5 4 the power of kings

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  • 1. Chapter 5: Europe in the Middle Ages Section 4: The Power of Kings
  • 2. Vocabulary
    • Nation : A community of people that shares territory and a government
    • Martyr : A person who sacrifices something of great value and especially life itself for the sake of a principle
  • 3. The Power of Nobles
    • Under Feudalism, the nobles held much power
      • It was not uncommon for a noble to have more land, vassals, and knights than his king
  • 4. European Feudalism King Nobles Knights Peasants
  • 5. The Division of Land
  • 6. The Decline of Feudalism
    • The growth of towns and the middle class helped lead to the decline of feudalism
  • 7.
      • Kings supported and defended towns in exchange for money
    The Decline of Feudalism Continued
  • 8. The Decline of Feudalism Continued
      • Kings used this money to attack troublesome nobles
    • The Crusades weakened the power of the nobles as well
  • 9. The Birth of Nations
    • With the decline of feudalism and the nobles, kings became more powerful
      • Kings controlled more land
    • These kingdoms slowly became nations
  • 10. Early Nations of Europe Map Page 117
  • 11. Changes in England
    • In 1066, a noble from Normandy , France invaded England
      • His name was William the Conqueror
      • William defeated the British at The Battle of Hastings and conquered England
  • 12. The Battle of Hastings
  • 13. Changes in England Continued
    • William became a very strong King of England
      • His successors were strong as well
    • One of his successors, King John , tried to take too much power
  • 14. Changes in England Continued
      • He taxed people too heavily
      • He jailed his enemies unjustly
      • He argued with the pope over the appointment of bishops
  • 15.
    • The pope excommunicated King John
    • In 1215 the nobles demanded a meeting with King John at Runnymede , England
    • They forced him to sign the Magna Carta
    The Magna Carta
  • 16. The Magna Carta Continued
    • Magna Carta = “Great Charter”
    • It limited the kings power
      • King could no longer tax without permission from the Parliament
      • King could no longer jail any free man without just cause
  • 17. The Hundred Years War
    • Was a war between the two new nations of England and France
    • This war lasted from 1337-1453
    • Both countries wanted control of:
      • Land
      • English Channel
      • Trade
  • 18. The Hundred Years War
  • 19. The Hundred Years War
    • England won most of the battles
  • 20. The Hundred Years War Continued
    • But France would not give in
  • 21. Joan of Arc
    • A young peasant girl named Joan of Arc was put in charge of French forces
      • She won The Battle of Orleans
  • 22. Joan of Arc Continued
      • Joan also won many other battles
    • She was taken captive by English forces
      • The English put her on trial as a witch
      • They burned her at the stake
  • 23. Joan of Arc Continued
    • Joan continued to inspire the French forces as a martyr
    • In the end, the French chased the English out and won the 100 Years War
  • 24. Results of the War
    • New weapons such as the longbow and the cannon, made knights less important
  • 25. The English Longbow
  • 26. Cannon make Castles Obsolete
  • 27. Results of the War Continued
    • People on both sides begin to think of themselves as citizens of their nation
      • Kings gained power in this way
    • The war set the modern boundaries of England and France
  • 28.