Biology 101 power point presentation on monarch butterflies
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The Life of the Monarch Butterfly

The Life of the Monarch Butterfly

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Biology 101 power point presentation on monarch butterflies Presentation Transcript

  • 1. The Life of the Monarch Butterflyby Stephanie Pitts (Stein, 2007)
  • 2. The Monarch butterfly is a stunningspecies with many people following themduring their lives. They exhibit a certainbeauty throughout all of their life stagesand their migration is fascinating to mosteveryone that studies them.The fact that their numbers aredecreasing has scientists, gardeners, andwildlife enthusiasts concerned andlooking for ways to preserve theseamazing creatures.Here we’ll take a closer look at the life ofthe Monarch butterfly.
  • 3. ClassificationKingdom Animalia (Animals)Phylum Arthropoda (Arthropods)Class Insecta (Insects)Order Lepidoptera (Butterflies andMoths)Superfamily Papilionoidea (Butterflies(excluding skippers))Family Nymphalidae (BrushfootedButterflies)Subfamily Danainae (MilkweedButterflies & Glasswings)Tribe Danaini (Milkweed Butterflies) (Sherri.VandenAkker, 2010)Genus DanausSpecies plexippus (Monarch)(www.bugguide.net)
  • 4. Identifying Monarch Butterflies Monarch MonarchLarge, no tailsAbove and Below:Orange with black linedveins; black border with (White, 2006)small white spots;hindwings have no Viceroyhorizontal bar crossingthe veins (as in Viceroy)(Stokes 33). (Mazur, 2009)
  • 5. Identifying Male and Female Butterflies Female Butterfly  Male Butterfly  Thick vein pigmentation  Thin vein pigmentation  No hindwing pouches  Swollen pouches on the (www.monarchwatch.org) hindwings (www.monarchwatch.org) (TexasEagle, 2010) (TexasEagle, 2010)
  • 6. Butter fly sex is not as elegant an af fair as you might think . It seems that male monarch butter flies conduct an all -out sperm war based on a crude M measure of how much sperm is stored inside a female from a previous mating.During sex the males physically restrain the females A T for an entire day while injecting them with a fluid which contains fer tile sperm as well as seemingly functionless cells without nuclei (NEW SCIENTIST). I N G (Jason Pier in DC, 2009)
  • 7. Egg FourAdult life Larva stages Pupa
  • 8. EGG Egg (3-4 days) The eggs hatch about four days after they are laid. Approximate dimensions : 1 .2mm high; 0.9mm wide (www.monarchwatch.org). Each mother has roughly 200 eggs to deposit, and optimally, the eggs should be laid separately, among a number of milkweed plants, as a protection against sibling cannibalism (Kostyal). (Samuel, 2011)
  • 9. LARVA (CATERPILLAR) Lar va (Caterpillar; 10 -14 days) It is during this stage that Monarchs do all of their growing. They begin life by eating their eggshell, and then move on to the plant on which they were laid (www.monarchwatch.org ). When the caterpillar has become too large for its skin, it molts, or sheds its skin. At fir st, the new skin is ver y sof t, and provides little suppor t or protection. The new skin soon (Sherri.VandenAkker, 2010) hardens and molds itself to the caterpillar, which of ten eats the shed skin before star ting in anew on plant food! The inter vals between molts are called instar s. Monarchs go through five instars. Approximate length of body at each stage: 1st instar, 2 -6mm; 2nd instar, 6 - 9mm; 3rd instar, 10 -14mm; 4th instar, 13 - 25mm; 5th instar, 25-45mm (www.monarchwatch.org ). (puuikibeach, 2010)
  • 10. PUPA (CHRYSALIS) Pupa (Chr ysalis; 10 -14 days) During the pupal stage the transformation from lar va to adult is completed. Pupae are much less mobile than lar vae or adults, but they of ten exhibit sudden movements if they are disturbed. Like other butter flies, Monarch pupae are well -camouflaged, since they have no other means of defense against predator s (www.monarchwatch.org ). (puuikibeach, 2010) (puuikibeach, 2011)
  • 11. ADULT (BUTTERFLY) They emerge as beautifully colored, black-orange-and-white adults. The color ful pattern makes monarchs easy to identify—and thats the idea. The distinctive pattern warns predator s that the insects are foul tasting and poisonous (LaBar, 2006) (www.nationalgeographic.com). No growth occur s in the adult stage, but Monarchs need to obtain nourishment to maintain their body and fuel it for flight . (www.monarchwatch.org). The primar y job of the adult stage is to reproduce - to mate and lay the eggs that will become the next generation . (www.monarchwatch.org).
  • 12. Life expectancy Monarch development from egg to adult is completed in about 30 days. ( w w w.monarc hwatc h.org ). To p u t a t r u e a v e r a g e o n t h e l i f e s p a n o f a m o n a r c h b u t t e r f l y ,you would literally have to go all over the world. The answer is dif ferent all over and if you really want to know the full lifes p a n o f a m o n a rc h b u t te r fl y, yo u w i l l d e f i n ite l y h av e to d o yo u rresearch into the monarchs that live in your area of the world. In the USA, adult monarchs live 2 -6 weeks if they are in the fi r st 3 g e n e r ations o f b u t te r fli e s i n t h e ye a r. T h e 4 t hgeneration can live up to eight months because they have to do a l o n g m i g r a t io n ( w w w. m o n a rc h - b u t te r f ly. c o m ) .
  • 13. FOOD FOR CATERPILLARSAlthough the adult feeds on a vastrange of plants, the caterpillar dependssolely on milkweed (Baran).Since the plant’s milky essence, itslatex, is full of glycosides that arepoisonous to other animals, themilkweed-sated monarchs areunpalatable to most predators(Kostyal).
  • 14. FOOD FOR BUTTERFLIES Nectar from flowers, which is about 20% sugar, provides most of theiradult food. Monarchs are not very picky about the source of theirnectar, and will visit many different flowers. They use their vision tofind flowers, but once they land on a potential food source, they usetaste receptors on their feet to find the nectar(www.monarchwatch.org). Examples of Plants Monarchs Enjoy:Blue Cardinal Flower, Bloodflower, Brazilian Verbena, ButterflyBush, Butterfly Weed, Common Milkweed, Globe Amaranth, HeathAster, Heliotrope, Joe-Pye Weed, Lantana, Late-flowering Boneset,Marigold, Mist Flower, Mustard Greens, New England Aster, NewYork Ironweed, Oriental Lilies, Showy Coneflower, Smooth Aster,Swamp Milkweed, Tithonia (Mexican Sunflower), Wingstem, Zinnia(The Butterfly Site.com).
  • 15. MIGRATION There are two Monarch populations in North America. A w e s te r n p o p ul a t i o n l i v e s w e s t o f t h e Ro c k i e s a n d o v e r w i n te r s a l o n g t h e m i d - C a l i fo r n i a c o a s t - m o s t f a m o u s l y i n P a c i fi c G r o v e , o n M o n te r ey B ay ( Ko s t ya l ) . A m u c h l a r g e r e a s te r n p o p u l a t i o n g r a c e s the springs, summers, and early falls of t h e A m e r i c a n p l a i n s a n d t h e E a s t ( Ko s t ya l ) .  With the sun as a compass and the Earth’s magnetic field as a navigational tool, the butterflies unerringly return to a small sweep of forest in Michoacan, a daunting 2,000 miles away (Kostyal).  Not too hot or too cold, the temperatures in the Mexican winter forests are just right for the monarchs during their months of dormancy (Kostyal). (oceandesetoiles, 2011)
  • 16. THREATS & SOLUTIONS Logging Lack of Host Plants Loss of Habitat Due to Pests
  • 17. T H E M O N A R C H B U T T E R F LY B I O S P H E R E R E S E RV E I SL O C AT E D I N T H E N E O V O L C A NI C M O U N TA I N R A N G E O F LC E N T R A L M E X I C O . I T I S O N LY H E R E , I N P I N E A N D F I RF O R E S T S O F C E N T R A L M E X I C O , T H AT T H E M O N A R C HB U T T E R F LY ( D A N A U S P L E X I P P U S ) F I N D S T H E P R E C I S EM I C R O C L I MATI C C O N D I T I O N S N E C E S S A RY TO S U RV I V E OT H E W I N T E R ( H O N E Y- ROS É S ).I N F E B R U A RY 2 0 0 4 , A M A S S I V E L O G G I N G O P E R AT I O N O FMORE THAN 100 TRUCKS RAIDED THE CHINCUA GM O U N TA I N O F T H E M O N A R C H B U T T E R F LY B I O S P H E R ER E S E RV E . PA R K M A N A G E R S WAT C H E D H E L P L E S S LY A ST R U C K S L O A D E D W I T H T I M B E R R O L L E D PA S T T H ER A N G E R S TAT I O N A N D O U T T H E V I S I TO R E N T R A N C E( H O N E Y- ROS É S ) .A S PA RT O F T H E A G R E E M E N T TO E N L A R G E T H E GB I O S P H E R E R E S E RV E , F O R E S T O W N E R S E X C H A N G E DL O G G I N G R I G H T S F O R A N N U A L PAY M E N T S F R O M T H EM O N A R C H B U T T E R F LY C O N S E RVAT I O N F U N D , A U S $ 6 . 5M I L L I O N C A P I TA L F U N D M A N A G E D B Y W O R L D W I L D L IF E IFUND MEXICO AND THE MEXICAN FUND FOR THEC O N S E RVAT I O N O F N AT U R E ( H O N E Y- RO S É S ) .I N R E S P O N S E TO T H E O R G A N I Z E D I L L E G A L L O G G I N G , N GC O M M U N I T Y L E A D E R S N E A R T H E B I O S P H E R E R E S E RV EH AV E E N L I S T E D V O L U N TA RY B R I G A D E S TO PAT R O L T H EF O R E S T D AY A N D N I G H T. W H E N A L O G G I N G O P E R AT I O NIS SUSPECTED, THESE BRIGADES CAMP IN THEF O R E S T, A R M E D A N D R E A D Y TO C O N F R O N T I N T R U D E R S( H O N E Y- ROS É S ) .
  • 18. LACK OF HOST PLANTS Common milkweed, Aspecias syriaca, which the monarchs prefer, has declined dramatically in recent decades, a victim of herbicides sprayed across farm fields, particularly the Midwest, and human (Levisay, 2010) development, which has eliminated open fields where milkweed thrives (Kosty al). Because lawns are becoming more manicured, there is more grass and decorative foreign plants, and less natural (Jpoyston,2010) habitat with native plants for butter flies to thrive. (Gorman, 2010)
  • 19. LOSS OF HABITAT DUE TO PESTS I n 2 0 0 9 , t h e i n f e s t a t io n o f b a r k b e et l e s c a u s e d t h e l o s s o f m a ny t r e e s i n a s a n c t ua r y w h e r e t h e b u t te r fl ie s w i n ter. B a r k b e e t le s h a v e e x i s te d f o r s o m e t i m e i n t h e m o n a rc h r e s er v e , u s u a l ly a t t a c k in g o n l y a h a n d f ul o f t r e e s a t a ny o n e t i m e . B u t d r o ug h t e a r l i e r t h i s y e a r w e a ke n e d a s m a ny a s 9 , 0 0 0 o y a m e l f i r s , a l l o w i n g t h e b e et l e s t o b u r row i n a n d t a p t h e t r e e s ’ n u t r ie n t s ( E a r t h we e k ) . P e s t ic i d e s w o u l d b e t h e m o s t e f f e c t iv e w ay t o e r a d ic a te t h e b e et l e s , a c c o r d i n g t o b i o l o g i s t s , b u t t h ey w o ul d a l s o k i l l t h e b u t ter f li e s i f t h e w i n g e d i n s e c t s a r r i ve d s o o n a f t e r t h e i n s e c t ic i d e s w e r e a p p l ie d ( E a r t h we e k ) . . S o p a r k o f f ic i a ls a r e f i g h t i n g t h e i n f e s t a t i o n o n a t r e e - b y - t r e e b a s i s . B a r k i s r e m ov e d f r o m t h e f e l l e d t r e e s a n d b u r ie d . T h e r e m a in i n g w o o d i s b e i n g t a ke n a w ay t o p r ev e n t t h e b e et l e s f r o m s p r e a d i n g ( E a r t h we e k ) .. T h e f o r e s t c a n o py i s c r i t ic a l t o s h e l te r i ng t h e m o n a rc h s f r o m f r e e z in g r a i n a n d c o l d h i g h - a l t it ud e n i g h t s d u r i n g t h e i r f i v e - m o n t h w i n te r s t ay ( E a r t h we e k ). (Emma T photography, 2011) .
  • 20. How You Can Help  CONSIDER ADDING MONARCH CATERPILLAR HOST PLANTS TO YOUR GARDEN FILL YOUR GARDEN WITH NECTAR PLANTS THE ADULT BUTTERFLIES ENJOY  DISCONTINUE USE OF GARDEN PESTICIDES
  • 21. Works Cited InformationBaran, Myriam. Butterflies of the World. New York, New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc. 2006. Print.BugGuide.net. Iowa State University. n.d. Web. 21 Oct. 2011. www.bugguide.net 22 Oct. 2011.The Butterfly Site.com. “Butterfly Nectar Plants.” n.d. 12 Nov. 2011 http://www.thebutterflysite.com/butterfly-food.shtmlEarthweek: A Diary of the Planet. “Beetle Infestation Threatens Monarch Butterfly Sanctuary.” 23 Oct. 2009. Web. 21 Oct. 2011. <http://www.earthweek.com/2009/ew091023/ew091023c.html>Honey-Rosés, Jordi. "Illegal Logging In Common Property Forests." Society & Natural Resources 22.10 (2009): 916-930. GreenFILE. Web. 13 Nov. 2011.Kostyal, K.M. Great Migrations. Washington, D.C.: National Geographic Society, 2010. Print.Monarch-Butterfly.com. n.d. Web. 23 Oct. 2011 http://www.thebutterflysite.com/life-cycle.shtmlMonarch Watch. The Kansas Biological Survey, University of Kansas. n.d. Web. 21 Oct. 2011. <www.monarchwatch.org>
  • 22. Works Cited InformationNational Geographic. n.d. web. 23 Oct. 2011. <http://animals.nationalgeographic.com/animals/bugs/monarch-butterfly/>Powell, Devin. "The Monarch Butterflys Sperm Wars." New Scientist 201.2690 (2009): 9. Academic Search Premier. Web. 28 Nov. 2011.Stokes, Donald W. and Linda Q. Stokes. Stokes Beginners Guide to Butterflies. New York, New York: Little, Brown and Company, 2001. Print.
  • 23. Work Cited PhotographsSamuel. “Monarch Eggs.” 23 April 2011. Flickr.com. 22 Oct. 2011. <http://www.flickr.com/photos/_sjg_/5647932690/>Emma T photography. “Monarch butterflies.” 14 Dec. 2006. Flickr.com. 11 Nov. 2011. <http://www.flickr.com/photos/12066488@N00/379528405/>Gorman, Peter. “Purple Milkweed.” 19 Jun. 2010. Flickr.com. 23 Oct. 2011. <http://www.flickr.com/photos/52421717@N00/4718586781/>Jason Pier in DC. “Two Monarch Butterflies Mating: Brookside Gardens_095.” 29 May 2009. Flickr.com. 11 Nov. 2011. <http://www.flickr.com/photos/jasonpier/3702986884/>jpoyston. “Swamp Milkweed.” 14 Aug., 2010. Flickr.com. 23 Oct. 2011. <http://www.flickr.com/photos/jpoyston/4894810686/>LaBar, Martin. “Monarch butterfly on butterfly weed.” 25 Aug. 2006. Flickr.com. 22 Oct. 2011. <http://www.flickr.com/photos/martinlabar/254075049/>Levisay, Mark. “003ed.” 23 May 2010. Flickr.com. 26 Oct. 2011. <http://www.flickr.com/photos/mlevisay/4632468261/>
  • 24. Works Cited Photographs continuedMazur, Mark. “A Viceroy Butterfly.” 27 July, 2009. Flicker.com. 22 Oct. 2011. <http://www.flickr.com/photos/benimoto/3836891925/>oceandesetoiles. “monarch butterfly migration routes.” 14 Sept. 2011. Flickr.com. 26 Oct. 2011. <http://www.flickr.com/photos/ocean_of_stars/615073359/>puuikibeach. “Monarch Butterfly (Danaus plexippus) Chrysalis.” 30 Dec. 2010. Flickr.com. 22 Oct. 2011. <http://www.flickr.com/photos/puuikibeach/5308726037/>puuikibeach. “Monarch Butterfly (Danaus plexippus) Chrysalis.” 6 Jan. 2011. Flickr.com. 22 Oct. 2011. <http://www.flickr.com/photos/puuikibeach/5332420038/>puuikibeach. “Monarch Butterfly - Larval Stage (Caterpillar).” 3 Jan. 2010. Flickr.com. 22 Oct. 2011. <http://www.flickr.com/photos/puuikibeach/4243970616/>Sherri.VandenAkker. “Monarch Butterfly, Butterfly Weed.” 1 July 2010. Flickr.com. 23 Oct. 2011. http://www.flickr.com/photos/63706019@N03/5798785566/Sherri.VandenAkker. “Monarch Butterfly Caterpillar.” 20 Aug. 2010. Flickr.com. 23 Oct. 2011. <http://www.flickr.com/photos/63706019@N03/5798236901/>Stein, Paul. “Monarch Butterfly.” 7 Oct. 2007. Flickr.com. 26 Oct. 2011. <http://www.flickr.com/photos/kapkap/1532171622/>TexasEagle. “Monarch Male and Female.” 24 July 2010. Flickr.com. 11 Nov. 2011. <http://www.flickr.com/photos/texaseagle/4839884878/ >
  • 25. Works Cited Photographs ContinuedWhite, Ross. “monarch butterfly.” 29 Sept. 2006. Flickr.com 11 Nov. 2011. <http://www.flickr.com/photos/yarnivore/301628675>