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2010 1109 platt nps compostingnov9-2010 v2

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  • 1. Presented to the National Park Service,National Capital Region Sustainability Advisory Group November 9th, 2010, Washington, DC Composting 101 By Brenda Platt Institute for Local Self-Reliance www.ilsr.org
  • 2. Outline What is composting Benefits of composting Composting systems State of composting in our region Model programs elsewhere Compostable biobased food service ware Thoughts for compost operations planningInstitute for Local Self-Reliance
  • 3. What is composting? Composting is the aerobic, or oxygen-requiring, decomposition of organic materials by microorganisms under controlled conditions. During composting, the microorganisms consume oxygen. Active composting generates heat, carbon dioxide, and water vapor. Composting reduces the volume and mass of the raw materials while transforming them into a valuable soil conditioner. Source: Robert Rynk et al, On-Farm Composting Handbook, 1992.Institute for Local Self-Reliance
  • 4. Institute for Local Self-Reliance
  • 5. Institute for Local Self-Reliance
  • 6. Recommended Conditions Variable Recommended Range Initial C:N 25:1 to 40:1 Moisture content 50% to 60% Oxygen concentration >>5% Temperature 131-149 deg F Initial bulk density <1,100 lbs/cubic yard Particle size 1/8 to 2 inches pH 5.5 to 8.0 Source: Greg Evanylo, Dept. of Crop and Environmental Science, Virginia Tech, Better Composting School 2010.Institute for Local Self-Reliance
  • 7. Composting involves numbers Feedstock accounting Recipe development Collection and manipulation of physical, biological and chemical measurements Site size calculations Labor and financial numbers Source: “Introduction Better Composting School,” R.E Graves, Penn State, October 2008Institute for Local Self-Reliance
  • 8. Benefits of Composting  Creates a rich nutrient-filled material, humus,  Increases the nutrient content in soils,  Helps soils retain moisture,  Reduces or eliminate the need for chemical fertilizers,  Suppresses plant diseases and pests,  Promotes higher yields of agricultural crops,  Helps regenerate poor soils,  Has the ability to cleanup (remediate) contaminated soil, and  Can help prevent pollution and manage erosion problems.Institute for Local Self-Reliance
  • 9. U.S. Municipal Waste Disposed T e x t i le 6 % G la s Paper and paper 7% 24% M e ta l 9% (http://www.epa.gov/epaoswer/non- Source: US EPA, 2007 data Y a r d t r im m i hw/muncpl/msw99.htm) 7% W oo F o o d sc ra 8% 19% O th e r m a te r 2%169.2 million tons in 2007 P l a s t ic 18%Institute for Local Self-Reliance
  • 10. Composting = Local Organics do not ship well Composting is small-scale Compost products are used locally Jobs are local Dollars circulate within local economies Local = good for local economiesInstitute for Local Self-Reliance
  • 11. Compost Applications landscape and nursery agricultural and horticultural vegetable and flower gardens tree and shrub planting sod production and roadside projects wetlands creation soil remediation and land reclamation sports fields and golf courses sediment and erosion controlInstitute for Local Self-Reliance
  • 12. Composting, lots of models Institute for Local Self-Reliance
  • 13. Compost System Comparison Method Cost Labor Management Rate of Composting Passive/Static Low Low Low Low Windrow Low-Med Med-High Med Low-Med Aerated Static Low-Med Med Med Med Pile In-vessel Med-High Low High High Source: Jactone Arogo Ogejo, Biological Systems Engineering, Virginia Tech, Better Composting School 2010.Institute for Local Self-Reliance
  • 14. Typical composting times for selected combinations of methods and materials Method Materials Composting Time Curing Time Passive Leaves 2-3 years NA Windrow Leaves, manure, + 2-6 months 1-4 months amendments Aerated Static Pile Sludge + wood 3-5 weeks 1-2 months chips In-vessel rotating Sludge + 3-8 days 2 months drum municipal solid waste Source: Greg Evanylo, Dept. of Crop and Environmental Science, Virginia Tech, Better Composting School 2010.Institute for Local Self-Reliance
  • 15. Yard Debris Composting Is Well-Established in DC RegionInstitute for Local Self-Reliance
  • 16. Metropolitan WashingtonInstitute for Local Self-Reliance
  • 17. Regional Composting Facilities Annual Total Acreage Composting Facility Serves Throughput Acreage Used Arlington County Facility Arlington County, Fairfax County 5,212 3 3 [Arlington, VA] City of Alexandria temp site Alexandria 4,480 2 [Alexandria, VA] City of College Park, only fall leaves City of College Park DPW from: Berwyn Heights, Cottage City, 2,800 5 4.5 [College Park, MD] Edmonston, Laurel, New Carrollton, Riverdale Park, Univ. of MD City of Takoma Park City of Takoma Park, Montgomery 2,000 1 [Takoma Park, MD] College Loudoun Composting Loudoun County, Fairfax County 55,000 25 12 [Chantilly, VA] Prince George’s County Yard Waste Prince Georges County, Anne Arundel Composting Facility (Western Branch) 66,000 200 47 County (10K tons) [Upper Marlboro, MD] MES Dickerson facility Montgomery County 77,000 118 49 [Dickerson, MD] POGO Organics District of Columbia, City of Rockville 35,757 125 10 [Olney, MD] (tree service contract) Prince William County (Balls Ford) City of Manassas, Fairfax County, facility 55,000 30 15 Prince William County [Manassas, VA] Recycled Green Howard County 20,000 30 12 [Woodbine, MD] The Reichs Ford Road Yard Trimmings Frederick County 9,922 30 15 [Frederick, MD]Institute for Local Self-Reliance
  • 18. Materials Collected Jurisdiction Materials Collected Set-Out Requirements Frequency of Collection Leaves, Wood/Branches, Garden Trimmings (only in spring and Arlington County Paper bags, Compostable Bags Weekly fall), Brush City of Alexandria Leaves n/a Seasonal (end October to January 1) Leaves, Grass Clippings, Wood/Branches (<5), Garden City of College Park Paper bags, Durable containers Weekly Trimmings (<5), Brush City of Falls Church Leaves, Grass Clippings, Garden Trimmings Brown compostable bags that are 30 gal size Weekly (Mondays) City of Greenbelt Leaves, Grass Clippings, Garden Trimmings (<4), Brush Paper bags, Durable containers Weekly (Fridays) Leaves, Grass Clippings, Wood/Branches (<4 L, <3" D), City of Manassas Paper bags, Durable containers Weekly (Mondays)Institute for Local Self-Reliance Garden Trimmings Leaves, Grass Clippings, Wood/Branches (<4’ L, 3” D), Garden City of Takoma Park Paper bags, Durable containers Weekly Trimmings, Brush Seasonal (end-Novemeber to mid- District of Columbia Leaves Rake leaves to curb January) Fairfax County Leaves, Grass Clippings, Wood/Branches (<4‘ L, 6” D), Brush Paper or plastic bags, Durable containers Weekly/Hauler-dependent Frederick County Leaves, Grass Clippings, Wood/Branches (<8 L, 6" D), Brush N/A, since self-haul to facility N/A Leaves, Grass Clippings, Wood/Branches (<4’ L, 4” D), Garden Howard County Paper or plastic bags, Durable containers Weekly Trimmings , Brush, Pallets, Manure Loudoun County Leaves, Grass Clippings, Garden Trimmings (<3), Brush Paper bags, Durable containers Hauler-dependent Leaves, Grass Clippings, Wood/Branches (<4 L, <4" D), Paper bags, Durable containers w/ county "Yard Montgomery County Weekly Garden Trimmings, Brush Trim" labels Prince Georges Leaves, Grass Clippings, Wood/Branches (4 L, 3" D), Brush, Heavy-duty paper or plastic bags, Durable Weekly County Thatch containers Prince William County Leaves, Grass Clippings, Garden Trimmings, Brush, Stumps Paper or plastic bags, Durable containers Hauler-dependent
  • 19. Green the Capitol InitiativeInstitute for Local Self-Reliance
  • 20. Whole FoodsInstitute for Local Self-Reliance
  • 21. Green Cycle IndustriesInstitute for Local Self-Reliance
  • 22. Cedar Grove CompostingInstitute for Local Self-Reliance
  • 23. Compostable Food ServiceInstitute for Local Self-Reliance
  • 24. Meets ASTM 6400Institute for Local Self-Reliance
  • 25. Peninsula Compost, WilmingtonInstitute for Local Self-Reliance
  • 26. Scope of your operations? What are your goals? Composting only NPS generated material? What types and quantities of materials? Collection service? Processing on-site? Decentralized or a regional site? Deliver to a non-NPS site? Process into value-added product? Sales and marketing or product? Income generating? Delivery and application of compost? Use only on NPS properties?Institute for Local Self-Reliance
  • 27. Issues to consider Know your feedstocks: what, quantity, source Can you make a recipe to produce good compost? Cost/income Regulations Siting issues (availability, neighbors, traffic, dust, noise, water, stormwater management, size, security, zoning, permits, set backs, accessibility, utilities) Compost needs to be cured = space Managing the compost process = trained operatorsInstitute for Local Self-Reliance
  • 28. Managing the compost process Good management can make or break the operation Minimize odors and other environmental impacts Make best use of materials, equipment, and labor available Good operator who understands the compost process and knows how to troubleshoot Temperature is the primary yardstick of the composting process Pathogens/aspergillus fumigatasSource: Jactone Arogo Ogejo, Biological Systems Engineering,Virginia Tech, Better Composting School 2010.Institute for Local Self-Reliance
  • 29. Equipment considerations Types of materials to be processed Quantity of material Processing methods Surface Capacity and space optimization Available money (or ability to acquire) Anticipated growthInstitute for Local Self-Reliance
  • 30. Equipment Moving materials Aerating/turning Grinders Mixing Watering ScreeningInstitute for Local Self-Reliance
  • 31. Institute for Local Self-Reliance
  • 32. Collection Bins & Signage?Institute for Local Self-Reliance
  • 33. Outreach CostsInstitute for Local Self-Reliance
  • 34. Compost Regulations MD Dept. of Agriculture regulates product MD Dept. of the Environment regulates process, including air and water pollution Local jurisdictions regulate zoning, site prep, buildings, noise, odorInstitute for Local Self-Reliance
  • 35. Contact Brenda Platt Institute for Local Self-Reliance bplatt@ilsr.org www.ilsr.org 202-898-1610 ext 230Institute for Local Self-Reliance