric acid; 8) Mix gently at low speed while keeping the temperature at 35 deg C for one hour, then stop heating; 9) Continue to stir the unheated mixture for another hour and then stop stirring. Let the mixture sit for at least eight hours; 10) In the meantime prepare the sodium methoxide: measure 0.12 litre of methanol for each litre of oil and weigh 3.1 grams (up to 3.5 grams if purity is in doubt) of sodium hydroxide lye per litre of oil. Mix the sodium hydroxide lye into the methanol until is completely dissolved; 11) After settling for eight hours, put half of the prepared methoxide into the unheated mixture and mix for five minutes;30/05/2006 Inglês II 5
  • 6. Second stage 12) Heat the mixture to 55 deg C and maintain for the whole reaction; 13) Add the second half of the prepared sodium methoxide to the heated mixture and start mixing at the same low speed for about 1.5 to 2.5 hours. (note: take regular samples in to a glass container and check if stays yellow colour, when this colour is reached turn the heat and mixer off); 14) Allow to settle for one hour; 15) Drain off the glycerine;30/05/2006 Inglês II 6
  • 7. Third stage “Washing” 16) Add one-third the volume of water as the amount of biodiesel to be washed, and start the bubble-wash (regular air pump) and let it bubble for 24 hours minimum; 17) Remove the water and use ordinary litmus paper to see the rough pH level (acidity/alkalinity). The end result should be neutral (pH7). 18) Let the bio-diesel stand for about three weeks and use only when it becomes crystal clear. If you want quicker results, heat the bio-diesel to 45 deg C and let it cool. (note: a deposit may form in the bottom during settling, dont let it get in your fuel tank.)30/05/2006 Inglês II 7
  • 8. Examples of Bio-Diesel processors30/05/2006 Inglês II 8
  • 9. Conclusion • “As a society, we will use up our fossil fuels much sooner than we will transcend towards a healthy raw food diet; fried foods and waste vegetable oil are not a scarcity. There is also a huge transformation that happens when you are in control of your own fuel and energy needs. Being able to harness ones own energy in a sustainable manner is one of the best things we can do to support our fragile planet.”30/05/2006 Inglês II 9
  • 10. End Work elaborated by: • Sérgio Paulo Lopes da Rocha Engineering of Production and Industrial Maintenance - 1º Year30/05/2006 Inglês II 10