CHAPTER 1: Byzantine and
Muslim Civilizations
SECTION 2: The Beginnings of Islam
VOCABULARY
•Nomads: People who have no
permanent home but move from
place to place
•Oasis: Green area within a desert
fed ...
VOCABULARY
•Mosque: Muslim house of worship
•Quran: The holy book of Islam
Continued
THE ARABIAN PENINSULA
•Covered by desert
•Nomadic Bedouins make their home here
•Bedouins travel from oasis to oasis
THE ARABIAN PENINSULA
•Knowledge of desert allows Bedouins to
become guides for caravans on trading routes
•Caravans depen...
Maps of
Saudi
Arabia
THE PROPHET MUHAMMAD
• Born in Mecca around 570
AD to a poor family
• 610 AD he goes into a cave in
the mountains to pray
...
THE PROPHET MUHAMMADContinued
• Muhammad tells his story and
becomes a prophet
• People who accepted the
teaching of Muham...
THE PROPHET MUHAMMADContinued
• 622 AD Muhammad is
invited to the city of
Yathrib
• Muhammad and his
followers move north ...
Maps of
Saudi
Arabia
Hijra
Maps of
Saudi
Arabia
THE PROPHET MUHAMMADContinued
• 630 AD
Muhammad
returns to Mecca
in triumph –
Everyone in
Arabia becomes
a Muslim
MUSLIM BELIEF
• Muslims worship in a mosque
• The holy book of Islam is called the Quran
PILLAR DESCRIPTION
Declaration of Faith Declare the one and only God is
Allah
Prayer Pray 5 times a day facing Mecca
Almsg...
A SPLIT AMONG MUSLIMS
• 632 AD Muhammad dies
• A new ruler is elected to lead
the Muslim people
• The third leader is
assa...
REPLACEMENT
OF LEADER
LEADERSHIP FOLLOWING
SHIITES Direct
descendant of
Muhammad
One person 15% of
Muslims
SUNNIS Anyone f...
1 2 the beginnings of islam
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1 2 the beginnings of islam

  1. 1. CHAPTER 1: Byzantine and Muslim Civilizations SECTION 2: The Beginnings of Islam
  2. 2. VOCABULARY •Nomads: People who have no permanent home but move from place to place •Oasis: Green area within a desert fed by underground water •Caravan: Large groups of traders traveling across the desert •Prophet: A person who is regarded as speaking for god
  3. 3. VOCABULARY •Mosque: Muslim house of worship •Quran: The holy book of Islam Continued
  4. 4. THE ARABIAN PENINSULA •Covered by desert •Nomadic Bedouins make their home here •Bedouins travel from oasis to oasis
  5. 5. THE ARABIAN PENINSULA •Knowledge of desert allows Bedouins to become guides for caravans on trading routes •Caravans depend upon camels •City of Mecca becomes most important in Arabia Continued
  6. 6. Maps of Saudi Arabia
  7. 7. THE PROPHET MUHAMMAD • Born in Mecca around 570 AD to a poor family • 610 AD he goes into a cave in the mountains to pray • An angel visits Muhammad in the cave • Tells him people must stop worshipping many false gods • They must worship the one true god, Allah
  8. 8. THE PROPHET MUHAMMADContinued • Muhammad tells his story and becomes a prophet • People who accepted the teaching of Muhammad were called Muslims • The religion of the Muslims is called Islam • Many people converted to Islam • Leaders of Mecca were afraid and kicked Muhammad out
  9. 9. THE PROPHET MUHAMMADContinued • 622 AD Muhammad is invited to the city of Yathrib • Muhammad and his followers move north to Yathrib • This is known as the Hijra or “great migration” • Yathrib is renamed Medina, “The City of the Prophet”
  10. 10. Maps of Saudi Arabia Hijra
  11. 11. Maps of Saudi Arabia
  12. 12. THE PROPHET MUHAMMADContinued • 630 AD Muhammad returns to Mecca in triumph – Everyone in Arabia becomes a Muslim
  13. 13. MUSLIM BELIEF • Muslims worship in a mosque • The holy book of Islam is called the Quran
  14. 14. PILLAR DESCRIPTION Declaration of Faith Declare the one and only God is Allah Prayer Pray 5 times a day facing Mecca Almsgiving Give money to the needy Fasting Fast during daylight on the month of Ramadan Pilgrimage Make at least one pilgrimage to Mecca MUSLIM BELIEFContinued • The 5 Pillars (Duties) of Islam
  15. 15. A SPLIT AMONG MUSLIMS • 632 AD Muhammad dies • A new ruler is elected to lead the Muslim people • The third leader is assassinated • Two different ideas on how to replace this leader
  16. 16. REPLACEMENT OF LEADER LEADERSHIP FOLLOWING SHIITES Direct descendant of Muhammad One person 15% of Muslims SUNNIS Anyone from Muhammad’s tribe Group of scholars help leader 85% of Muslims A SPLIT AMONG MUSLIMS Continued • The Muslims schism into Shiites and Sunnis

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