The GLOBALdigital divideCountry Focus:The Philippines and India By Elaissa Marina E. Mendoza
global digital divide the differential extent to which rich and poor countries benefit from various forms of information technology rapidly growing disparities in the utilization, expenditure, and availability of technology that are apparent worldwide
Example: 88% of all Internet users were from industrialized countries which comprised only 15% of the world’s population (World Economic Forum, 2002)
conventional measures of digital divide Internet usage Mobile phone usage
Does a digital divide still exist? Comparison of Mobile Phone Subscribers Between Developed and Developing Countries (1998-2004)
Does a digital divide still exist? Comparison of Internet Usage Between Developed and Developing Countries (1998-2004)
FAST FACTS ABOUT MOBILE PHONE USAGE IN THE PHILIPPINES Philippines is the SMS capital of the world An average of 500 million text messages a day (National Telecommunications Commission, 2006) Mobile phone ownership has risen to more than 25% of the population, six times higher than landline penetration.
Mobile phone subscribers The number of mobile phone subscribers has been increasing through the years.
Mobile phone subscribers Mobile phone subscribers have more than doubled in number since 2004. Statistical Profile of the Philippines (Mobile Phone Subscribers, 2004-2008)
Reasons for the increased usage landline telephone service is notoriously poor intense competition among telecommunication companies continuous innovation Filipinos’ predilection towards the cellular phone
94% of Filipino cellular phone users send text messages everyday, with 70% of these texters sending as many as 10 messages a day (Pulse Asia, 2003)
Uses for Mobile Phone social networking purposes allows access to many public service, medical and governmental functions (e.g., report pollution violations, crime) revolutionized political protest (e.g, EDSA 2 where former President Estrada was deposed)
Comparison to india: fast facts India has the fifth largest telecommunication network in the world (Singh, 2005) comprised of 92.52 million mobile phone users World’s fastest growing market for mobile phones Cellular or mobile telephone services are available in 1,452 Indian cities and towns
Mobile phone subscription in india Mobile phone subscription has also increased through the years in India. Statistical Profile of India (Mobile Phone Subscribers, 2004-2008)
Comparing the Philippines and India A comparison between Philippines and India shows that the former has an even higher density of mobile phone subscribers. Comparison of Mobile Phone Subscribers Between Philippines and India (2004-2008)
Notwithstanding the remarkable progress made, mobile cellular penetration still remains low in Asia and the Pacific compared to that of the developed world.
Fast facts about internet use in the philippines 28% of Filipinos in urban centers, including Manila, regularly access the Internet (slightly above the world average of approximately 22%) Internet usage in urban centers has grown from 20% (1st quarter of 2008) to 28% (end of 2008) Source: Yahoo-Nielsen Net Index Initiative
Fast facts… 71 % of the country’s Internet population say they have accessed the Internet through e-cafes in the past three months Internet cafes have become the great equalizer for all social classes in accessing the Internet. Source: Yahoo-Nielsen Net Index Initiative
Fast facts… 81% of Internet users from Class CDE said they are regular Internet café users compared to 21% from Class ABC1 and 27% from Class C2 55% of all online users are from Class D socioeconomic class Source: Yahoo-Nielsen Net Index Initiative
Fast facts… At least 49% of Internet users in the Philippines are ages 10-19 while 32% are ages 20-29 63% use the Internet for email and instant messaging (IM) 51% have visited a social networking site in the past month
92% use Friendster for social networking
Source: Yahoo-Nielsen Net Index Initiative
Statistical profile of the philippines Summary of Internet Use (Philippines, 2004-2008)
Comparison to india: fast facts an average of 3.4% of the population in larger cities uses the Internet usage in smaller cities, particularly in rural areas, and among lower-income groups is much smaller as of 2003, there is only 0.1 Internet cafe per 10,000 people acknowledged as the “outsourcing center of the world” cornered 70% of the call center business process outsourcing (BPO)
Fast facts… (cont.) Despite India having a reputation as a major global hub of innovation, the country only ranks 63rd in the Technology Achievement Index (TAI). Reasons:
different states in India vary considerably in technological achievement
adult illiteracy is still high despite the fact that the country has the world’s seventh largest number of scientists and engineers
Source: UNDP, 2001
Statistical profile of india Summary of Internet Use in India (2004-2008)
Comparing philippines and india Comparison of Internet Users Between Philippines and India (2004 – 2008)
Comparison of Internet users in Asia-pacific The level of internet use in the Philippines and India remains low compared to that of upper-middle and high-income countries.
Internet user penetration in asia-pacific and in the world The Philippines and India, who are both lower middle-income countries, have low internet user penetration compared to upper middle and high-income countries in Asia-Pacific.
conclusion The Asia and the Pacific region has emerged as a world leader in several key ICT indicators in the last decade. It is the region with the highest share of fixed telephone lines, mobile cellular subscriptions, and internet users. The large absolute numbers can be attributed to the large share of the world population the region accounts for.
Conclusion But ICT penetration in the region remains relatively low, below the world average. The penetration rates for mobile cellular subscriptions and internet users in low and lower-middle-income economies of the region such as the Philippines and India, are relatively low.
Conclusion Huge divides exist between the few high-income economies and the rest of the economies of the region in terms of household access and individual use of computers and – particularly – Internet. This needs to be addressed urgently by ICT policymakers in those countries.