Simple Model of Lead-Acid Battery Model using LTspice

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Simple Model of Lead-Acid Battery Model using LTspice

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Simple Model of Lead-Acid Battery Model using LTspice

  1. 1. Lead-Acid BatterySimplified SPICE Behavioral Model All Rights Reserved Copyright (C) Bee Technologies Corporation 2011 1
  2. 2. Contents 1. Benefit of the Model 2. Model Feature 3. Concept of the Model 4. Parameter Settings 5. Lead-Acid Battery Specification (Example) 5.1 Charge Time Characteristic 5.2 Discharge Time Characteristic 5.3 Vbat vs. SOC Characteristic 6. Extend the number of Cell (Example) 6.1 Charge Time Characteristic, NS=3 6.2 Discharge Time Characteristic, NS=3 Library Files and Symbol Files Location Simulation Index All Rights Reserved Copyright (C) Bee Technologies Corporation 2011 2
  3. 3. 1. Benefit of the Model• The model enables circuit designer to predict and optimize Lead- Acid battery runtime and circuit performance.• The model can be easily adjusted to your own Lead-Acid battery specifications by editing a few parameters that are provided in the datasheet.• The model is optimized to reduce the convergence error and the simulation time. All Rights Reserved Copyright (C) Bee Technologies Corporation 2011 3
  4. 4. 2. Model Feature• This Lead-Acid Battery Simplified SPICE Behavioral Model is for users who require the model of a Lead-Acid Battery as a part of their system.• The model accounts for Battery Voltage(Vbat) vs. Battery Capacity Level (SOC) Characteristic, so it can perform battery charge and discharge time at various current rate conditions.• As a simplified model, the effects of cycle number and temperature are neglected. All Rights Reserved Copyright (C) Bee Technologies Corporation 2011 4
  5. 5. 3. Concept of the Model Lead-Acid battery + Simplified SPICE Behavioral Model Output [Spec: C, NS] Characteristics Adjustable SOC [ 0-1(100%) ] -• The model is characterized by parameters: C which represent the battery capacity and SOC which represent the battery initial capacity level.• Open-circuit voltage (VOC) vs. SOC is included in the model as an analog behavioral model (ABM).• NS (Number of Cells in series) is used when the Lead-acid cells are in series to increase battery voltage level. All Rights Reserved Copyright (C) Bee Technologies Corporation 2011 5
  6. 6. 4. Parameter Settings Model Parameters: C is the amp-hour battery capacity [Ah] – e.g. C = 1, 50, or 100 [Ah] NS is the number of cells in series – e.g. NS=1 for 1 cell battery, NS=2 for 2 cells battery (battery voltage is double from 1 cell) SOC is the initial state of charge in percent – e.g. SOC=0 for a empty battery (0%), SOC=1 for a full charged battery (100%) (Default values) TSCALE turns TSCALE seconds(in the real world) into a second(in simulation) – e.g. TSCALE=60 turns 60s or 1min (in the real world) into a second(in simulation), TSCALE=3600 turns 3600s or 1h into a second.• From the Lead-Acid Battery specification, the model is characterized by setting parameters C, NS, SOC and TSCALE. All Rights Reserved Copyright (C) Bee Technologies Corporation 2011 6
  7. 7. 5. Lead-Acid Battery Specification (Example) Nominal Voltage 2.0 [Vdc] /Cell Capacity 50Ah Rated Charge 0.1C10A Voltage Set 2.23 [Vdc] /Cell Charging Time 24 [hours] @ 0.1C10A Battery capacity [Typ.] is input as a model parameter• The battery information refer to a battery part number MSE Series of GS YUASA. All Rights Reserved Copyright (C) Bee Technologies Corporation 2011 7
  8. 8. 5.1 Charge Time Characteristic Measurement Simulation Voltage: 2.23V Current: 5A (0.1C10A) (hour) • Charging Time: 24 [hours] @ 0.1C10A SOC=0 means battery start from 0% of capacity (empty) All Rights Reserved Copyright (C) Bee Technologies Corporation 2011 8
  9. 9. 5.1 Charge Time Characteristic Simulation Circuit and SettingCharge Voltage A constant current charger at rate of capacity (e.g. 150A) 1 hour into a second (in simulation) .TRAN 0 24 0 25m .LIB lead-acid_battery.sub All Rights Reserved Copyright (C) Bee Technologies Corporation 2011 9
  10. 10. 5.2 Discharge Time Characteristic Measurement Simulation 0.1C10A 0.23C10A 0.65C10A 1.0C10A (hour) SOC=1 means battery start from 100% of capacity All Rights Reserved Copyright (C) Bee Technologies Corporation 2011 10
  11. 11. 5.2 Discharge Time Characteristic Simulation Circuit and Setting A constant current discharger at rate of capacity (e.g. 150A) TSCALE turns 1 hour into a second(in simulation), battery starts from 100% of capacity (fully charged).TRAN 0 10 0 25m.STEP PARAM rate LIST 0.1, 0.23, 0.65, 1.OPTIONS ABSTOL=1.0E-9.LIB lead-acid_battery.sub All Rights Reserved Copyright (C) Bee Technologies Corporation 2011 11
  12. 12. 5.3 Vbat vs. SOC Characteristic Measurement Simulation @25C 0.1C10A 1.0C10A 0.25C10A 0.6C10A [0-100%] Simulation 1.2 Mesurement (% of Rated Capacity) 1.0 Simulation 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 • Nominal Voltage: 2.0V 0.0 • Capacity: 50Ah 0 1 2 3 Discharge Rate (Multiples of C) All Rights Reserved Copyright (C) Bee Technologies Corporation 2011 12
  13. 13. 5.3 Vbat vs. SOC Characteristic Simulation Circuit and Setting A constant current discharger at rate of capacity (e.g. 150A) 1 hour into a second (in simulation).TRAN 0 10 0 100m.STEP PARAM rate LIST 0.1, 0.25, 0.6, 1.OPTIONS ABSTOL=1.0E-9.LIB lead-acid_battery.sub All Rights Reserved Copyright (C) Bee Technologies Corporation 2011 13
  14. 14. 6. Extend the number of Cell (Example) Lead-Acid needs 3 cells to reach this voltage level Basic Specification Voltage - Rated 6.0 [Vdc] /Cell Capacity 100Ah The number of cells Rated Charge 0.1C10A in series is input as a model parameter Voltage Set 2.23V*3 [Vdc] /Cell Charging Time 24 [hours] @ 0.1C10A Voltage  Rated 6 NS   Lead - Acid Nominal Voltage 2.0• The battery information refer to a battery part number MSE-100-6 of GS YUASA. All Rights Reserved Copyright (C) Bee Technologies Corporation 2011 14
  15. 15. 6.1 Charge Time Characteristic, NS=3 The battery needs 24 hours to be fully charged Charge Voltage: 6.69V Charge Current: 10A (0.1C10A) (hour)• Charging Current: 10A (0.1C10A) All Rights Reserved Copyright (C) Bee Technologies Corporation 2011 15
  16. 16. 6.1 Charge Time Characteristic, NS=3  Simulation Circuit and SettingCharge Voltage 1 hour into a second (in simulation) .TRAN 0 24 0 25m .LIB lead-acid_battery.sub All Rights Reserved Copyright (C) Bee Technologies Corporation 2011 16
  17. 17. 6.2 Discharge Time Characteristic, NS=3 0.1C10A 0.25C10A 0.6C10A 1.0C10A (hour)• Voltage - Rated: 6.0V• Discharging Current: 10A(0.1C), 23A(0.23C), 65A(0.65C), 100A(1.0C) All Rights Reserved Copyright (C) Bee Technologies Corporation 2011 17
  18. 18. 6.2 Discharge Time Characteristic, NS=3 Simulation Circuit and Setting Parametric sweep “rate” for multiple rate discharge simulation 1 hour into a second (in simulation).TRAN 0 10 0 25m.STEP PARAM rate LIST 0.1, 0.23, 0.65, 1.OPTIONS ABSTOL=1.0E-9.LIB lead-acid_battery.sub All Rights Reserved Copyright (C) Bee Technologies Corporation 2011 18
  19. 19. Library Files and Symbol Files Location…¥Simulation Copy/ Paste C:¥Program Files¥LTC¥LTspiceIV¥lib¥sub into Copy/ Paste into C:¥Program Files¥LTC¥LTspiceIV¥lib¥sym1. Copy the library files (.lib) from the folder …¥Simulation¥.sub¥, then paste into the folder C:¥Program Files¥LTC¥LTspiceIV¥lib¥sub2. Copy the symbol files(.asy) from the folder …¥Simulation¥.asy¥, then paste into the folder C:¥Program Files¥LTC¥LTspiceIV¥lib¥sym All Rights Reserved Copyright (C) Bee Technologies Corporation 2011 19
  20. 20. Simulation IndexSimulations Folder name1. Charge Time Characteristic................................. Charge_Time2. Discharge Time Characteristic............................. Discharge_Time3. Vbat vs. SOC Characteristic.................................. Discharge_SOC4. Charge Time Characteristic, NS=3....................... Charge_Time(NS)5. Discharge Time Characteristic, NS=3................... Discharge_Time(NS) All Rights Reserved Copyright (C) Bee Technologies Corporation 2011 20

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