By Spencer Shapiro
Background/Introduction
Immigrants can improve overall
economic and social welfare, meaning
they can contribute to the gro...
Background/Introduction
 Assimilation

is measured by Hispanic
homeownership
 Can current and future immigrants
become p...
Materials & Methods
 Publicly

available de-identified and
anonymized data
 2010 American Community Survey
 American Fa...
Materials & Methods


The data consisted of variables that measured:
 Educational attainment
 Percentage of Cubans in t...
Materials & Methods


A Principal Components Analysis was used
to demonstrate variables effect on census
tracts
 Cultura...
Results
Table 1
Component matrix for
New Jersey counties:
Bergen
Hudson
The values in the
table created the
descriptors fo...
Results
Table 2
Component matrix for
Florida counties:
Broward
Miami-Dade
The values in the
table created the
descriptors ...
Results – Bergen County
Results – Hudson County
Results – Broward County
Results – Miami Dade County
Results
 Tables

3, 6, 9, and 12:
 Components of principal component
values with Eigenvalues > 1.0
 Percent of the vari...
Results








Tables 4, 7, 10, and 13 shows summary of model’s
regression analysis.
Independent variables were the ...
Results
Tables 5, 8, 11, and 14 show the regression
coefficients and the significance of each
component.
 For instance, i...
Discussion
 Results

support hypothesis:

 Show Cuban immigrants have

assimilated economically into the United
States.
...
Discussion


The regression for each model was
significant in explaining Hispanic home
ownership,
 Demonstrates each cou...
Discussion
Cuban residents who have achieved
economic assimilation, or
homeownership have the ability to
speak English wel...
Discussion


It’s important that Cuban immigrants were given
political refugee status
 Given access to certain benefits ...
Discussion
The components that were significant for describing
economic assimilation in the four counties analyzed
give an...
Discussion
Immigration reform is being debated in the House of
Representatives after being passed in the Senate
earlier th...
Discussion
Without government support, new
immigrants may not be able to achieve
economic success, the American
Dream, and...
Acknowledgements


Professor Ines M. Miyares
 Hunter College - CUNY



Dr. Zach Lynn
 Bronx High School of Science
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The Economic Assimilation of Cuban Immigrants in the United States

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The Economic Assimilation of Cuban Immigrants in the United States

  1. 1. By Spencer Shapiro
  2. 2. Background/Introduction Immigrants can improve overall economic and social welfare, meaning they can contribute to the growth of our economy and society at large by enhancing their opportunities in the US, but only under proper conditions  Determined by:   skills,  knowledge,  and experience they amass, or Human Capital.
  3. 3. Background/Introduction  Assimilation is measured by Hispanic homeownership  Can current and future immigrants become prosperous without losing their cultures?  Look at predecessors’ experience  How can government action can help?
  4. 4. Materials & Methods  Publicly available de-identified and anonymized data  2010 American Community Survey  American Fact Finder search engine.  Cuban immigrants from:  Miami-Dade and Broward counties in Florida  Hudson and Bergen counties in New Jersey.
  5. 5. Materials & Methods  The data consisted of variables that measured:  Educational attainment  Percentage of Cubans in the Hispanic population  Percentage of Hispanics and Whites in the total population,  Percent of population that spoke ○ ○ ○ ○     Spanish at home English very well English less than very well English only at home Median income of both Hispanics and Whites Total labor force participation of both Hispanics and Whites Percent of Whites that own homes Median age
  6. 6. Materials & Methods  A Principal Components Analysis was used to demonstrate variables effect on census tracts  Cultural and Economic characteristics of the areas.  Regression model used to analyze relationship between  Component variables and Hispanic homeownership  Do component variables indicate economic assimilation in the census tracts?
  7. 7. Results Table 1 Component matrix for New Jersey counties: Bergen Hudson The values in the table created the descriptors for each component.
  8. 8. Results Table 2 Component matrix for Florida counties: Broward Miami-Dade The values in the table created the descriptors for each component.
  9. 9. Results – Bergen County
  10. 10. Results – Hudson County
  11. 11. Results – Broward County
  12. 12. Results – Miami Dade County
  13. 13. Results  Tables 3, 6, 9, and 12:  Components of principal component values with Eigenvalues > 1.0  Percent of the variance each component explains.
  14. 14. Results      Tables 4, 7, 10, and 13 shows summary of model’s regression analysis. Independent variables were the four factors found to have an Eigenvalue > 1.0. Dependent variable for the regression was Hispanic home ownership, the key variable in the analysis that determines economic assimilation. Tables shows the r-square value for the models, indicating how much the independent variables explain the variance in Hispanic home ownership. Tables show that all four models were significant, indicating the four factors together help explain Hispanic home ownership for each county.
  15. 15. Results Tables 5, 8, 11, and 14 show the regression coefficients and the significance of each component.  For instance, in contrast to the entire model, components 3 and 4 of Bergen County are non-significant.   Their β-coefficients are small  Negligible impact on regression equation.  Another example is that components 1 and 2 of Bergen County are both significant, indicating they explain variance in Hispanic home ownership
  16. 16. Discussion  Results support hypothesis:  Show Cuban immigrants have assimilated economically into the United States.  Not every component supports the hypothesis that Cuban’s have assimilated economically, but not culturally.
  17. 17. Discussion  The regression for each model was significant in explaining Hispanic home ownership,  Demonstrates each county’s population has different characteristics  Characteristics help explain Hispanic homeownership in one county, but not in another,  Supports the idea that geography is important in determining economic assimilation.
  18. 18. Discussion Cuban residents who have achieved economic assimilation, or homeownership have the ability to speak English well.  This does not entirely support the hypothesis.  Although Cubans have maintained some of their cultural background by remaining fluent in Spanish, the need to speak and understand English has impacted their success in this country. 
  19. 19. Discussion  It’s important that Cuban immigrants were given political refugee status  Given access to certain benefits other immigrant groups may not have access to.  It would not be feasible for the United States government to offer refugee benefits to all the immigrants who entered the country each year.  Yet many of the programs that refugees have access to, are beneficial, and could have impacted the economic assimilation of Cuban immigrants, and other immigrant groups  The government should provide similar important programs to provide the head start to other immigrants that refugees are given.
  20. 20. Discussion The components that were significant for describing economic assimilation in the four counties analyzed give an indication of the important factors for homeownership and economic assimilation, and in turn economic success.  These components include:       High educational attainment High median income High labor force participation Ability to speak English well Programs such as ESL courses, job training and placement, and loan programs for education, like the ones offered in the Cuban Refugee Program could significantly improve the conditions of new immigrants in this country.
  21. 21. Discussion Immigration reform is being debated in the House of Representatives after being passed in the Senate earlier this year.  This bill would provide illegal immigrants a legal way to attain citizenship and make legal immigration more efficient.  A Refugee Protection Act is also being debated in the Senate.   Would refine some of the issues with the Refugee Act of 1980  These two bills would change the face of the country, and give millions of people access to the benefits the United States can offer them, fulfilling their goals in coming to this country.
  22. 22. Discussion Without government support, new immigrants may not be able to achieve economic success, the American Dream, and better the country as a whole.  This country was built on the backs of hard working immigrants  With government help new immigrants can help continue the positive legacy of immigration in this country. 
  23. 23. Acknowledgements  Professor Ines M. Miyares  Hunter College - CUNY  Dr. Zach Lynn  Bronx High School of Science

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