3 2 cultures of middle america

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3 2 cultures of middle america

  1. 1. CHAPTER 3 : Early Civilizations of the Americas SECTION 2 : Cultures of Middle America
  2. 2. VOCABULARY <ul><li>Slash-and-burn agriculture : A farming technique in which trees are cut down and burned to clear and fertilize the land </li></ul><ul><li>Maize : Corn </li></ul><ul><li>Tribute : Wealth one group gives to another as a sign of respect or submission </li></ul>
  3. 3. THE OLMECS <ul><li>Lived along the coast of the Gulf of Mexico </li></ul><ul><li>1200 B.C. to 600 B.C. </li></ul>
  4. 4. THE OLMECS CONTINUED <ul><li>The Olmecs are best remembered for the huge carved stone heads they made </li></ul>
  5. 5. Olmec Heads
  6. 6. THE MAYAS <ul><li>Lived in the jungle of the Yucatan Peninsula (Map page 61) </li></ul><ul><li>250 AD to 900 AD </li></ul>
  7. 7. MAYAN FARMING <ul><li>Used slash and burn agriculture to grow their crops </li></ul>
  8. 8. MAYAN FARMING CONTINUED <ul><li>Maize was their most important food </li></ul>
  9. 9. MAYAN CITIES <ul><li>A different ruler commanded each city </li></ul>
  10. 10. MAYAN CITIES CONTINUED <ul><li>Each city had high ranking priests and nobles </li></ul>
  11. 11. MAYAN CITIES CONTINUED <ul><ul><li>These important people lived in large palaces within the cities </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. MAYAN CITIES CONTINUED <ul><li>Each city held great festivals to honor the many Mayan gods </li></ul>
  13. 13. Mayan Gods
  14. 14. CONTINUED MAYAN CITIES <ul><li>Religious ceremonies took place at large temple-pyramids </li></ul>
  15. 17. MAYAN CITIES CONTINUED <ul><ul><li>The Mayas practiced human sacrifice in order to please their gods </li></ul></ul>
  16. 18. Mayan Human Sacrifice
  17. 19. MAYAN ACCOMPLISHMENTS <ul><li>The Mayas developed a very accurate calendar based on the sun and moon </li></ul>
  18. 20. <ul><li>The Mayas could read and write – They created hieroglyphics </li></ul>MAYAN ACCOMPLISHMENTS CONTINUED
  19. 21. Mayan Hieroglyphics
  20. 22. <ul><li>They were also excellent mathematicians </li></ul>MAYAN ACCOMPLISHMENTS CONTINUED
  21. 23. THE FALL OF THE MAYA <ul><li>Around 900 AD, the Maya abandoned their cities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To this day, nobody knows why </li></ul></ul>
  22. 24. THE AZTECS <ul><li>The Aztecs lived in the Valley of Mexico </li></ul><ul><li>They had no permanent home </li></ul>
  23. 25. THE AZTECS CONTINUED <ul><li>According to legend, their god of war told them to settle where they saw an eagle perched on a cactus holding a snake in it’s beak </li></ul>
  24. 26. <ul><li>They found this eagle on a swampy island in the middle of Lake Texcoco </li></ul><ul><li>Here they founded their capital city - Tenochtitlan </li></ul>CONTINUED THE AZTECS
  25. 28. The Mexican Flag
  26. 29. THE AZTEC EMPIRE <ul><li>The Aztecs were powerful warriors </li></ul>
  27. 30. THE AZTEC EMPIRE CONTINUED <ul><li>They conquered the neighboring tribes and forced them to pay tribute </li></ul>
  28. 31. THE AZTEC EMPIRE CONTINUED <ul><li>Their empire grew quickly </li></ul><ul><li>It lasted from 1325 AD to 1500 AD </li></ul><ul><li>The Aztec Emperor controlled the entire empire </li></ul>
  29. 32. Map Page 61
  30. 33. TENOCHTITLAN <ul><li>Raised streets of earth, called causeways were built to connect the city to the mainland </li></ul>
  31. 34. TENOCHTITLAN CONTINUED <ul><li>As the city grew, more food was needed to feed all the people </li></ul>
  32. 35. TENOCHTITLAN CONTINUED <ul><li>This was difficult because of the swampy conditions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Aztecs built man-made island-gardens called chinampas </li></ul></ul>
  33. 36. Chinampas
  34. 37. Chinampas
  35. 38. TENOCHTITLAN CONTINUED <ul><li>At the center of the city was a plaza and towering pyramids </li></ul>
  36. 40. AZTEC RELIGION <ul><li>The Aztecs wanted to please their gods </li></ul><ul><li>They held ceremonies on their pyramids and temples </li></ul>
  37. 41. <ul><li>The Aztecs believed that the sun would not have the strength to rise every day without human blood </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No sun = no crops </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Therefore, human sacrifice was necessary </li></ul></ul>AZTEC RELIGION CONTINUED
  38. 43. AZTEC RELIGION CONTINUED <ul><ul><li>The victims were usually slaves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>These slaves were captured in the many Aztec wars </li></ul></ul>

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