Events that Led to the Civil War


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Events that Led to the Civil War

  1. 1. Prelude to the Civil War
  2. 2. Differences between the North and South <ul><li>NORTH </li></ul><ul><li>Economy Based Primarily on Industry </li></ul><ul><li>Immigrants from Europe came in droves to work in factories </li></ul><ul><li>Immigrants were opposed to slavery… </li></ul><ul><li>Often competed with Slaves for jobs, feared losing jobs </li></ul><ul><li>South </li></ul><ul><li>Economy Based on Agricultural ex. cotton </li></ul><ul><li>South did NOT grow technologically as quickly as north </li></ul><ul><li>Southerners feared that end to slavery would destroy the south </li></ul>
  3. 3. John C. Calhoun … an end to slavery would condemn whites and blacks to “ the greatest calamity, and the south to poverty, desolation and wretchedness.”
  4. 4. Compromise of 1850 VS. John C. Calhoun Daniel Webster <ul><li>For states rights </li></ul><ul><li>Southern interests were highest priority </li></ul><ul><li>Slavery should not be extended into territories </li></ul>
  5. 5. Compromise of 1850 <ul><li>The Terms: </li></ul><ul><li>California admitted as a free state </li></ul><ul><li>Utah and New Mexico territories decide about slavery (Popular Sovereignty) </li></ul><ul><li>Texas-New Mexico boundary dispute resolved and Texas get $10 million </li></ul><ul><li>Stricter fugitive slave law </li></ul>
  6. 6. Compromise of 1850
  7. 7. Compromise of 1850 The problem of slavery is solved…for now….
  8. 8. Fugitive Slave Act Poster Warning Escaped Slaves to avoid Police
  9. 9. Fugitive Slave Act <ul><li>Terms of New Act Were Harsh: </li></ul><ul><li>No trial by jury for alleged fugitives –goes against 6 th amendment </li></ul><ul><li>Fugitives could not testify on own behalf </li></ul><ul><li>Slave hunters got $10 for returning an alleged fugitive and only $5 if they freed the slave </li></ul><ul><li>If caught helping fugitive slaves harsh punishments </li></ul><ul><li>THIS INFURIATES MANY IN THE NORTH </li></ul>
  10. 10. Escaped Slave Reward Poster
  11. 12. Underground Railroad <ul><li>Secret network of people who his fugitive slaves at great risk to themselves </li></ul><ul><li>Hid people in secret tunnels & false cupboards </li></ul><ul><li>Provided Slaves with Shelter, food, and clothing </li></ul>
  12. 13. Map of the Underground Railroad Routes often Used
  13. 14. Underground Railroad <ul><li>One of the most famous conductors on the U.R. </li></ul><ul><li>Said to have helped 300 slaves escape to freedom </li></ul><ul><li>Southern Authorities put $40,000 bounty on her head </li></ul>
  14. 15. <ul><li>Uncle Tom’s Cabin </li></ul><ul><li>Written by Harriet Beecher Stowe 1852 </li></ul><ul><li>Brought Slavery into the homes of Americans </li></ul><ul><li>Showed Slavery as a moral struggle </li></ul><ul><li>Southerners criticized the book as merely attack on southern way of life </li></ul>
  15. 16. Kansas-Nebraska Act-1854 Both above Missouri Compromise Line= Free States Decided that both territories should vote on issue
  16. 17. Kansas-Nebraska Act-1854 <ul><li>This Leads to many Problems in Kansas…Would it go free or would it go Slave??? </li></ul><ul><li>Problems: </li></ul><ul><li>Sack of Lawrence 1856 </li></ul><ul><li>The Potawatomie Massacre- Led by John Brown </li></ul><ul><li>Bleeding Kansas: over 200 people die in fighting over the territory </li></ul>
  17. 18. Charles Sumner gets beat down in the Senate…
  18. 20. Dred Scott Decision-1857 <ul><li>Slave taken from Missouri (slave state) to Wisconsin (free state) </li></ul><ul><li>Then he is taken back to slave territory </li></ul><ul><li>Scott Sues claiming that living in a free territory made him a free man </li></ul>
  19. 21. Dred Scott
  20. 22. Scott Takes Case to Supreme Court <ul><li>Two Key Questions: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Was he a citizen of the United States? </li></ul><ul><li>2. Does residence in a free territory make someone a free man? </li></ul>
  21. 23. The Supreme Court holds the fate of slaves in their hands…What will they do?????
  22. 24. Ruling in the Scott Case Chief Justice Roger Taney <ul><li>Question #1: NO “African Americans are a subordinate and inferior class of beings…” </li></ul><ul><li>Question #2: NO Being in a free territory does NOT make a slave free </li></ul><ul><li>In effect it declared the Missouri Compromise Unconstitutional, and permitted extension of slavery into new territories </li></ul>
  23. 25. Raid On Harper’s Ferry <ul><li>Led By John Brown- Oct 1856 </li></ul><ul><li>Planned to seize a federal arsenal and distribute the Arms to slaves and have them rise up </li></ul><ul><li>It doesn’t work and Brown is captured and Hanged </li></ul><ul><li>Southerners are scared of the idea of a slave uprising </li></ul>
  24. 26. John Brown <ul><li>Was also leader of the Pottawatomie Massacre </li></ul>
  25. 27. The Final Straw in the Road to Secession… The Election of Abraham Lincoln 1860
  26. 28. The Election of Lincoln-1860 <ul><li>Wins the Republican nomination for president </li></ul><ul><li>Pledged to halt the further spread of slavery </li></ul><ul><li>BUT said that he would not interfere with slaves or slavery in south </li></ul><ul><li>Southerners DON’T buy it… </li></ul>
  27. 29. The Election of Lincoln-1860
  28. 30. Result…