1 1 the byzantine empire

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  • 1. CHAPTER 1 : Byzantine and Muslim Civilizations SECTION 1 : The Byzantine Empire
  • 2. VOCABULARY
    • Strait : (noun) A narrow passage that links two bodies of water
    • Schism : (noun) A split, particularly in a church or religion
    • Icon : (noun) An image of a holy person
    • Patriarch : (noun) Highest church official in Constantinople
  • 3. EMPEROR CONSTANTINE
    • 306 AD he became the Roman Emperor
    • Stopped the persecution of Christians
    • Converted to Christianity himself after he wins the Battle of Milvian Bridge
      • Christianity becomes the official religion of the empire
  • 4. EMPEROR CONSTANTINE (Continued)
    • 330 AD moves the capital city from Rome to Byzantium
      • Renames new capital Constantinople (Map Page 9) (Means city of Constantine)
      • People living around Constantinople still called Byzantines
  • 5. The Roman Empire Constantinople
  • 6. THE ROMAN EMPIRE SPLITS
    • After the death of Constantine, the Roman Emperors who followed him continued to rule from Constantinople
    • Roman Empire splits in two
      • Eastern half is based in Constantinople
        • Called The Byzantine Empire
        • Eastern half is more powerful
      • Western half is based in Rome
        • Western half is weak
        • 476 AD Western half falls to the “Barbarians”
  • 7. The Roman Empire Splits Byzantine Empire
  • 8. THE RISE OF THE CITY OF CONSTANTINOPLE
    • City was located on the Bosporus Strait (Map Page 11)
      • Bosporus Strait connects Black Sea with Mediterranean Sea
      • Strait also is a link between Asia and Europe
      • This was a major crossroads of land and sea trade routes
    • As a result many trade goods passed through the city
      • Byzantines taxed these goods
      • Results in great wealth for the empire
  • 9. Map of Byzantine Empire Europe Asia
  • 10. DEFENDING CONSTANTINOPLE
    • The city was built with great walls to prevent a successful attack
    • The secret weapon “ Greek Fire ” repelled any attack from the sea
  • 11. The Defenses of Constantinople
  • 12. Map of the City of Constantinople
  • 13. Map of Byzantine Empire
  • 14. THE EMPEROR JUSTINIAN
    • His rule began in 527 AD
    • Presided over the Byzantium “Golden Age”
    • His wife, Empress Theodora , was an influential advisor
    • Built the Hagia Sophia Cathedral
  • 15. JUSTINIAN’S CODE
    • The code was a system of laws
    • Existing Roman Laws were confusing and contradicting
    • The code was an organized collection and explanation of Byzantine laws
    • Eventually this code became the basis of the legal system we use today
  • 16. A RELIGIOUS DISPUTE
    • The Catholic Church and the Pope in Rome were still very strong
    • The Byzantine Emperor outlaws icons
    • The Pope disagrees with this and banishes the Emperor from the church
    • Byzantines felt the Pope was wrong to do this
    • This argument leads to a schism
    • in 1054 AD
      • This results in two Christian Churches
  • 17. A RELIGIOUS DISPUTE (Continued)
    • ROMAN
    • CATHOLIC CHURCH
    • EASTERN
    • ORTHODOX CHURCH
    LEADER Pope in Rome Patriarch in Constantinople LANGUAGE Latin Greek ICONS ? Yes No (Until ban was lifted)
  • 18. THE FALL OF THE BYZANTINE EMPIRE
    • A long series of wars against Muslims and Europeans weakens the empire
    • Poor leadership from a series of bad emperors hurts as well
  • 19. Map of Byzantine Empire Turks
  • 20. THE FALL OF THE BYZANTINE EMPIRE (Continued)
    • 70,000 Turks surround the city of Constantinople
      • Turks drag their ships over land and then launch them into the harbor
      • Turks bring cannons to blast away the city walls
    • Defending the city were only 7,000 Byzantines
  • 21. Map of the City of Constantinople
  • 22. THE FALL OF THE BYZANTINE EMPIRE (Continued 2)
    • Finally, in 1453 AD, after the defenders hold out for 2 months, Constantinople falls
    • The Byzantine Empire is no more
  • 23. THE FALL OF THE BYZANTINE EMPIRE (Continued 3)
    • The city is renamed Istanbul and to this day continues to be the capital city of the country of Turkey