Why Emotions Were Ignored in OB? The “myth of rationality” Emotions of any kind are disruptive to organizations. Original OB focus was solely on the effects of strong negative emotions that interfered with individual and organizational efficiency.
What Are Emotions and Moods? AffectA broad range of emotions that people experience EmotionsIntense feelings that are directed at someone or something MoodsFeelings that tend to be less intense than emotions and that lack a contextual stimulus
Aspects of Emotions Biology of Emotions Originate in brain’s limbic system Intensity of Emotions Personality and Job requirements Frequency and Duration of Emotions How often emotions are exhibited How long emotions are displayed Functions of Emotions Critical for rational thinking Motivate people
Sources of Emotions and Moods Personality Day and Time of the Week Weather Illusory correlation Stress Social Activities Sleep Exercise Age Gender
Positive Moods are Highest At the End of the Week In the Middle Part of the Day (lunch) Negative Moods are Highest At the Beginning of the Week And show little variation throughout the day
Gender and Emotions Women Can show greater emotional expression Experience emotions more intensely Display emotions more frequently Are more comfortable in expressing emotions Are better at reading others’ emotions Men Showing emotions is inconsistent with the male image Are less able to read and to identify with others’ emotions Have less need to seek social approval by showing positive emotions
External Constraints on Emotions OrganizationalInfluences CulturalInfluences IndividualEmotions
Emotional Labor A situation in which an employee expresses organizationally desired emotions during interpersonal transactions. Emotional dissonance—Inconsistencies between the emotions we feel and the emotions we project.
Felt vs. Displayed Emotions Felt Emotions An individual’s actual emotions Displayed Emotions Emotions that are organizationally required and considered appropriate in a given job Surface acting Deep acting
Affective Events Theory (AET) Work events trigger positive and negative emotional reactions Personality and mood determine the intensity of the emotional response. Emotions can influence a broad range of work performance and job satisfaction variables. Implications of the theory ACT Individual response reflects emotions and mood cycles. Current and past emotions affect job satisfaction. Emotional fluctuations create variations in job satisfaction and performance. Both negative and positive emotions can distract workers and reduce job performance.
Self-management = Manage your emotions and impulses
Self-motivation = Can motivate yourself and persist
Empathy = Sense and understand what others feel
Social Skills = Can handle the emotions of others
OB Applications of Emotions and Moods Emotions and Selection Emotions affect employee effectiveness. Decision Making Emotions are an important part of the decision-making process in organizations. Creativity Positive mood increases creativity. Motivation Emotional commitment to work and high motivation are strongly linked.
OB Applications of Emotions and Moods Leadership Emotions are important to acceptance of messages from organizational leaders. Interpersonal Conflict Conflict in the workplace and individual emotions are strongly intertwined. Negotiation Emotions can impair negotiations. Customer Services Emotions affect service quality delivered to customers which, in turn, affects customer relationships.
OB Applications of Emotions and Moods Job Attitudes Can carry over to home Deviant Workplace Behaviors Negative emotions lead to employee deviance (actions that violate norms and threaten the organization). How managers Can Influence Moods? Use humor and give their employees small token of appreciation for work well done. Be in good mood Select positive team members
Summary and Implication for Manager Emotions and moods can affect job performance. You can’t control the employees’ emotions and moods. But managers who understand the role of emotions and moods will significantly improve their ability to explain and predict their coworkers’ behavior .