What will you learn this semester? Chapters 5-11 The revival of Europe (The Renaissance). Explosion of science, the arts, and state building. The age of exploration. “Discovery” of America. European expansion. Slave trade. Eastern history The Middle East and Far East Empires. European relations.
Chapter 5 Renaissance and Reformation 1350-1600
Chapter IntroductionSection 1: The RenaissanceSection 2: Ideas and Art of the RenaissanceSection 3: The Protestant ReformationSection 4: The Spread of ProtestantismVisual Summary
The RenaissanceWhy did the Renaissancebegin in the Italian city-states?
Ideas and Art of theRenaissanceWhat characterizesRenaissance art, such asMichelangelo’s David orda Vinci’s Mona Lisa?
The ProtestantReformationWhat conditions encouragethe growth of revolutions?
The Spread ofProtestantismWhat led to the formationof different Protestantchurches?
The BIG IdeaIdeas, Beliefs, and Values Between 1350 and 1550,Italian intellectuals believed they had entered a newage of human achievement.
A. The Italian Renaissance As the Renaissance began, three Italian city-states were the centers of Italian political, economic, and social life.
The Italian Renaissance (cont.)• The Italian Renaissance lasted from 1350 to 1550. It was a time period in which Europeans believed they had witnessed a rebirth of the ancient Greek and Roman worlds.• Characteristics of the Renaissance: – The Renaissance was mainly led by an urban society, and Italian city-states came to dominate political, social, and economic life.
The Italian Renaissance (cont.) – The Renaissance witnessed the rise of a secular viewpoint of wealth and material items. – The Renaissance occurred during a time of recovery from the disasters of the fourteenth century: the plague, political instability, and a decline of Church power. Renaissance Italy, 1500
The Italian Renaissance (cont.) – The Renaissance also stressed the individual ability of human beings. Well- rounded individuals, such as Leonardo da Vinci, emphasized the belief that individuals could create a new social ideal. Renaissance Italy, 1500
The Italian Renaissance (cont.)• With the lack of centralized power, Italian city-states such as Milan, Venice, and Florence played a crucial role in Italian economics and politics.• Milan’s location as a crossroads between the coastal Italian cities and the Alpine passes made it a very wealthy state. Renaissance Italy, 1500
The Italian Renaissance (cont.)• In 1447, Francesco Sforza conquered Milan using an army of mercenaries. Sforza created wealth for the government by creating an efficient tax system.• Venice was also located in a strategic position, as a trading link between Asia and Western Europe. Venice became the cultural center of Italy. Renaissance Italy, 1500
The Italian Renaissance (cont.)• In 1434, Cosimo de’ Medici and his family came to control Florence using their wealth and personal influence. Cosimo’s grandson Lorenzo de’ Medici later ruled the city.• Powerful monarchial states in Europe were attracted to the wealth of the Italian city- states, and in 1494 Charles VIII of France occupied Naples in southern Italy. Renaissance Italy, 1500
The Italian Renaissance (cont.)• The Spanish replied to the Italian cries of assistance and engaged the French in a 30- year war on the Apennine Peninsula.• The turning point of the war came in 1527 when soldiers and mercenaries of Spain’s King Charles I, who had not been paid in months, sacked Rome.• Spain became the dominant force in Italy. Renaissance Italy, 1500
B. Machiavelli on Power Machiavelli’s The Prince has profoundly influenced political leaders.
Machiavelli on Power (cont.)• Niccolò Machiavelli wrote a book that influenced political thought in Italy and eventually all of Europe.• In his influential work, The Prince, Machiavelli wrote about how to acquire and hold political power. He stated that a ruler must put the state first and not focus on moral principles.• Machiavelli’s rejection of popular Christian values would have a profound influence on the political leaders who followed.
If we must choose betweenthem, it is far safer to befeared than loved. -NiccoloMachiavelli, The
C. Renaissance Society Changes in the social classes occurred during the Renaissance.
Renaissance Society (cont.)• Despite being the minority, nobles dominated sixteenth-century Europe during the Renaissance.• Nobles were expected to live up to certain ideals of European aristocracy. These ideals were expressed in Baldasarre Castiglione’s The Book of the Courtier.• Peasants continued to make up the bulk of European society (85-90%) but were gaining more independence during the Renaissance.
Renaissance Society (cont.)• The growing numbers of townspeople were segregated into social groups.• Patricians (upper class) dominated the social and economic aspect of urban areas.• Below them were the burghers (middle class), followed by the poverty-stricken workers and the unemployed.
Renaissance Society (cont.)• The family bond provided a great deal of security to Renaissance-era Italians. As in many societies, a dowry was required in marriage contracts.
The BIG IdeaIdeas, Beliefs, and Values Humanism was animportant intellectual movement of the Renaissanceand was reflected in the works of Renaissance artists.
People, Places, and Events• Petrarch • Raphael• Dante • Michelangelo• Chaucer • Flanders• Canterbury • Jan van Eyck• Christine de Pizan • Albrecht Dürer
Italian Renaissance Humanism Humanism, based on study of the ancient classics, revived an interest in ancient Latin; but many authors wrote great works in the vernacular.
Italian Renaissance Humanism (cont.)• A key intellectual movement of the Renaissance was humanism.• Humanists studied grammar, rhetoric, poetry, moral philosophy, and history.• Petrarch, (known as the father of Italian Renaissance Humanism) believed that intellectuals had a duty to live an active civic life and put their study of the humanities to the state’s service.• The humanist emphasis on classical Latin (form of Latin used by ancient Romans) led to an increase in the writings of scholars, lawyers, and theologians.
Italian Renaissance Humanism (cont.)• The Italian author Dante and the English author Geoffrey Chaucer wrote in vernacular, making vernacular literature very popular.• Dante’s masterpiece was the story of the soul’s journey to salvation, called the Divine Comedy.• Chaucer’s The Canterbury Tales used English dialect to tell the tale of pilgrims journeying to the tomb of Saint Thomas à Becket at Canterbury, England.
Italian Renaissance Humanism (cont.)• Christine de Pizan wrote in French dialect and is best known for defending women and their ability to learn if given the same educational opportunities as men.
Renaissance Education Education during the Renaissance focused on the liberal studies.
Renaissance Education (cont.)• The humanist movement had a profound effect on education.• Humanists believed that individuals could attain wisdom and virtue by studying liberal studies. Physical education was also emphasized.• Liberal Studies: history, moral philosophy, eloquence (or rhetoric), letters (grammar and logic), poetry, mathematics, astronomy, and music.
Renaissance Education (cont.)• Physical education: javelin throwing, archery, dancing, wrestling, hunting, and swimming.• The goal of humanist educators was to create complete citizens, not great scholars.• Humanist schools were the model for European education until the twentieth century.• Renaissance women received an education in religion and morals, so they could be good wives and mothers.
Italian Renaissance Art The Renaissance produced great artists and sculptors such as Michelangelo, Raphael, and Leonardo da Vinci.
Trinity by MassacioItalian Renaissance Art (cont.)• Renaissance artists sought to imitate nature through a human-focused worldview.• Frescos, (paintings done on fresh, wet plaster) created the illusion of three dimensions, leading to a new realistic style of painting.• Frescoes by Massaccio are the first masterpieces of the Early Renaissance.• Realistic portrayal of the individual, especially nude depictions, became one of the chief aims of Italian Renaissance art.
Italian Renaissance Art (cont.)• Advances in understanding human movement and anatomy led to advances in Renaissance sculpture and architecture.• The final era of Italian Renaissance painting (1490 to 1520) is known as the High Renaissance.• Leonardo da Vinci mastered the art of realistic painting and sought to advance to idealized forms of nature and humans.
Italian Renaissance Art (cont.)• Raphael was a well known artist for his paintings of the madonna. His works reveal a world of balance, harmony, and order.• Michelangelo was a painter, sculptor, and architect. His depictions of idealized humans are meant as a reflection of divine beauty.
The Northern Artistic Renaissance Northern European artists, especially those in the Low Countries, portrayed their world realistically but in a different way than did the Italian artists.
The Northern Artistic Renaissance (cont.)• Artists in the Low Countries (today’s Belgium, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands) also sought to portray their world realistically. • Religious themes were common like in the• As Italian Renaissance. opposed to Italian artists who perfected their work on the large, open spaces of Italian churches, Northern European artists painted on much smaller canvases.• One of the most important art schools in northern Europe was in Flanders, one of the Low Countries.
The Northern Artistic Renaissance (cont.)• Artists such as Jan van Eyck were among the first to use and perfect oil painting. • Like many Northern Renaissance artists, Jan van Eyck imitated nature by observing reality and portraying details the best he could.• By 1500, Artists from northern Europe, such as German Albrecht Dürer, traveled to Italy to study the Italian standards and laws of perspective. • Dürer, did not reject the use of minute details, which was a characteristic of northern artists. Adoration of the Magi, by Albrecht Durer
-Jan Van EyckThe Arnolfini PortraitThe painting is a small full-lengthdouble portrait, which is believedto represent the Italian merchantGiovanni di Nicolao Arnolfini andhis wife, presumably in their homein the Flemish city of Bruges. It isconsidered one of the mostoriginal and complex paintings inWestern art.
The BIG IdeaIdeas, Beliefs, and Values In northern Europe,Christian humanists sought to reform the CatholicChurch, and Protestantism emerged.
People, Places, and Events• Martin Luther • Charles V• Desiderius Erasmus • Bohemia• Wittenberg • Hungary• Ninety-five Theses • Peace of Augsburg• Edict of Worms
Prelude to Reformation Christian humanism and Desiderius Erasmus paved the way for the Protestant Reformation.
Prelude to Reformation (cont.)• During the second half of the fifteenth century, adherents of Christian humanism sought to reform the Catholic Church.• Christian humanists believed that humans could improve themselves and thus improve society. • Also that is people read the classics, and especially the basic works of Christianity, they would be more pious. Europe After the Peace of Augsburg, 1555
Prelude to Reformation (cont.)• Desiderius Erasmus thought that external forms of medieval religion such as pilgrimages, fasts, and relics were unnecessary and that inner piety derived from religious philosophy was more important. • He called his view of religion “the philosophy of Christ.” • By this, he meant that Christianity should show people how to live good lives.
Prelude to Reformation (cont.)• Reasons for Reform of the Catholic Church: – Catholic Popes were more concerned with politics and material goods than spiritual guidance. – Parish priests seemed ignorant of their spiritual duties.
Prelude to Reformation (cont.) – An automatic means of obtaining salvation, (acceptance into heaven) such as the collection of relics, was being presented to the people. – The use of indulgences, was used to avoid punishment for sin. – Other people sought certainty of salvation in the popular mystical movement known as the Modern Devotion – Downpla yed religious dogma
Martin Luther Believing in his new doctrine of salvation, Martin Luther broke from the Catholic Church and established Lutheranism.
Martin Luther (cont.)• Martin Luther was a monk and professor at the University of Wittenberg in Germany.• He believed that humans would be saved by their faith in God and not by the good works done in His name.• Also believed that clergy should marry. Eventually got married himself.• Only recognized the sacraments of baptism and Communion.
Martin Luther (cont.)• Luther did not want to break away from the Church, only to reform it. He wrote a list of his grievances, known as the Ninety-five Theses, and copies were sent all over Germany.• He attacked the abuses in the sale of indulgences, beginning the Protestant Reformation.• In 1521, Luther was excommunicated for attempting to get German princes to overthrow the papacy and establish a reformed German church.
Martin Luther (cont.)• The Edict of Worms made Luther an outlaw in the Holy Roman Empire, and his works were banned.• Many German princes who supported Luther confiscated Church land, and a government church was established.• A new religious service which consisted of reading the Bible, preaching the word of God, and songs, became the basis of the doctrine known as Lutheranism.• Lutheranism was the first Protestant faith.
Politics in the German Reformation Political and religious problems forced the emperor of the Holy Roman Empire to seek peace with the Lutheran princes.
Politics in the German Reformation (cont.)• The Holy Roman Empire was ruled by Charles V who wanted the empire to remain Catholic.• The empire included Spain, Austria, Bohemia, Hungary, the Low Countries, Milan, and Naples. (Not France).• Problems with the Ottoman Turks, French rivalry, and the alliance of the German kingdoms prevented Charles from asserting military power over the Protestant Reformation in Germany.
Politics in the German Reformation (cont.)• In 1555 the Peace of Augsburg ended the religious wars by accepting the division of Christianity. German rulers, but NOT the German people, could choose their own religion.
The BIG IdeaIdeas, Beliefs, and Values Different forms ofProtestantism emerged in Europe as theReformation spread, and the Catholic Churchunderwent a religious rebirth.
People and Places• Ulrich Zwingli• Zürich• John Calvin• Geneva• King Henry VIII• Ignatius of Loyola• Trent
Divisions in Protestantism By the mid-sixteenth century, Calvinism replaced Lutheranism as the most important and dynamic form of Protestantism.
Divisions in Protestantism (cont.)• John Calvin was a Frenchman whose conversion to Protestantism forced him to flee to Switzerland.• Calvin believed in an all-powerful God and the idea of predestination.• Greatest work was the Institutes of Christian Religion, a summary on protestant thought. European Religions, 1600
D• Calvin’s ideas led to the rise of Calvinism which soon became more popular than Lutheranism.• Major tenet was the idea of Predestination: God had predestined some people (the elect) to be saved, and others (the reprobate) to be damned.• Calvin worked to reform the city of Geneva, Switzerland, creating a church-government.• Geneva soon became the center of Protestant reform in Europe, and its missionaries were sent all over to convert the local populations.
Reformation in England For political, not religious, reasons, Henry VIII established the Church of England.
Reformation in England (cont.)• King Henry VIII of England established the Church of England when the pope refused to annul his marriage to Catherine of Aragon. • Wanted a son but had a daughter (Mary).• The Act of Supremacy of 1534 declared the king of England the official head of religious doctrine, with control over discipline, clerical appointments, and breaking ties with the pope.• Henry’s Church of England was very similar to Catholicism, although after his death English officials attempted to make it more “Protestant”.
Reformation in England (cont.)• In 1553, Henry’s daughter, Mary, came to power and attempted to restore Roman Catholicism.• Her efforts, including the burning of more than 300 Protestants, earned her the nickname of “Bloody Mary.”
Anabaptists For believing in the complete separation of church and state, Anabaptists were viewed as dangerous radicals.
Anabaptists (cont.)• Anabaptists were Protestant reformers who did not want to give power to the state.• Anabaptists believed: – Religion should be voluntary; baptism occurred as an adult, and was by immersion. – All believers were equal; any member could become a minister. – Separation of state and church; refused to bear arms or serve in military positions
Anabaptists (cont.) – The religious and political beliefs of the Anabaptists seemed radical, and they were persecuted by Catholics and Protestants.
Reformation and Society Although the family became the center of life during the Reformation, the lives of most women and Jews did not improve.
Reformation and Society (cont.)• With the rise of Protestantism came the end of celibacy for Church leaders.• Women were subservient, and their roles were obedience to their husband and to bear children.• Protestants expected Jews to convert to Lutheranism. When they refused, Protestants such as Martin Luther wrote that Jewish synagogues and homes should be destroyed. Roman Catholic, Lutheran, Calvinist, and Anglican Beliefs
Catholic Reformation Perceiving a need for a change, Pope Paul III steered the Catholic Church toward a reformation in the 1500s.
Catholic Reformation (cont.)• The Catholic response to the Protestant Reformation was a Catholic Reformation.• A Spanish nobleman named Ignatius of Loyola founded the Jesuits, a group who swore allegiance to the pope.• Jesuit missionaries were influential in spreading Catholicism in Germany and the rest of the world.
Catholic Reformation (cont.)• Pope Paul II led a reformation of the papacy, ending corruption either real or perceived.• The pope, archbishops, bishops, and other theologians met irregularly at the Council of Trent to discuss Church matters and establish Catholic doctrine.
THE RENAISSANCE in Italy andNorthern Europe• Milan, Venice, and Florence became centers of Renaissance learning and culture.• Machiavelli’s views on gaining and holding power influenced political leaders.• Humanist education focused on liberal studies.• Artists sought to portray the world realistically.
THE REFORMATION Begins• Erasmus and other Christian humanists paved the way for the Protestant Reformation.• Catholic teaching stressed faith and good works, but Luther believed that faith alone was sufficient for salvation.• The Peace of Augsburg ended the religious wars and allowed German states to choose between Catholicism and Lutheranism.
THE REFORMATION Spreads• Calvinism replaced Lutheranism as the most important form of Protestantism.• Henry VIII established the Church of England for political rather than religious reasons.• Anabaptists believed in the total separation of church and state.• Pope Paul III took steps to reform the Catholic Church.
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urban societya system in which cities are thecenter of political, economic, andsocial life
Christian humanisma movement that developed innorthern Europe during theRenaissance, combining classicallearning (humanism) with the goal ofreforming the Catholic Church
salvationthe state of being saved (that is,going to heaven) through faith aloneor through faith and good works
indulgencea release from all or part ofpunishment for sin by the CatholicChurch, reducing time in purgatoryafter death
Lutheranismthe religious doctrine that MartinLuther developed; it differed fromCatholicism in the doctrine ofsalvation, which Luther believed couldbe achieved by faith alone, not bygood works; Lutheranism was the firstProtestant faith
justificationthe process of being justified, ordeemed worthy of salvation, by God
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