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3 2 cultures of middle america
 

3 2 cultures of middle america

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    3 2 cultures of middle america 3 2 cultures of middle america Presentation Transcript

    • CHAPTER 3 : Early Civilizations of the Americas SECTION 2 : Cultures of Middle America
    • VOCABULARY
      • Slash-and-burn agriculture : A farming technique in which trees are cut down and burned to clear and fertilize the land
      • Maize : Corn
      • Tribute : Wealth one group gives to another as a sign of respect or submission
    • THE OLMECS
      • Lived along the coast of the Gulf of Mexico
      • 1200 B.C. to 600 B.C.
    • THE OLMECS CONTINUED
      • The Olmecs are best remembered for the huge carved stone heads they made
    • Olmec Heads
    • THE MAYAS
      • Lived in the jungle of the Yucatan Peninsula (Map page 61)
      • 250 AD to 900 AD
    • MAYAN FARMING
      • Used slash and burn agriculture to grow their crops
    • MAYAN FARMING CONTINUED
      • Maize was their most important food
    • MAYAN CITIES
      • A different ruler commanded each city
    • MAYAN CITIES CONTINUED
      • Each city had high ranking priests and nobles
    • MAYAN CITIES CONTINUED
        • These important people lived in large palaces within the cities
    • MAYAN CITIES CONTINUED
      • Each city held great festivals to honor the many Mayan gods
    • Mayan Gods
    • CONTINUED MAYAN CITIES
      • Religious ceremonies took place at large temple-pyramids
    •  
    •  
    • MAYAN CITIES CONTINUED
        • The Mayas practiced human sacrifice in order to please their gods
    • Mayan Human Sacrifice
    • MAYAN ACCOMPLISHMENTS
      • The Mayas developed a very accurate calendar based on the sun and moon
      • The Mayas could read and write – They created hieroglyphics
      MAYAN ACCOMPLISHMENTS CONTINUED
    • Mayan Hieroglyphics
      • They were also excellent mathematicians
      MAYAN ACCOMPLISHMENTS CONTINUED
    • THE FALL OF THE MAYA
      • Around 900 AD, the Maya abandoned their cities
        • To this day, nobody knows why
    • THE AZTECS
      • The Aztecs lived in the Valley of Mexico
      • They had no permanent home
    • THE AZTECS CONTINUED
      • According to legend, their god of war told them to settle where they saw an eagle perched on a cactus holding a snake in it’s beak
      • They found this eagle on a swampy island in the middle of Lake Texcoco
      • Here they founded their capital city - Tenochtitlan
      CONTINUED THE AZTECS
    •  
    • The Mexican Flag
    • THE AZTEC EMPIRE
      • The Aztecs were powerful warriors
    • THE AZTEC EMPIRE CONTINUED
      • They conquered the neighboring tribes and forced them to pay tribute
    • THE AZTEC EMPIRE CONTINUED
      • Their empire grew quickly
      • It lasted from 1325 AD to 1500 AD
      • The Aztec Emperor controlled the entire empire
    • Map Page 61
    • TENOCHTITLAN
      • Raised streets of earth, called causeways were built to connect the city to the mainland
    • TENOCHTITLAN CONTINUED
      • As the city grew, more food was needed to feed all the people
    • TENOCHTITLAN CONTINUED
      • This was difficult because of the swampy conditions
        • The Aztecs built man-made island-gardens called chinampas
    • Chinampas
    • Chinampas
    • TENOCHTITLAN CONTINUED
      • At the center of the city was a plaza and towering pyramids
    •  
    • AZTEC RELIGION
      • The Aztecs wanted to please their gods
      • They held ceremonies on their pyramids and temples
      • The Aztecs believed that the sun would not have the strength to rise every day without human blood
        • No sun = no crops
        • Therefore, human sacrifice was necessary
      AZTEC RELIGION CONTINUED
    •  
    • AZTEC RELIGION CONTINUED
        • The victims were usually slaves
        • These slaves were captured in the many Aztec wars