People may have more than one mask and collectively the masks make up personaWell adjusted personality, anima and animus must express themselvesProjection of anima is mother, projection of animus is father
Must tame through suppressing manifestations of the shadow and developing strong personaShadowless life is shallow and spiritlessWhen shadow and ego work together, individual feels full of life and vigorShadow may overwhelm ego, causing individual to appear temporarily insane
Harmonizes all archetypes and their manifestations of complexesSelf-realization depends on cooperation of egoLess emphasis placed on total self-realization, more on knowledge of one’s self
The most notable addition of Myers and Briggs to Jung's original thought is their concept that a given type's fourth letter (J or P) is determined by how that type interacts with the external world, rather than by the type's dominant function. The difference becomes evident when assessing the cognitive functions of introverts.To Jung, a type with dominant introverted thinking, for example, would be considered rational (judging) because the decision-making function is dominant. To Myers, however, that same type would be irrational (perceiving) because the individual uses an information-gathering function (either extraverted intuition or extraverted sensing) when interacting with the outer world.
Empirical study—individuals assigned to the experimental mandala-creation group reportedgreater decreases in symptoms of trauma at the 1-month follow up
Persona Typology Extravert Introvert Archetype ComplexAll of these terms are from Analytical Psychology (Jungian Theory)
Born July 26, 1875 in Switzerland (died June 6, 1961) Only child until the age of nine, when his sister was born Father was a pastor Mother developed a nervous disorder, attributed to marital issues Mother made strange, mysterious noises in the middle of the night that scared him, causing nightmares
In adolescence, religious conflicts and interest in philosophy University—studied science, interest in medicineInterest in occult Doctoral dissertation focused on a medium, 15-year-old girl who performed seancesDeveloped interest in psychology and pursued psychiatryMedical professors astonished, as psychiatry was viewed as nonsense and absurdWorked in psychiatric hospitals
Six year personal and professional relationship with Freud First president of International Psychoanalytical Association After Freud, state of confusion and inner uncertainty; three year dormancy Traveled world after split, interests in Eastern religions, alchemy, etc.
The Psyche Embraces all thought, feeling, and behavior Guide that adapts the individual to social and physical environment Analytical psychology to help clients recover wholeness and strengthen the psyche Three levels of the psyche: consciousness, personal unconscious, and collective unconscious
Grows out of thinking, sensing, feeling, and intuitingTwo attitudes that determine orientation of the conscious: introversion and extraversionIndividuation—the process by which the consciousness of a person becomes individualized or differentiated from other people Goal—to know oneself completely as possible
Ego—organization of the conscious mind Perceptions, memories, thoughts, and feelings Carries out daily activities Ego provides identity A great deal of information is fed into the ego, but little reachesa full level of awareness Dominant function determines what the ego allows to become conscious and what is rejected
Experiences are stored in the personal unconscious when not recognized by the ego Personal unconscious information is incongruous with ego functions Plays an important role in dreams Complexes—groups of contents clumped together to form a cluster The term complex is often used today (i.e. inferiority complex)
Portion of the psyche that differs from the personal unconscious, in that it is not dependent upon personal experience Contents have never be conscious within the lifetime of the individual Contains latent images (primordial images), which are inherited by ancestors Predispositions for individuals to experience and respond in the same ways as their ancestors The more experiences individuals have, the greater the chance for latent images to be manifested
Archetypes—content of the collective unconscious Jung: There as many archetypes as there are typical situations in life. Endless repetition has engraved these experiences into our psychic constitution, not in the forms of images filled with content, but at first only as forms without content, representing merely the possibility of a certain type of perception and action.Archetypes Jung paid special attention to: the persona, the anima and the animus, the shadow, and the self
The Persona—the façade that one exhibits publicly with the intention of looking favorably Necessary for survival, as it helps us get along with peopleAnima—feminine side of male psycheAnimus—masculine side of female psyche
The Shadow—represents one’s own gender and influences relationships with own sex Most powerful and most dangerous of all archetypes
The Self—the organizing principle of the personality Central archetype in the collective unconscious Does not become evident until middle age (personality must be fully developed through individuation first) Knowledge of self through dreams and true religious experiences (spiritual development) Forerunner of humanistic psychology? The Self Self Actualization?
Attitudes Introverted and extraverted Two attitudes are mutually exclusive Do not coexist simultaneously in consciousness, although they can alternate with one another If objective orientation predominates, a person is called an extravert If subjective orientation predominates, a person is called an introvert
Functions Thinking—connecting ideas with each other in order to arrive at a general concept Feeling—accepts or rejects an idea on the basis of whether the idea arouses a pleasant or unpleasant feeling Sensation—conscious experiences produced by stimulation of the sense organs Intuition—an experience which is immediately given rather than produced as a result of thought or feeling Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) developed using’s Jung’s theory
[Individuation]…becoming an individual being—and in so far as we understand by individuality our innermost, final, incomparable uniqueness—becoming one’s own self. Individuation as distant goal, not milestone near at hand Inherent urge, operating within every personality Experience is individual and subjective, and centers around recognition
Sandplay “…One puts in the sand box objects that are marks of our psyche, visible traits that contain actions, corporeal movements and feelings. When one focuses on the overall representation built, one can go beyond the literal image and the analyst, keeping alive the image through his symbolic capability, opens the possibility of a dialogue with the symbolic dimension.” (Castellana “Often the hands solve a mystery & Donfrancesc, 2005) that the intellect has struggled with in vain.” - C. G. Jung
Creative Art Therapies Mandalas—creating promotes psychological health Has a calming and healing affect, while facilitating psychic integration and personal meaning in life
Castellana, F., & Donfrancesc, A. (2005) Sandplay in Jungian analysis: matter and symbolic integration. Journal of Analytical Psychology, 50(3), 367–382.De Laszlo, V. (1953). The goal in Jungian psychotherapy. The British Journal of Medical Psychology, 26, 3-14.Goodwyn, E. (2010). Approaching archetpes: Reconsidering innateness. Journal of Analytical Psychology, 55(4), 502-521.Hall, C. S., & Nordby, V. J. (1973). A primer of Jungian psychology. New York, NY: Taplinger Publishing Company Inc.Henderson, P., Rosen, D., & Mascar, N. (2007). Empirical study on the healing nature of mandalas. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Art, 1(3), 148-154.Jung, C. G. (1973). Mandala symbolism. (R. F. C. Hull, Trans.) Bollingen Series. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. (Original work published 1959)
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