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The Global Digital Divide
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  • 1. The GLOBALdigital divideCountry Focus:The Philippines and India
    By Elaissa Marina E. Mendoza
  • 2. global digital divide
    the differential extent to which rich and poor countries benefit from various forms of information technology
    rapidly growing disparities in the utilization, expenditure, and availability of technology that are apparent worldwide
    • Example: 88% of all Internet users were from industrialized countries which comprised only 15% of the world’s population (World Economic Forum, 2002)
  • conventional measures of digital divide
    Internet usage
    Mobile phone usage
  • 3. Does a digital divide still exist?
    Comparison of Mobile Phone Subscribers Between Developed and Developing Countries
    (1998-2004)
  • 4. Does a digital divide still exist?
    Comparison of Internet Usage Between Developed and Developing Countries
    (1998-2004)
  • 5. Mobile phone usage in the philippines
  • 6. FAST FACTS ABOUT MOBILE PHONE USAGE IN THE PHILIPPINES
    Philippines is the SMS capital of the world
    An average of 500 million text messages a day (National Telecommunications Commission, 2006)
    Mobile phone ownership has risen to more than 25% of the population, six times higher than landline penetration.
  • 7. Mobile phone subscribers
    The number of mobile phone subscribers has been increasing through the years.
  • 8. Mobile phone subscribers
    Mobile phone subscribers have more than doubled in number since 2004.
    Statistical Profile of the Philippines
    (Mobile Phone Subscribers, 2004-2008)
  • 9. Reasons for the increased usage
    landline telephone service is notoriously poor
    intense competition among telecommunication companies
    continuous innovation
    Filipinos’ predilection towards the cellular phone
    • 94% of Filipino cellular phone users send text messages everyday, with 70% of these texters sending as many as 10 messages a day (Pulse Asia, 2003)
  • Uses for Mobile Phone
    social networking purposes
    allows access to many public service, medical and governmental functions (e.g., report pollution violations, crime)
    revolutionized political protest (e.g, EDSA 2 where former President Estrada was deposed)
  • 10. Comparison to india: fast facts
    India has the fifth largest telecommunication network in the world (Singh, 2005) comprised of 92.52 million mobile phone users
    World’s fastest growing market for mobile phones
    Cellular or mobile telephone services are available in 1,452 Indian cities and towns
  • 11. Mobile phone subscription in india
    Mobile phone subscription has also increased through the years in India.
    Statistical Profile of India
    (Mobile Phone Subscribers, 2004-2008)
  • 12. Comparing the Philippines and India
    A comparison between Philippines and India shows that the former has an even higher density of mobile phone subscribers.
    Comparison of Mobile Phone Subscribers
    Between Philippines and India (2004-2008)
  • 13. Notwithstanding the remarkable progress made, mobile cellular penetration still remains low in Asia and the Pacific compared to that of the developed world.
  • 14. INTERNET USAGE IN THE PHILIPPINES
  • 15. Fast facts about internet use in the philippines
    28% of Filipinos in urban centers, including Manila, regularly access the Internet (slightly above the world average of approximately 22%)
    Internet usage in urban centers has grown from 20% (1st quarter of 2008) to 28% (end of 2008)
    Source: Yahoo-Nielsen Net Index Initiative
  • 16. Fast facts…
    71 % of the country’s Internet population say they have accessed the Internet through e-cafes in the past three months
    Internet cafes have become the great equalizer for all social classes in accessing the Internet.
    Source: Yahoo-Nielsen Net Index Initiative
  • 17. Fast facts…
    81% of Internet users from Class CDE said they are regular Internet café users compared to 21% from Class ABC1 and 27% from Class C2
    55% of all online users are from Class D socioeconomic class
    Source: Yahoo-Nielsen Net Index Initiative
  • 18. Fast facts…
    At least 49% of Internet users in the Philippines are ages 10-19 while 32% are ages 20-29
    63% use the Internet for email and instant messaging (IM)
    51% have visited a social networking site in the past month
    • 92% use Friendster for social networking
    Source: Yahoo-Nielsen Net Index Initiative
  • 19. Statistical profile of the philippines
    Summary of Internet Use
    (Philippines, 2004-2008)
  • 20. Comparison to india: fast facts
    an average of 3.4% of the population in larger cities uses the Internet
    usage in smaller cities, particularly in rural areas, and among lower-income groups is much smaller
    as of 2003, there is only 0.1 Internet cafe per 10,000 people
    acknowledged as the “outsourcing center of the world”
    cornered 70% of the call center business process outsourcing (BPO)
  • 21. Fast facts… (cont.)
    Despite India having a reputation as a major global hub of innovation, the country only ranks 63rd in the Technology Achievement Index (TAI).
    Reasons:
    • different states in India vary considerably in technological achievement
    • 22. adult illiteracy is still high despite the fact that the country has the world’s seventh largest number of scientists and engineers
    Source: UNDP, 2001
  • 23. Statistical profile of india
    Summary of Internet Use in India
    (2004-2008)
  • 24. Comparing philippines and india
    Comparison of Internet Users Between Philippines and India (2004 – 2008)
  • 25. Comparison of Internet users in Asia-pacific
    The level of internet use in the Philippines and India remains low compared to that of upper-middle and high-income countries.
  • 26. Internet user penetration in asia-pacific and in the world
    The Philippines and India, who are both lower middle-income countries, have low internet user penetration compared to upper middle and high-income countries in Asia-Pacific.
  • 27. conclusion
  • 28. conclusion
    The Asia and the Pacific region has emerged as a world leader in several key ICT indicators in the last decade.
    It is the region with the highest share of fixed telephone lines, mobile cellular subscriptions, and internet users.
    The large absolute numbers can be attributed to the large share of the world population the region accounts for.
  • 29. Conclusion
    But ICT penetration in the region remains relatively low, below the world average.
    The penetration rates for mobile cellular subscriptions and internet users in low and lower-middle-income economies of the region such as the Philippines and India, are relatively low.
  • 30. Conclusion
    Huge divides exist between the few high-income economies and the rest of the economies of the region in terms of household access and individual use of computers and – particularly – Internet.
    This needs to be addressed urgently by ICT policymakers in those countries.