Lonnie 11x17 photo voltaic technology


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Lonnie 11x17 photo voltaic technology

  1. 1. Photo-voltaic Panel Technology: Sun Hours/Day Zone Solar Map Panel Types: Mono-crystalline, or Single Crystal Cells: Also known as the original PV technology, was invented in 1955 , and never known to wear out. These single crystal modules are composed of cells cut from a piece of continuous crystal. The material is formed into cylinders which are sliced into thin wafers which can be installed in their circular form to minimize waste or can be trimmed to a desired shape for installation. PV experts generally agree that the crystalline silicone form of cell is the premium technology for critical applications in remote areas. Thin Film Panels: This form of panel can be made light weight by using flexible, plastic glazing. Some of these types of panels can tolerate a bullet hole without failing. Some forms of this panel perform slightly better than crystalline panel modules under low light conditions. The disadvantage of thin film technology are lower efficiency and uncertain durability. This means more space is required and also requires more mounting hardware for the additional panel coverage required. They also tend to be less stable than crystalline and degrade over time causing shorter life spans for the installation. National Average Hours (Over the course of the year) ZONE 1 - 6 hours ZONE 2 - 5.5 hours ZONE 3 - 5 hours ZONE 4 - 4.5 hours ZONE 5 - 4.2 hours ZONE 6 - 3.5 hours Shreveport, Louisiana High: 4.8 hours Low: 3.73 hours Average: 4.4 hours Installation cost Years Polycrystalline Cells: This form of panel entered the market place in 1981 and are made from similar silicon material as the Mono-crystalline panels except these are melted and poured into a mold of a specific shape. As the material cools, it crystallizes in an imperfect manner forming random crystal boundaries. The efficiency of energy conversion is slightly lower which requires the finished module be slightly larger per watt. The irregularity in the crystal structure produces variations of blue which give the appearance of a gemstone, which can be quite nice aesthetically speaking. Residential Installation Residential Installation Residential Installation Installation Process
  2. 2. Photo-voltaic Panel Technology: Panel Mounting Options: There are several options for mounting of PV array’s at a residence. A typical 2 Kilowatt PV system requires 200-400 square feet of unobstructed area to site the system. An additional 20% of area is needed for access to the mounting area and the installed system. The added wight of a PV array is typically 3-to-5 lbs./sq. ft. so this needs to be accounted for with any existing or new structure prior to installation of the system array. Roof Mount: Often the most convenient and appropriate place for installation of the PV system. The system may be mounted above and parallel to the roof surface with several inches of standoff for cooling purposes. With flat roof systems, additional structure is sometimes required to achieve the optimal tilt angle of the installed panels. When applied to masonry style roof systems, additional structural support may be required since the roof system has been designed near the limit of its weight-bearing capacity. Shade Structure: As an alternative to roof mounting, this system is installed as a shading structure such as in a patio cover. The construction cost for such a system can vary depending on the amount of shading desired and the angle at which the system is to be installed. If the PV system is at a steeper angle that what the shading device calls for, then additional structural elements would have to be installed. With the shade structure location, some of the installation cost could possibly be traded off with less mounting hardware and associated installation labor. Although the overall cost for such an installation may be more than the roof mount option, but the of the shade element may be the determining factor for such. Other issues that should be considered with this type of installation are: Simplified array access for maintenance. Module wiring installation needs planning and implementation for visibility issues. Day to day maintenance issues such as vines and other vegetation growth have to be addressed for optimal array operation. Additional factors that affect Photo-voltaic arrays. Additional factors that have to be taken into account when determining the efficiency of the Photo-voltaic system include temperature, dirt and dust accumulation, mismatch and wiring losses, DC to AC conversion losses, failure of wiring systems due to unforeseen or outside intrusion and weather. The installation has to be maintained, cleaned and surveyed for possible problems on a set basis. This may be annually on a month to month basis for some items where others may be on a yearly basis. Good maintenance practices are the key to the most potential in any system and should be scheduled and adhered to. Animal intrusion should be addressed in a timely fashion if it should occur to keep costly repairs to a minimum. Require of the installation company or at a minimum, the manufacturer, information about warranties and service agreements. Most often, a good service contract is a great way to get the full benefit of the installation with the least amount of additional cost to the home/business owner. Ask questions up front before you sign a contract, once you agree to the scope of installation, it is difficult and costly to amend or change such contracts. Orientation of the structure and the sun angle plays a big part in the total efficiency of the installation. During the day, the angle of sunlight striking the solar module will change and has an affect on the total power output of the system. The output from the system will rise from zero during dawn hours and increase with the sun angle to its peak output at midday and then gradually decrease into the afternoon and back to zero at night. Placement and location for optimal solar usage is key to a successful installed system and should be carefully considered prior to installation. Area of coverage, the sun angle and the pitch of the roof play an important part in the efficiency of the installation. See chart for more information: Patio Installation Integrated Roofing Installation Off-Grid Installation Building-Integrated PV array systems (BIPV): This type of system displaces the conventional roofing materials that we typically associate with the building process and is installed in these locations. Commercially available products that are currently available include Roof Slates (similar to masonry roofing) and standing seam metal roof products. These installations required special attention to insure that these elements are installed properly and meet the necessary fire ratings for local codes and ordinances governing the type or scope of construction. With this type of installation, dimensional tolerances require strict adherence and manufacture installation instructions must be followed precisely to remove possible conflicts, roof leakage and installation failure. Grid-Tie Installation
  3. 3. Photo-voltaic Panel Technology: Examples of Specific PV system capabilities: Estimated system cost: System Size: (in watts per hour) Monthly Output Capability: (based on 5 hours of direct/ insolated sunshine per day) Approximate cost: (before tax incentives and rebates) RV Systems Installation These figures are based on a complete solar power system installation installed by a specific installation company (Wholesale Solar). Other companies prices may vary and based on location and other factors. Prices as shown are approximate as of August 2012 and may vary from what is shown. Prices do not include freight, taxes, racking systems, installation of axillary add on items such as battery back-up or purchase price of these item. Federal Tax Credits: Hybrid Installation Tax credits have been extended till 2016 and the new FTC will take effect as of January 1, 2009. (Check with your tax advisor for current conditions) For homes and commercial businesses, it covers solar hot water and solar electric. It does not cover solar pool heaters. For both residential and commercial, you get 30% back with no cap. Check with you tax advisor for proper forms and information that are required to accurately report these systems to the IRS. In the state of Louisiana, Contact (http://www.LSES.org) for more information about solar energy and the possible tax credits possible. Residential Installation (Japan) Other Alternative Energy Programs: Individuals are encouraged to contact other agencies such as “HELP - Home Energy Loan Program” for available financial help in purchasing and installing alternative energy sources for their home of place of business. System mounting blocks: ( Element as shown mount to structure with roof insulation surrounding block) Mounting rail: (panels mount directly to rail which is mounted on racking system structure)