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ch3 attitudes and job satisfaction ch3 attitudes and job satisfaction Presentation Transcript

  • Chapter3 Attitudes and Job Satisfication 心碩二 何育甄
  • Attitudes
    • Attitudes are evaluative statements - either favorable or unfavorable - concerning objects, people, or events.
    • They reflect how one feels about something.
    • “ I like my job.”
  • Attitudes
    • What are the main components of attitudes ?
    • How consistent are attitudes ?
    • Does behavior always follow from attitudes ?
    • What are the major attitudes ?
    • How are employee attitudes measured ?
    • What is the importance of attitudes to workplace diversity ?
  • What are the main components of attitudes ?
    • Cogniyive component
      • The opinion or belief segment of an attitude .
    • Affective component
      • The emotional or feeling segment of an attitude .
    • Behavioral component
      • An intention to behave in a certain way toward someone or something.
    • In organization, attitudes are important because of their behavioral component.
  • How consistent are attitudes ?
    • Cognitive dissonance
      • Any incompatibility between two or more attitudes or between behavior and attitudes.
    • Festinger argued that any form of inconsistency in uncomfortable and that individuals will attempt to reduce the dissotency and, hence, the discomfort.
    • No individual can completely avoid dissonce.
    • So how do people cope ?
    • The desire to desire reduce dissonce would be determined by
      • The importance of the elementscreating the dissonance.
      • The degree of influence the individual believes he or she has over the elements.
      • The rewards that may be involved in dissonance.
  • Does behavior always follow from attitudes ?
    • The assumed relationship between attitudes and behavior was challenged by a review of the research in the late 1960s.
      • The most powerful moderators of the attitudes-behavior relationship have been found to be the importance of the attitude, its specificity, its accessibility, whether there exist social pressures, and whether a person has direct experience with attitude.
    • Self-Perception Theory
      • Attitudes are used after the fact to make sence out of an action that has already occurred.
  • What are the major job attitudes ?
    • Job satisfaction
      • A positive feeling about one’s job resulting from an evaluation of its characteristics.
    • Job involvement
      • The degree to which a person identifies with a job, actively participates in it, and considers performance important to self-worth.
      • Psychological empowerment.
    • Organizational commitment
      • The degree to which an employee indentifies with a particular organization and its goals and wishes to maintain membership in the organization.
    • Organizational commitment
    • Affective commitment
      • An emotional attachment to the organization and a belief in its values.
    • Continuance commitment
      • The percieved economics values of remaining with an organization compared to leaving it.
    • Normative commitment
      • An obligation to remain with the organization for moral or ethical reasons.
    • Organizational commitment
      • There is a positive relationship between organizational commitment ang job producttivity.
      • There us a negative relationships between organizational commitment and both absenteeism and turnover.
    • Affective commitment
      • Affective commitment is more strongly related to organizational outcomes like performance and turnover than the other two commitment dimensions.
      • Affective commitment was a predictor of various outcomes than the other two commitment dimensions.
    • Other job attitudes
    • Percieved organizational support ( POS )
    • Employee engagement
    • Are thes job attitudes really all that distinct ?
  • How are employee attitudes measured ?
    • Attitude surveys
      • Eliciting responses from employees through questionnaires on how they feel about their jobs, work groups, supervisors, and the organization.
      • The use of regular attitude surveys can alert management to potential problems and employees’ intentions early.
  • What is the importance of attitudes to workplace diversity ?
    • Managers are increasingly concerned with changing employee attitudes to reflect shifting perspectives on racial, gender, and other diversuty issues.
  • Job Satisfaction
    • How do we measure job satisfaction ?
    • How satisfied are employees in their jobs ?
    • What causes an employee to have a high level of job satisfaction ?
    • How do dissatisfied and satisfied employees affect an organization ?
  • Measuring job satisfaction ?
    • A single global rating
      • Reply by circling a number between 1and 5 that corresponds to answers from “highly satisfied ” to “high dissatisfied”.
    • A sumation score made up of number of job facets
      • It identifies key elements in a job and ask for the employee’s feelings about each.
      • These factors are relaed on a standardized scale and than added up to creat an overall score.
    • Is one of the foregoing approaches superior to the other ?
  • How satisfied are people in their jobs ?
    • Are most people satisfied with there jobs ?
    • Research shows that satisfaction levels vary a lot depending on which facet of job satisfaction you’re talking about.
    • Exhibit 3-2
  • What cause job satisfaction ?
    • Enjoying the work itself is almost always the facet most strongly correlated with high level of overall job satisfaction.
    • Pay ( Exhibit 3-3 )
    • Personality also plays a role.
  • The impact of dissatisfied and satisfied employees on the workplace ?
    • Exhibit 3-5
    Active Destructive Passive Constructive
    • Active/ passive
    • Constructive/ destructive
    • Exit
      • Behavior directed toward leaving the organization.
    • Voice
      • Actively and constructively attempting to improve conditions.
    • Loyalty
      • Passively but optimistically waiting for conditions to improve.
    • Neglect
      • Passively allowing conditions to worsen.
    • Job satisfaction and job performance
      • “ Myth or Science ? ”
        • - Organizations with more satisfied employees tend to be more effective than organizations with fewer satisfied employees.
    • Job satisfaction and OCB
      • Job satisfaction should be a major determinant of an employee’s organizational citizenship behavior ( OCB ) .
      • But satisfaction is unrelated to OCB when fairness is controlled.
    • Job satisfaction and customer satisfaction
      • Satisfied employees increase customer satisfaction and loyalty.
      • Dissatified customers can increase an employee’s job dissatisfaction.
      • - Service-oriented bussiness obsess about pleasing their customers.
    • Job satisfaction and absenteeism
      • There is consistent negtive relationship between satisfaction and obsenteeism.
        • -The relation is moderate to weak : organizations that provide liberal sick leave benefits.
    • Job satisfaction and turnover
      • Satisfaction is also negatively related to turnover.
      • -Some factors are important constrains on the actual decision to leave one’s current job.
    • Job satisfaction and workplace deviance
      • Job dissatisfaction predicts a lot of specific behaviors.
      • The key is that if employees don’t like their work environment, they’ll respond somehow.
        • -It is not always easy to forecast exactly how they’ll
        • respond.