Chapter IntroductionSection 1: Exploration and ExpansionSection 2: The Atlantic Slave TradeSection 3: Colonial Latin AmericaVisual Summary
How are the Americaslinked to Africa?The demand for enslaved Africans increaseddramatically after Europeans began to settlein the Americas. The Cape Coast Castle inGhana is one of the forts where enslavedAfricans were held until ships arrived to takethem to the Americas. This fort could holdabout 1,500 slaves usually locked in dark,crowded dungeons for many weeks. Today,the Cape Coast Castle contains a museumthat allows people to learn about slavery. Inthis chapter you will learn about theexploration of new lands and its globalimpact.• Why might people want to visit the Cape Coast Castle?• Does slavery occur in any parts of the world today?
Exploration andExpansionIn what ways did Europeannations prosper throughexploration in the fifteenthcentury?
The Atlantic SlaveTradeHow did Europeanexpansion and the slavetrade affect the people ofAfrica?
Colonial Latin AmericaHow did Portugal andSpain profit from theircolonies in Latin America?
The BIG IdeaCompetition Among Countries Europeans beganexploring the world in the 1400s, and severalnations experienced economic heights throughworldwide trade.
People and Places•Hernán Cortés • Ferdinand Magellan•Portugal • John Cabot•Vasco da Gama • Amerigo Vespucci•Melaka • Montezuma•Christopher Columbus • Francisco Pizarro•Cuba
Do you think spreading religion is ajustifiable reason for colonizingnative peoples?A. YesB. No A. A B. B 0% 0% A B
Motives and Means Europeans began to explore distant lands, motivated by religious zeal and the promise of gold and glory.
Motives and Means (cont.)• Five European powers, led by Portugal and Spain, engaged in an age of exploration. All rose to new economic heights.• Motives for European exploration include “God, glory, and gold” – Economic interests – Europeans wanted to expand wealth and trade and locate spices and precious metals. European Voyages of Discovery
Motives and Means (cont.) – Religious zeal – Explorers such as Hernán Cortés were interested in sharing the Catholic faith with native peoples. – There was an increased desire for grandeur, glory, and the spirit of adventure. – Political ambition European Voyages of Discovery
A Race for Riches Portuguese and Spanish explorers took the lead in discovering new lands.
A Race for Riches (cont.)• Portugal took the lead in European exploration under the leadership of Prince Henry the Navigator.• Portuguese ships traveled along the western coast of Africa, finding gold and other goods.• Vasco de Gama traveled around the Cape of Good Hope, the southern tip of Africa, and landed in India in 1498.
A Race for Riches (cont.)• The Portuguese captured the important port city of Melaka on the Malay Peninsula, which enabled the Portuguese to control the spice trade that had been dominated by Arab traders.• The Portuguese used seamanship, guns, and treaties to control the spice trade. However, they did not have the people, wealth, or desire to expand their empire in Asia.
A Race for Riches (cont.)• Christopher Columbus was an explorer who sailed for Spain. Columbus searched for a western route to Asia and landed at Cuba and Hispaniola in 1492.• The Spanish explorer Ferdinand Magellan sailed around the tip of South America and into the Pacific Ocean. Magellan is credited with being the first person to circumnavigate the globe.
A Race for Riches (cont.)• In 1494, Portugal and Spain signed the Treaty of Tordesillas, separating control of the newly discovered lands and giving Spain control of almost all of the Americas.• John Cabot, a Venetian, explored the New England coastline of the Americas for England.• The writings of Amerigo Vespucci, a Florentine mapmaker, led to the use of the name “America” for the newly discovered lands in the western hemisphere.
Why did Spain and Portugal sign theTreaty of Tordesillas?A. To convert all native peoples to CatholicismB. To defend all new lands from England and France A. AC. To divide control of B. B the new lands C. CD. To prevent non-Catholic 0% 0% 0% 0% nations from exploring D. D A B C D the new lands
The Spanish Empire The great Aztec and Inca civilizations succumbed to the Spanish.
The Spanish Empire (cont.)• The Spanish conquistadors established an overseas empire in the Americas.• In 1519 Hernán Cortés and his Spanish allies were welcomed into Tenochtitlán by the Aztec monarch Montezuma. The Spanish were expelled from the city one year later.• When the Spaniards left, smallpox devastated the Aztec capital. The Spanish, led by Cortés returned and captured the city, and the Aztec Empire was destroyed.• The Spanish under Hernán Cortés conquered Mexico.
The Spanish Empire (cont.)• In 1530 Francisco Pizarro led an expedition into the Inca Empire. Like the Aztec, the Incas were no match for Spanish disease, guns, and horses.• Pizarro conquered the Incan Empire and established a new capital for the Spanish colony at Lima.• The Spanish used a system of colonial administration called the encomienda system— the right of landowners to use Native Americans as laborers.
The Spanish Empire (cont.)• Spanish landowners could use Native Americans for labor in return for protection and converting them to Christianity.• Native American political and social structures were torn apart and replaced by European systems of religion, language, and government.• The exchange of plants, animals, and disease between Europe and the Americas is known as the Columbian Exchange.
Which of the following was sent fromthe Americas to Europe?A. WheatB. HorsesC. Cattle A. A B. BD. Potatoes 0% C. 0% C 0% 0% A D. D B D C
European Rivals The Portuguese and Spanish found new rivals in the Dutch, French, and English for trading rights and for new lands.
European Rivals (cont.)• The Dutch formed the East India Company to compete with the English and Portuguese for the Indian Ocean trade.• The Dutch also formed the West India Company to compete with the Spanish and Portuguese in the Americas.• By the early seventeen century, the Dutch established settlements in North America such as New Netherland.
European Rivals (cont.)• In the 1600s, the French colonized parts of present-day Louisiana and regions of Canada.• The English began to settle the eastern seaboard of North America and islands in the Caribbean Sea.• In 1664, the English seized the harbor of New Netherland from the Dutch and renamed it New York.
• The English established colonies or trade relations in all of the following locations: – Massachusetts – New York – Northwestern India – Caribbean Islands
The BIG IdeaHuman Rights European expansion affected Africawith the dramatic increase of the slave trade.
Do you think slavery still exists in theworld today?A. YesB. No A. A B. B 0% 0% A B
Trade, Colonies, and Mercantilism The slave trade increased as enslaved Africans were brought to the Americas.
Trade, Colonies, and Mercantilism (cont.)• The nations of Europe created trading empires and established colonies in the Americas and in the East.• Colonies were an integral part of mercantilism, a seventeenth century economic theory based on gold and a limited amount of wealth in the world.
Trade, Colonies, and Mercantilism (cont.)• Colonies provided raw materials and markets for finished goods.• To bring in more gold, nations tried to have a favorable balance of trade and export more goods than they imported.• To encourage exports, governments granted subsidies and improved transportation systems.
Trade, Colonies, and Mercantilism (cont.)• Slavery had existed since ancient times, and African slaves served as domestic servants in Southwest Asia.• The demand for slaves changed dramatically with the introduction of sugarcane (a crop introduced to Europe from Southwest Asia). Labor was needed to work the plantations where sugarcane was grown. Atlantic Slave Trade, 1500–1600s
Trade, Colonies, and Mercantilism (cont.)• Slaves became an important commodity in the triangular trade that connected Europe, Africa, and the Americas.• As many as 10 million African slaves may have been brought to the Americas between 1500 and the late 1800s.• Slaves from Africa were obtained by Europeans from African Slave Merchants. Atlantic Slave Trade, 1500–1600s
• In the Caribbean islands slaves from Africa were needed for these reasons: – Importing and paying Europeans for labor upset the balance of trade. – Growing sugarcane was labor intensive. – The Native American population was small due to diseases brought from Europe.
Trade, Colonies, and Mercantilism (cont.)• One reason for the high number of exported slaves was the high mortality rate, especially during the Middle Passage, the journey across the Atlantic Ocean.• Slave owners in the 16th century discouraged slaves from having offspring because they believed that buying a new slave was less expensive than raising a new child. Atlantic Slave Trade, 1500–1600s
•The slave trade devastated the population of African communities near the coastal regions. •Some African rulers, such as King Afonso, protested but were ignored by African and European slave traders.• King Afonso of Congo wrote a letter in 1526 to the king of Portugal describing the corruption of the slave trade and how it was depopulating his country.
What caused the demand for slavesto increase?A. The Treaty of TordesillasB. The need to populate the AmericasC. The introduction of A. A sugarcane B. BD. To maintain a balance of 0% C. 0% C0% 0% trade between Africa D. D and Europe A B D C
Effects of the Slave Trade The slave trade led to depopulation, increased warfare, and devastation for many African states.
Effects of the Slave Trade (cont.)• Effects of the slave trade in Africa: – depopulated areas – increased warfare – loss of the strongest and youngest men and women – Deterioration of art and culture
Effects of the Slave Trade (cont.)• Benin was transformed from a brilliant society into a brutal, war-ravaged region following the introduction of slavery.• The use of enslaved Africans was widely accepted until the Society of Friends began to condemn it in the 1770s.• The French abolished slavery in the 1790s; the English abolished slavery in 1807; and slavery continued in the United States until the 1860s.
The BIG IdeaCompetition Among Countries Portugal and Spainreaped profits from the natural resources and productsof their Latin American colonies.
People and Places• Brazil• Juana Inés de la Cruz
Colonial Empires in Latin America The Portuguese and Spanish built colonial empires in Latin America and profited from the resources and trade of their colonies.
Colonial Empires in Latin America (cont.)• In the 1500s, Portugal controlled Brazil, while Spain’s colonial possessions included parts of North America, Central America, and most of South America.• The area of Central and South America became known as Latin America, and a unique social class system emerged. Colonial Latin America to 1750
Colonial Empires in Latin America (cont.)• Colonial Latin America Social Order: – Peninsulares: Spanish and Portuguese officials born in Europe; they held all important government positions. – Creoles: Descendants of Europeans who were born in Latin America; they controlled business and land. – Mestizos: The offspring of European and Native American intermarriage.
Colonial Empires in Latin America (cont.) – Mulattoes: The offspring of Africans and Europeans. – Conquered Native Americans and enslaved Africans.
Colonial Empires in Latin America (cont.)• Europeans utilized the Native Americans as labor. They used the encomienda system and mita to sustain a viable labor force.• Gold and silver from the colonies offered immediate wealth to the Europeans. Products, such as tobacco, sugar, and animal hides were traded to Europe in return for finished products.
Colonial Empires in Latin America (cont.)• To control their colonial possessions in the Americas, Portugal and Spain used governor-generals, known as viceroys to develop a bureaucracy and carry out imperial policies.
• Catholic missionaries aided the European powers in influencing the Native Americans by bringing them together in villages where they were taught trades and encouraged to grow crops.
• Catholic missionaries were also instrumental in converting and maintaining order within the colonial territories.• The Catholic Church provided an outlet other than marriage for women. Many nuns like Juana Inés de la Cruz, urged convents to educate women on subjects beyond religion. – Wrote poetry and prose and urged that women be educated.
• Jesuit missions in the new world were very well organized and profitable. – Known as the society of Jesus. – Group of Catholic missionaries who expanded their faith across the world. – Main reason Latin America is primarily Catholic today.
How did the Spanish and Portuguesemonarchs control their colonialpossessions?A. By appointing Native Americans as local rulersB. By appointing Europeans A. A to governor-general positions B. BC. By maintaining a large army C. C 0% 0% 0% 0%D. By paying tribute to the local D. D A Native American rulers B C D
EARLY EXPLORATION of WestAfrica, India, and the Americas• Motivated by religious zeal, gold, and glory, Europeans began to explore distant lands.• The Portuguese sailed east around Africa to India.• Spanish ships sailed west to the Americas.• Spanish conquistadors seized lands ruled by the Aztec and Inca.• Diseases introduced by Spanish explorers killed much of the Native American population.• By the late 1600s, the Dutch, French, and English entered the rivalry for new lands and trade.
AFRICAN SLAVE TRADE of Europe,Asia, and the Americas• Before the new exploration, the primary market for enslaved Africans had been Southwest Asia.• The demand for plantation laborers in the Americas greatly increased slave trade.• Enslaved Africans were part of the triangular trade between Europe, Africa and Asia, and the Americas.• In Africa, the slave trade led to increased warfare, depopulation, and the deterioration of society.
COLONIAL EMPIRES of Latin America• The Portuguese and Spanish profited from their colonial empires in Latin America.• Peninsulares were the top social class, followed by creoles, mestizos and mulattoes, and finally enslaved Africans and Native Americans.• Catholic missionaries spread across the Americas to try to Christianize Native Americans.
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conquistadora Spanish conqueror of the Americas
encomiendaa system of labor the Spanish used inthe Americas; Spanish landownershad the right, as granted by QueenIsabella, to use Native Americans aslaborers
Columbian Exchangethe extensive exchange of plants andanimals between the Old and NewWorlds, especially during thesixteenth and seventeenth centuries
overseasmovement or transport over the sea;land beyond the sea
percenta part of a whole divided into100 parts
colonya settlement of people living in a newterritory, linked with the parentcountry by trade and directgovernment control
mercantilismSeventeenth century economictheory; it held that the prosperity of anation depended on a large supply ofgold and silver
balance of tradethe difference in value beween what anation imports and what it exportsover time
subsidygovernment payment to encourage orprotect a certain economic activity
triangular tradea pattern of trade that connectedEurope, Africa and Asia, and theAmerican continents; typically,manufactured goods from Europewere sent to Africa, where they wereexchanged for enslaved persons, whowere sent to the Americas, wherethey were exchanged for rawmaterials that were then sent toEurope
Middle Passagethe journey of enslaved persons fromAfrica to the Americas, so calledbecause it was the middle portion ofthe triangular trade route
transportationmeans of travel from one place toanother
peninsularea person born on the IberianPeninsula (Spain & Portugal);typically, a Spanish or Portugueseofficial who resided temporarily inLatin America for political andeconomic gain and then returned toEurope
creolea person of European descent born inthe New World and living therepermanently
mestizoa person of mixed European andNative American Indian descent
mulattoa person of mixed African andEuropean descent
mitaa labor system that the Spanishadministrators in Peru used to draftnative people to work in the Spanishlandowners’ silver mines
laborpeople with all their abilities andefforts
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