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1 2 the beginnings of islam
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1 2 the beginnings of islam



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  • 1. CHAPTER 1: Byzantine and Muslim Civilizations SECTION 2: The Beginnings of Islam
  • 2. VOCABULARY •Nomads: People who have no permanent home but move from place to place •Oasis: Green area within a desert fed by underground water •Caravan: Large groups of traders traveling across the desert •Prophet: A person who is regarded as speaking for god
  • 3. VOCABULARY •Mosque: Muslim house of worship •Quran: The holy book of Islam Continued
  • 4. THE ARABIAN PENINSULA •Covered by desert •Nomadic Bedouins make their home here •Bedouins travel from oasis to oasis
  • 5. THE ARABIAN PENINSULA •Knowledge of desert allows Bedouins to become guides for caravans on trading routes •Caravans depend upon camels •City of Mecca becomes most important in Arabia Continued
  • 6. Maps of Saudi Arabia
  • 7. THE PROPHET MUHAMMAD • Born in Mecca around 570 AD to a poor family • 610 AD he goes into a cave in the mountains to pray • An angel visits Muhammad in the cave • Tells him people must stop worshipping many false gods • They must worship the one true god, Allah
  • 8. THE PROPHET MUHAMMADContinued • Muhammad tells his story and becomes a prophet • People who accepted the teaching of Muhammad were called Muslims • The religion of the Muslims is called Islam • Many people converted to Islam • Leaders of Mecca were afraid and kicked Muhammad out
  • 9. THE PROPHET MUHAMMADContinued • 622 AD Muhammad is invited to the city of Yathrib • Muhammad and his followers move north to Yathrib • This is known as the Hijra or “great migration” • Yathrib is renamed Medina, “The City of the Prophet”
  • 10. Maps of Saudi Arabia Hijra
  • 11. Maps of Saudi Arabia
  • 12. THE PROPHET MUHAMMADContinued • 630 AD Muhammad returns to Mecca in triumph – Everyone in Arabia becomes a Muslim
  • 13. MUSLIM BELIEF • Muslims worship in a mosque • The holy book of Islam is called the Quran
  • 14. PILLAR DESCRIPTION Declaration of Faith Declare the one and only God is Allah Prayer Pray 5 times a day facing Mecca Almsgiving Give money to the needy Fasting Fast during daylight on the month of Ramadan Pilgrimage Make at least one pilgrimage to Mecca MUSLIM BELIEFContinued • The 5 Pillars (Duties) of Islam
  • 15. A SPLIT AMONG MUSLIMS • 632 AD Muhammad dies • A new ruler is elected to lead the Muslim people • The third leader is assassinated • Two different ideas on how to replace this leader
  • 16. REPLACEMENT OF LEADER LEADERSHIP FOLLOWING SHIITES Direct descendant of Muhammad One person 15% of Muslims SUNNIS Anyone from Muhammad’s tribe Group of scholars help leader 85% of Muslims A SPLIT AMONG MUSLIMS Continued • The Muslims schism into Shiites and Sunnis