Communist Russia became an
Stalin’s Objectives for Rapid
1. Transform Russia into a modern industrial
2. To be prepared for an attack by non-
3. Focused on heavy industries (steel,
metallurgy, chemicals, oil, coal and
• Built from scratch mainly using forced labour.
• Largest industrial city.
• Steel from its new factories was used for
building industrial products such as tractors
Development of new industries
• Foreign experts were hired to teach Russians
in technical areas.
• More women were employed.
• Farmers encouraged to work in industries.
How did Stalin implement
• Used Five-Year Plans to
speed up industrialisation.
• Three Five-Year Plans
from 1920s to 1930s.
First Five-Year Plan – 1928 to 1932
• Focused on heavy industries.
• Output doubled in five years for iron and steel
production and in electricity, chemicals and
• Targets were increased.
• Completed in four years instead.
Second Five-Year Plan – 1933 to
• Set new targets for heavy industries.
• More attention given to consumer industries.
• However, from 1934 onwards, priority was
given to industries related to military
Third Five-Year Plan – 1938 to
• Emphasis of military production continued.
• Factories were built to East of the Ural
• Transport and communication networks
• Disrupted when Germany invaded in 1941.
Impact of Industrialisation
• Poor work conditions
• System of rewards and training for workers
• Changing living conditions
Poor work conditions
• Many Russians formed ‘Shock Brigades’
• Initial enthusiasm waned in face of appalling
work conditions and unrealistic production
• Government took strict disciplinary action
against workers who were underperforming or
who engaged in sabotage.
• Government took complete control of the
• Known as a planned economy.
• New government department formed to set
targets in each industry and planned locations
of new towns and industrial cities (mostly East
of Ural Mountains).
System of rewards and training for
• The Communist government offered salaries
based on how much a worker produced.
• Hard work was rewarded.
• Alexei Stakhanov was a role model.
• Primary education was made compulsory.
• By the 1930s, Russian workers were able to
obtain well-paid, high-skilled jobs.
Changing living conditions
• Russians suffered bitterly cold winters
because of no suitable clothing and their
homes were poorly heated.
• Basic goods had to be rationed.
• Between 1928 and 1933, the actual value of
the salaries fell by 50%.
Changing living conditions
• After 1935, rationing ended and more goods
• Workers believed the Soviet Union was
creating a new and better society for
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