National Road Safety Strategy 2011–2020 Implementation status report November 2012
Overview Page 2Purpose of reportThe National Road Safety Strategy 2011–2020 (NRSS) was approved and released by theAustralian Transport Council on 20 May 2011. The NRSS represents the commitment offederal, state and territory governments to an agreed set of national road safety goals,objectives and actions. It has the specific target of reducing Australia’s annual number ofroad deaths and serious injuries by at least 30 per cent by 2020.The NRSS presents a list of ‘first steps’ actions to be undertaken within three years, as wellas a range of possible ‘future steps’ initiatives that will be examined as the strategyproceeds. A review of the NRSS in 2014 will include an assessment of progress inimplementing each of the first steps actions, and further consideration of other proposedinitiatives.The focus of this report is on the three-year program embodied by the list of first stepsactions. The main section of the report describes the implementation status of each actionitem and includes a simple ‘traffic light’ system of progress assessment.The report also provides an update of the key statistical measures of progress outlined in theNRSS.Implementation responsibilities and coordination arrangementsGiven Australia’s federal system of government, responsibilities for implementing the NRSSare distributed across nine jurisdictions in keeping with the established roles of each area ofgovernment: The Australian Government has responsibilities for allocating agreed infrastructure resources to the national highway and local road networks, and for regulating safety standards for new vehicles. State and territory governments have primary responsibilities for funding, planning, designing and operating the road network, managing vehicle registration and driver licensing systems, and enforcing road user behaviour.Within each jurisdiction, the main transport agencies will take the lead role in implementingor facilitating the specific actions set out in the NRSS. However, there are a number of otherprominent bodies that are expected to provide key support in relevant areas. These includeAustroads, the National Transport Commission (NTC), the Australia New Zealand PolicingAdvisory Agency (ANZPAA) and the National Road Safety Council (NRSC).National coordination arrangements for the NRSS are largely managed though two cross-jurisdictional committees: The National Road Safety Executive Group (NRSEG) comprises senior road safety officials from Australian Government, state, territory and New Zealand transport agencies, and police representation from ANZPAA. The Strategic Vehicle Safety and Environment Group (SVSEG) comprises representatives from Australian Government, state, territory and New Zealand transport agencies, and from automotive industry and road user bodies.
Overview Page 3Implementation statusThe NRSS lists 59 actions to be undertaken during the first three years (2011–2013). Theseare grouped into five broad areas of activity under the following headings: Safe roads Safe speeds Safe vehicles Safe people Making it happenThe detailed status report commencing on page 8 of this document identifies the mainjurisdictional responsibilities for each NRSS action item and provides a summary of progressto date. Colour-coded markers are used to indicate whether actions are progressingsatisfactorily or whether they require more attention. It should be noted that the mix ofmeasures adopted in individual jurisdictions, and the details of specific measures, may varyto reflect local circumstances and priorities. Implementation status – key points General points In this status report, most NRSS items have been coded yellow, indicating that action has commenced and is being progressed. It should be noted, however, that action to date may be limited to early steps only and/or to action that has only been taken by some jurisdictions. Future reports will need to ensure that action is proceeding satisfactorily at a national level. Many of the NRSS items involve initial research and investigation work that is needed to underpin effective road safety interventions. This work is intended to mainly be progressed through the Austroads Safety Program. The status report identifies a large number of relevant projects that have either commenced or have been included in the forward Austroads work program (with in-principle approval from the Austroads Board). Safe roads Several jurisdictions have taken concrete steps to ensure Safe System principles are applied to new road construction or improvement. Further progress will be supported by current Austroads work to incorporate Safe System principles in road design guidelines. All states and territories have infrastructure treatment programs in place that target the major crash types and vulnerable user groups. Ongoing efforts in this area will be aided by several projects planned for the Austroads research program in 2012-16. The Austroads risk assessment model is at an advanced stage of development. This work will underpin an NRSS priority to systematically identify and treat high-risk sections of high-volume roads. Consideration needs to be given to how this will be implemented in practice. Safe speeds All states and territories have taken some steps to strengthen their speed enforcement programs. In most (not all) jurisdictions, this includes the introduction of, or plans to introduce, point-to-point camera systems. These actions are being supported through national engagement with police (ANZPAA) and planned Austroads work to develop best practice enforcement guidelines.
Overview Page 4 Most jurisdictions have recently reviewed their speeding sanctions and several have announced stronger sanctions, though mainly for high-range offences. An assessment should be made about the need for further action, particularly in relation to lower-range (but very common) speeding offences. A review of existing public education material is being undertaken to inform the development of a national anti-speeding campaign and supporting information resources. An NRSC-funded project is contributing to this activity. The NRSS has several actions focused on the implementation of risk-based speed limits. This is being supported by current Austroads work to develop national guidelines for speed limits at high-risk locations and planned work to facilitate national adoption of best practice speed limits more broadly. In the meantime, some action is being taken at a jurisdictional level to review speed limits at selected locations. Efforts to facilitate the implementation of intelligent speed adaptation (ISA) are proceeding through the cross-jurisdictional Australasian Intelligent Speed Assist Initiative. Current work is focused on the development of suitable speed limit maps and exploration of the potential regulatory role of ISA in managing high-risk drivers. Action is required to investigate insurance incentives to promote voluntary adoption of ISA. Consideration needs to be given to greater prosecution of heavy vehicle speeding offences under chain of responsibility laws. Progress in this regard should be enhanced by the commencement of the National Heavy Vehicle Regulator next year.Safe vehicles Various action has been initiated to facilitate adoption of best-practice fleet purchasing policies: some jurisdictions have implemented new fleet purchasing policies for government fleets, including minimum ANCAP rating requirements for light vehicles (5 stars) and light commercial vehicles (4 stars); coordinated work is in train to develop best-practice policies for both light and heavy vehicle fleets; and the NTC has released a draft strategy addressing road safety in the private sector. The NRSS includes an extensive agenda to improve safety regulations for new vehicles. Work to harmonise the ADRs with international regulations has been completed and national ADR priorities have been agreed. Specific ADR development work detailed in the NRSS is progressing. Jurisdictions are working constructively with ANCAP to expand the coverage of the program and to increase consumer awareness through the national ‘Stars on Cars’ program. Work initiated by the NRSC is expected to support this activity. Some action has been initiated to investigate incentives to promote the purchase of safer vehicles, including options targeting younger drivers. Two active NRSC-funded projects are examining issues in this area.Safe people The NRSS has several actions that focus on improving licensing arrangements for drivers and motorcyclists. Two key Austroads projects due for completion this year will inform the development of best-practice graduated licensing models for national consideration. Work is also in train to support the implementation of competency-based standards for heavy vehicle driver licensing. Jurisdictions are considering options to develop the existing NSW Consumer Rating and Assessment of Safety Helmets (CRASH) program into a national program.
Overview Page 5 Most jurisdictions have identified licensing programs and educational activities to address the road safety needs of Indigenous communities and other disadvantaged social groups. However, efforts in this area need to be reviewed and may need to be strengthened to satisfy the NRSS objectives. Several NRSS actions address the problem of driver fatigue. In relation to in-vehicle detection technology, NSW has identified reliability as an issue and is continuing to monitor developments in the area. Most jurisdictions are conducting or developing public education campaigns on fatigue – and there may be scope to share or pool resources for national gain. Most jurisdictions have programs to provide rest areas, and some are reviewing or upgrading their efforts. The NRSS calls for work to improve the effectiveness of random breath testing and roadside drug testing programs. This is being addressed to some extent at a jurisdictional level, though further work is needed at a national level to satisfactorily respond to the action. This will be supported by an Austroads project on best-practice enforcement guidelines planned for 2013-14. Limited action has been taken so far to review BAC limits for different driver licence categories. However, the issue is being examined as part of an Austroads project that commenced in mid-2012. Several NRSS actions concern measures to extend and strengthen the use of alcohol interlocks. Some relevant investigation activity is being undertaken at a jurisdictional level, however there is a need for nationally coordinated work. This will be addressed to some extent through new Austroads projects. The strategy calls for efforts to improve compliance with current mobile phone laws. Most jurisdictions are addressing this through regular publicity campaigns and NSW is working with police to investigate improved enforcement options. This will be supported by a planned Austroads project on best-practice enforcement guidelines. The strategy also calls for the promotion of voluntary ‘phone-off’ policies among fleet operators and an investigation of the case for extending existing novice driver prohibitions. Limited action has been taken on these to date, though relevant Austroads work is planned for 2013-14 and 2014-15. Most jurisdictions are using automatic number plate recognition technology to increase detection of unregistered vehicles and unlicensed drivers. Some have also extended the use of vehicle sanctions as a deterrent. Efforts in these areas will be informed by current Austroads work on measures to reduce the incidence of unlicensed driving. Further action is needed to assess and, as required, address the risks associated with school bus travel. Austroads work scheduled to commence early in 2013 will examine cost-effective interventions targeting high-risk and repeat traffic offenders. Some action has been initiated at a jurisdictional level to address this issue.Making it happen The NRSS includes a number of enabling actions to improve the management of road safety and to facilitate implementation of evidence-based countermeasures. Broadly, these include actions to: improve results focus across agencies; engage effectively with stakeholders; explore different funding arrangements; promote the NRSS and monitor progress; and foster capacity development and knowledge transfer. Many of these will be ongoing activities for the life of the NRSS. For the majority of these items, at least some action has commenced.
Overview Page 6Statistical progressThe primary statistical measures of NRSS progress are the annual numbers of road crashdeaths and serious injuries. These and a range of other high-level outcome measures arebeing used to track Australia’s road safety performance over the 10-year life of the NRSS,relative to the baseline period of 2008–2010.The NRSS has also established a range of safety performance indicators to help assessprogress in addressing specific road safety issues. These indicators are mainly, though notexclusively, based on national road crash data.The BITRE, in cooperation with state and territory agencies, is developing a national roadcrash database to support these statistical measures of progress. The current status reportdraws on the fatal crash data in the database to report against most of the NRSS indicators.Measures of progress based on serious injury crash data will be included in future statusreports, once an adequate source of national serious injury data is established.While these statistical indicators are an important tool for monitoring progress, it is alsoimportant to monitor changes in the broader operating environment. The NRSS notes thatroad trauma levels are influenced by a vast array of factors. Many of these – includingchanging economic conditions – are difficult to predict and are beyond the direct control ofgovernments and road safety organisations. Road safety strategies therefore need to bealert to such challenges and flexible in their responses. Statistical progress – key points The last section of this report (page 33) presents the full set of NRSS outcome measures and performance indicators with latest available results. Key points are noted below. High level outcome measures In 2011, there were: 1,280 road crash deaths: a reduction of 10.2% relative to the baseline (1,425) 1,154 fatal road crashes: a reduction of 11.0% relative to the baseline (1,297) Safety performance indicators Fatality reductions in 2011 were greater than average for the following categories: single-vehicle crashes (-16.6%) crashes on metropolitan roads (-16.1%) young drivers and motorcycle riders (-20.7%) motorcycle riders (-14.5%) unlicensed drivers and riders (-27.2%) Fatality reductions in 2011 were lower than average for the following categories: intersection crashes (-5.3%) crashes on remote roads (-3.0%) older drivers and motorcycle riders (0.0%) bicycle riders (+9.4%) pedestrians (0.0%) crashes involving a heavy vehicle (-5.2%)
Overview Page 7AbbreviationsABS Anti-lock braking systemsADR Australian Design RuleAISAI Australasian Intelligent Speed Assist InitiativeANCAP Australasian New Car Assessment ProgramANZPAA Australia New Zealand Policing Advisory AgencyBITRE Bureau of Infrastructure, Transport and Regional EconomicsDIT Department of Infrastructure and TransportGTR Global Technical RegulationISA Intelligent speed adaptationNRSC National Road Safety CouncilNRSEG National Road Safety Executive GroupNRSS National Road Safety Strategy 2011–2020NTC National Transport CommissionRIS Regulation Impact StatementSCOTI Standing Committee on Transport and InfrastructureSVSEG Strategic Vehicle Safety and Environment GroupUNECE United Nations Economic Commission for EuropeVSB Vehicle Standards BulletinWTP Willingness-to-pay
Implementation status Page 8Safe roadsRef Action Jurisdictional Implementationno. responsibility status Complete or well advanced Commenced and progressing No significant action to date1 Road authorities at all government levels will All jurisdictions Work has commenced through Austroads to develop ensure that Safe System principles are applied appropriate road design guidelines. This work is scheduled to to all new road projects, including road conclude late in 2013. upgrades. Two separate Austroads projects, planned to commence in 2012-13, will look at: improving the performance of safe system infrastructure; and safe system roads for local government. In the meantime, several jurisdictions have initiated work to further define and apply Safe System principles when designing new road construction or improvement.2 Modify infrastructure funding guidelines and All jurisdictions Several jurisdictions have implemented road funding programs agreements to increase the safety benefits that explicitly prioritise projects based on, or taking account of, resulting from expenditure on roads. their road safety benefits. Austroads work planned to commence from 2012-13 (see #1) is expected to contribute to this action.3 Target infrastructure treatments to: 3 (a) Address run-off-road and head-on casualty States and All jurisdictions have treatment programs in place that target crashes. Road sections prioritized according to territories these crash types (through infrastructure treatments and/or crash history will be treated with infrastructure speed limit reductions where appropriate). treatments such as protective barriers (for An Austroads project planned for commencement in 2012-13, example, wire rope), and/or reduced speed to investigate head-on and run-off-road crash types in urban limits. areas, will support the implementation of this action.
Implementation status Page 9Ref Action Jurisdictional Implementationno. responsibility status Complete or well advanced Commenced and progressing No significant action to date 3 (b) Address serious casualty crashes at States and All jurisdictions have treatment programs in place that target intersections. Sites prioritised according to territories these crash types (in addition to, or in conjunction with, black crash history will be treated with infrastructure spot programs). treatments and/or speed reduction measures. A current Austroads project, ‘Achieving Safe System Speeds on Urban Arterial Roads’, will support implementation of this action; and another relevant project ‘Investigation of key crash types – rear-end crashes in urban and rural areas’, is proposed for 2013-14. 3 (c) Address safety issues for vulnerable road users, States and All jurisdictions have infrastructure programs in place targeting for example: safety improvements on popular territories safety issues for vulnerable road users (though the emphasis motorcycle routes; infrastructure improvements and approach varies between jurisdictions). for bicyclists, older road users, people Implementation of this action in the longer term will be informed accessing public transport and pedestrians. by an active Austroads in-depth motorcycle crash study, as well as the planned work on safe system speeds (see #3b), and a project (proposed to commence 2014-15) to review route-based infrastructure treatments targeting motorcycle casualties, 3 (d) Address safety on key arterial routes, prioritised States and All jurisdictions have dedicated programs to prioritise and treat by crash history. Route safety reviews to be territories crash risk on major arterial routes. undertaken and findings implemented.4 Develop a nationally agreed approach to All jurisdictions NSW and WA have adopted WTP values based on a NSW applying the willingness-to-pay (WTP) study. methodology to value safety. An Austroads project has been initiated to develop WTP values for national consideration.5 Ensure that roads in and around Indigenous States and Most ‘in-scope’ jurisdictions provide infrastructure treatment communities are included in infrastructure territories funding for roads servicing Indigenous communities (to a treatment programs. varying extent).
Implementation status P a g e 10Ref Action Jurisdictional Implementationno. responsibility status Complete or well advanced Commenced and progressing No significant action to date6 Complete Austroads risk-based assessment States and The Austroads risk assessment model is at an advanced stage model; and then systematically assess risk territories of development (scheduled to conclude Dec 2012) and will levels for highest volume roads and prioritise provide the basis for this action. Further work is planned to road sections for safety improvement. commence in 2014-15 to review implementation progress and the need for supporting tools. In the meantime, some jurisdictions have initiated risk assessment activities on a limited scale.7 Implement and evaluate Safe System States and NSW is trialling a new funding model for local government demonstration projects in specific local territories which could oversee development of this initiative. government areas and Indigenous communities. Austroads work on Stage 2 of a Safe System demonstration project involving an Indigenous Community is scheduled to conclude Dec 2012. Some jurisdictions have also initiated relevant work with local governments or Indigenous communities.
Implementation status P a g e 11Safe speedsRef Action Jurisdictional Implementationno. responsibility status Complete or well advanced Commenced and progressing No significant action to date8 Improve compliance with speed limits across the road network: 8 (a) Adopt best practice enforcement, including a States and All jurisdictions are working to strengthen their speed combination of on-road policing and speed territories enforcement programs in line with existing best practice. camera technologies, with a mix of covert and ANZPAA will work with transport agencies to develop overt strategies. appropriate guidelines for police agencies (Queensland is currently collating available best-practice documents for ANZPAA). A planned Austroads project for 2013-14 to develop ‘Good Practice Enforcement Guidelines’ will also inform the implementation of this action. 8 (b) Install where appropriate point-to-point cameras States and Jurisdictions are at different stages of development in relation to to improve speed compliance among all territories point-to-point programs. Most have introduced these systems, vehicles. or have definite plans to do so in 2012-13. Austroads has recently published a report on best practice in point-to-point speed enforcement, which will contribute to program implementation. 8 (c) Examine options for improved enforcement of States and This issue is expected to be considered by a Victorian motorcycle speeding. territories Parliamentary Committee Inquiry into motorcycle safety, due to report at the end of 2012. Some jurisdictions are addressing the issue through the use of speed cameras that detect motorcycles (rear numberplates). An active Austroads motorcycle in-depth crash study (see #3c) may inform this action.
Implementation status P a g e 12Ref Action Jurisdictional Implementationno. responsibility status Complete or well advanced Commenced and progressing No significant action to date9 Improve the use of sanctions to more effectively States and Most jurisdictions have recently reviewed their penalties for deter people from speeding. territories speeding and several (NSW, Vic, Qld, SA & Tas) have announced stronger sanctions for speeding offences (limited in some cases to high-range offences).10 Develop a national public information campaign States and An NRSC-funded project to develop national resources suitable about the community safety benefits of territories for a public education campaign is scheduled for completion in complying with speed limits. This will provide early 2013. education resources suitable for use by Queensland is also liaising with states and territories to review government agencies, local governments and existing anti-speeding campaign material and identify community forums. messaging suitable for a national campaign. An active Austroads project on driver attitudes to speed enforcement will inform the development of resources.11 Review speed limits where risk levels are high and engineering solutions are not feasible or cost-effective: 11 (a) Set safe speed limits on road lengths that are States and Key work has commenced through Austroads to develop narrow, have substantial levels of roadside territories national guidelines for setting speed limits at higher-risk hazards, have many intersections or property locations, due for completion in late 2013. entrances, are winding or undulating, or have In the meantime, some jurisdictions are undertaking speed limit higher than average serious casualty crash reviews in high-risk locations. rates. 11 (b) Reduce speed limits at high-risk intersections, States and Key work has commenced through Austroads to develop especially on high-volume outer urban arterials. territories national guidelines for setting speed limits at higher-risk locations, due for completion in late 2013. In the meantime, some jurisdictions are undertaking speed limit reviews in high-risk locations.
Implementation status P a g e 13Ref Action Jurisdictional Implementationno. responsibility status Complete or well advanced Commenced and progressing No significant action to date 11 (c) Work with local government to expand the States and Several jurisdictions are trialling or implementing lower speed number and scope of projects that implement territories limits in relevant areas, working with local governments where safe speed limits in areas of high pedestrian appropriate. and cycling activity.12 Develop new risk-based national speed limit States and This action will be informed by two active Austroads projects: guidelines for different road categories / territories one to develop guidelines for setting speed limits at higher-risk functions. Guidelines should encourage locations (see #11a,b); and a project scheduled for completion consistent limits based on measured risk/crash in 2014 to facilitate national adoption of best practice speed rates, while minimising multiple speed zones limits. over short distances.13 Facilitate the implementation of Intelligent Speed Adaptation (ISA) systems: 13 (a) Encourage the development of digital speed All jurisdictions NSW is leading a national working group on speed limit limit maps. mapping as part of the cross-jurisdictional Australasian Intelligent Speed Assist Initiative (AISAI). NSW has completed Australia’s largest ISA trial and is developing an online speed zone database and supporting applications. Several other jurisdictions have conducted ISA trials or are working on the development of state-wide maps. 13 (b) Examine the scope to require advisory ISA in all All jurisdictions Some jurisdictions have commenced investigating options for government fleets; and mandatory speed government fleets. limiting ISA and/or other technologies for Several jurisdictions are working together to develop a national recidivist speeders and P-plate drivers. position paper for monitored ISA for high-risk drivers, as part of the AISAI. NSW has developed and is currently testing an ISA Smartphone application.
Implementation status P a g e 14Ref Action Jurisdictional Implementationno. responsibility status Complete or well advanced Commenced and progressing No significant action to date 13 (c) Initiate discussion with insurers to encourage All jurisdictions An NRSC-funded project examining the potential role of voluntary fitting of ISA and recorders through insurance incentives in promoting uptake of vehicle safety lower insurance premiums, especially for young measures is due for completion in early 2013. drivers.14 Increase the effective application of chain of States and Some jurisdictions have taken steps to strengthen Chain of responsibility legislation to prosecute heavy territories Responsibility enforcement. legislation and have taken steps to vehicle speeding (including speed limiter) strengthen chain of responsibility offences, and harmonise legislation to assist Chain of Responsibility investigations and cross-border cross-border enforcement. enforcement will be enhanced by the establishment of a unit under the NHVR, specialising in identifying and prosecuting relevant offences.
Implementation status P a g e 15Safe vehiclesRef Action Jurisdictional Implementationno. responsibility status Complete or well advanced Commenced and progressing No significant action to date15 Facilitate the adoption of nationally-agreed best- practice fleet purchasing policies: 15 (a) Develop nationally-agreed fleet purchasing All jurisdictions This action is being progressed through SVSEG, with the policies with practical, evidence-based safety Commonwealth examining requirements for light vehicle criteria that drive an increase in the safety purchasing, and NSW for heavy vehicles. features required for vehicle purchases. 15 (b) Require all government fleets to implement All jurisdictions Some jurisdictions have implemented new fleet purchasing nationally-agreed fleet purchasing policies and policies, including minimum ANCAP rating requirements for encourage adoption by other fleet operators. light vehicles (5 stars) and light commercial vehicles (4 stars). This issue is being addressed as part of an NTC project on a corporate approach to transport safety, for which a draft strategy was released in September 2012.16 Improve safety regulations for new vehicles: 16 (a) Improve the ADR process to ensure that minor Commonwealth Work to harmonise the Australian Design Rules (ADRs) with changes to UNECE regulations are accepted international regulations has been completed and brought into automatically, timely consideration is given to effect. new and amended UNECE regulations and National agreement has been established on ADR development GTRs, and priority is given to implementing new priorities (agreed by SVSEG in September 2011). and amended ADRs that can deliver the greatest safety benefits.
Implementation status P a g e 16Ref Action Jurisdictional Implementationno. responsibility status Complete or well advanced Commenced and progressing No significant action to date 16 (b) Subject to the final outcomes of Regulatory Commonwealth ADRs for seatbelt reminders and for ISOFIX child restraints Impact Statements (RISs), mandate the have been completed and have come into effect. following vehicle safety features for new Work has commenced on a RIS for ESC for light commercial vehicles: advanced seatbelt reminders (drivers vehicles, and one for anti-lock braking systems for heavy seat); provision for ISOFIX child restraint vehicles. fittings; ESC in light commercial vehicles; pedestrian collision safety requirements for vehicles; Anti-lock Braking systems (ABS)/load proportioning brake systems for heavy vehicles and trailers. 16 (c) Prepare RISs to consider mandating of ABS for Commonwealth Motorcycle ABS was raised at the UNECE World Forum on motorcycles, increased heavy vehicle cabin Vehicle Regulation (Working Party 29) in June 2011, and was strength, ESC and Lane Departure Warning also discussed at the Working Party 29 expert group meeting Systems for heavy vehicles, and Brake Assist on brakes and running gear in February 2012. The Systems for light passenger vehicles. Commonwealth will be working through the range of views presented. An active Austroads motorcycle in-depth crash study (see #3c) may inform the implementation of this action. The development of a RIS for heavy vehicle Lane Departure Warning Systems will proceed during 2012, subject to international progress. Work has commenced on a RIS for Brake Assist Systems for light passenger vehicles. 16 (d) Lead international development of a pole side Commonwealth A draft GTR and safety case is being developed in conjunction impact, which will require strong protective with the relevant UNECE working group, which met in measures for vehicle occupants involved in side Washington in September 2012. impacts, including provision of effective side curtain airbags or other airbag configurations.
Implementation status P a g e 17Ref Action Jurisdictional Implementationno. responsibility status Complete or well advanced Commenced and progressing No significant action to date17 Improve and promote the ANCAP program: 17 (a) Expand the ANCAP program to increase the All jurisdictions Jurisdictions are working to progress this action through their coverage of crash test results across the full involvement with ANCAP. range of new vehicles on the Australian market, including light commercial vehicles, and develop a crash test standard and protocol for rollover crashes. 17 (b) Support the implementation of a national ‘Stars All jurisdictions All jurisdictions are contributing to this national program, which on Cars’ program to increase consumer is being led by Victoria. demand for safe vehicles through the promotion Some jurisdictions are undertaking or planning local campaigns of ANCAP safety ratings. that will support the national program. An NRSC-funded project is examining options to increase the demand for vehicles with high ANCAP ratings, particularly for young drivers. This is due for completion in late 2012. 17 (c) Encourage vehicle manufacturers to support All jurisdictions Most jurisdictions are working to progress this action through ANCAP through provision of vehicles ahead of their involvement with ANCAP. their release to the market.18 Encourage vehicle manufacturers to develop All jurisdictions The Commonwealth is undertaking constructive discussions industry codes of practice committing to with manufacturers to progress this action. incorporation of vehicle safety features, while SA is also working with local manufacturers to investigate and ensuring that safety features are not packaged trial a number of safety technologies. only with luxury or comfort features.
Implementation status P a g e 18Ref Action Jurisdictional Implementationno. responsibility status Complete or well advanced Commenced and progressing No significant action to date19 Investigate incentives relating to vehicle purchases: 19 (a) Investigate incentives (including tax-based, All jurisdictions NSW is currently investigating registration-based incentives for registration-based and insurance incentives) safer vehicles, and Victoria has prepared a report on viability of and promote options to encourage purchase of incentives, for SVSEG. safer vehicles, greater turnover of the vehicle Two NRSC-funded projects are investigating incentives and fleet and/or the inclusion of enhanced safety other strategies to increase demand for safer vehicles, features. particularly for young drivers. 19 (b) Investigate incentives to encourage young All jurisdictions Some jurisdictions provide targeted information about drivers and their parents to purchase safer new purchasing safer vehicles for young drivers and their parents. or used cars. Two NRSC-funded projects are investigating incentives and other strategies to increase demand for safer vehicles, particularly for young drivers.20 Evaluate community concerns and work with All jurisdictions A national community survey conducted in 2011 by the vehicle industry to ensure vehicle advertising Commonwealth (co-sponsored by the NRSC) provides avoids display and promotion of unsafe and benchmark data on community attitudes to advertising. illegal behaviours. Some states have conducted, or are planning, similar surveys. The FCAI has given undertakings to review the Voluntary Code of Practice for Motor Vehicle Advertising.21 Strengthen regulation of post-production States and Some jurisdictions have recently made or are considering modifications and additions (for example, territories changes to improve regulation. limiting the raising of vehicles) which may Queensland will lead a review of the existing modification code compromise the safety of the vehicle as for heavy vehicles (VSB 6) and NSW will lead a review of the manufactured. code for light vehicles (VSB 14).
Implementation status P a g e 19Ref Action Jurisdictional Implementationno. responsibility status Complete or well advanced Commenced and progressing No significant action to date22 Investigate further regulation of speed and other All jurisdictions Amendments to the ADR definition of power-assisted pedal safety features for powered alternative vehicles cycles (developed in conjunction with an Austroads project on (for example, mobility scooters and power- alternative vehicles) have come into effect; and jurisdictions are assisted bicycles). working on parallel legislative changes to permit their use. Work is continuing for other vehicle types through Austroads.23 Investigate options to maximize the efficiency All jurisdictions Jurisdictions are at different stages with this work; some have and safety of restricted-access heavy vehicle already made or are considering changes. operations. The National Transport Commission has commenced an investigation of options.24 Investigate technology-based options to All jurisdictions The Commonwealth is in discussion with the FCAI on vehicle minimize driver distraction from in-vehicle aspects. devices. NSW is currently undertaking research into in-vehicle distraction. The NSW Parliamentary Staysafe Committee is currently conducting an inquiry into distraction.
Implementation status P a g e 20Safe peopleRef Action Jurisdictional Implementationno. responsibility status Complete or well advanced Commenced and progressing No significant action to dateResponsible road use25 Improve driver and rider licensing arrangements: 25 (a) Develop an evidence-based model for States and A key Austroads project, to develop a best-practice national graduated driver licensing for car drivers. territories model of graduated licensing for car drivers, is underway and is Elements for examination include minimum expected to be completed by the end of 2012. supervised driving hours, minimum provisional A number of jurisdictions have recently reviewed or are licence age, passenger restrictions, night reviewing their graduated driver licensing systems. driving restrictions, mobile phone bans, vehicle power restrictions, speed and alcohol restrictions; and more effective sanctions for speed and alcohol offences. 25 (b) Review licensing arrangements for motorcycle States and A key Austroads project, to develop a best-practice national riders. Elements for examination include territories model of graduated licensing for motorcycle riders, is underway graduated restrictions for novice riders and is expected to be completed in 2012. (including minimum period with a car licence A number of jurisdictions have recently reviewed or are before motorcycle licensing); and education and reviewing their motorcycle licensing arrangements. training if proven to deliver road safety benefits. 25 (c) Investigate licensing options to improve the States and An active Austroads project (see #25b) may address this issue; safety of returning motorcycle riders. territories and the Austroads motorcycle in-depth crash study (see #3c) may also inform this action. NSW is currently undertaking a study of returning riders. Some other jurisdictions have done preliminary investigations of the issue.
Implementation status P a g e 21Ref Action Jurisdictional Implementationno. responsibility status Complete or well advanced Commenced and progressing No significant action to date 25 (d) Review licensing arrangements for heavy States and The National Heavy Vehicle Driver Competency Working Group vehicle drivers, including options for the territories is in the process of developing the final enabling instruments to adoption of competency based standards. help individual jurisdictions implement heavy vehicle driver competency reform. NSW will investigate the implementation of online systems for reporting heavy vehicle competencies, and provide advice to the National Heavy Vehicle Regulator. WA has implemented competency based standards and Victoria is discussing a proposal with the Victorian Transport Association.26 Develop and implement a national helmet States and Jurisdictions are considering options to promote and expand assessment and rating program to stimulate territories the existing NSW Consumer Rating and Assessment of Safety market demand for the safest motorcycle Helmets (CRASH) program into a national program. helmets – and examine options for other The NSW Motor Accidents Authority is coordinating a project to protective gear. provide consumer information about other motorcycle safety clothing and equipment, with results to be shared nationally,27 Implement programs addressing the road safety needs of Indigenous communities and disadvantaged groups: 27 (a) Develop and implement programs to increase States and Most jurisdictions have programs in place to improve access to the opportunities for driving practice for territories licensing in Indigenous communities and remote areas, though disadvantaged learner drivers, particularly in the details vary. Indigenous communities. The NRSC is co-sponsoring a pilot project in the NT to provide driver training and licensing for people in remote Indigenous communities. A planned Austroads project (commencing 2013-14) on options to improve safety among disadvantaged people will inform this action in the longer term.
Implementation status P a g e 22Ref Action Jurisdictional Implementationno. responsibility status Complete or well advanced Commenced and progressing No significant action to date 27 (b) Implement locally relevant and culturally States and Most ‘in-scope’ jurisdictions have developed culturally appropriate Indigenous community education territories appropriate road safety material and some are conducting campaigns promoting key road safety targeted education campaigns. messages. An Austroads project to develop a national Indigenous licensing resource is close to completion and is expected to contribute to this item. 27 (c) Implement education campaigns to meet the States and Most jurisdictions have initiated some activity in this area, for road safety needs of culturally and linguistically territories example conducting ethnically-targeted community programs or diverse groups. offering translation of material, but the extent varies. A planned Austroads project on the safety of disadvantaged people (see #27a) will inform this action in the longer term.28 Implement, and promote the use of, new States and New Fitness to Drive guidelines developed by Austroads and Fitness to Drive guidelines to improve the territories the NTC came into effect in March 2012. management of at-risk and medically-impaired All jurisdictions are implementing the new guidelines, and drivers. undertaking supporting activities including raising awareness in the medical sector and updating their reporting forms.29 Pilot electronic work diaries for heavy vehicle All jurisdictions NSW is leading an operational pilot, with involvement from drivers as an alternative to paper-based diaries several jurisdictions including the Cwealth. The steering to improve fatigue management. committee includes representatives from transport agencies, police, the NTC and Transport Certification Australia. The pilot is scheduled to run from July 2011 to Dec 2012.30 Mandate seatbelt wearing for taxi drivers. States and Most jurisdictions already have this requirement; NSW has territories announced seatbelts will be mandatory for taxi drivers from 1 January 2013; and QLD is consulting with the taxi industry about changes to legislation.
Implementation status P a g e 23Ref Action Jurisdictional Implementationno. responsibility status Complete or well advanced Commenced and progressing No significant action to date31 Pilot operational field trials of driver and vehicle States and NSW has trialled some devices but reliability remains an issue devices that measure drowsiness crash risk territories – will continue to monitor developments in this area. using metrics based on ocular dynamics or NSW is planning a pilot study to trial two systems based on carriageway position, including back-to-base ocular dynamics. The study will involve both heavy and light monitoring of data. Vehicles and will commence in early 2013.32 Develop public information campaigns and States and Most jurisdictions are conducting campaigns about fatigue, and education resources about fatigue for all road territories several include fatigue information in materials for novice users, with a particular focus on educating drivers. novice drivers. NSW is conducting a literature review to inform the development of a new driver fatigue strategy.33 Expand the provision of rest areas, including in States and Most jurisdictions have programs to provide rest areas, and regional towns (‘rest towns’), to help motorists territories some are reviewing or upgrading their efforts. manage fatigue. The C’wealth has extended its Heavy Vehicle Safety and Productivity Program, which includes funding for rest area development. NSW has completed a study to match heavy vehicle rest areas to heavy vehicle crashes. This information will be used to refine the current NSW Rest Area Strategy for heavy vehicles. NSW will also investigate the development of communication campaigns to promote awareness and usage of rest areas.
Implementation status P a g e 24Ref Action Jurisdictional Implementationno. responsibility status Complete or well advanced Commenced and progressing No significant action to dateIrresponsible road use34 Work in partnership with police to strengthen States and Several jurisdictions have implemented or are developing the deterrence effects of random breath testing territories enhanced enforcement programs targeting drink driving, and programs (RBT) and random roadside drug generally including linked public awareness campaigns. testing programs, and to improve public Most jurisdictions also conduct high profile roadside drug awareness of these programs. testing programs. Queensland has commissioned two research projects to evaluate the effectiveness of the RBT and random drug testing programs. A planned Austroads project for 2013-14 to develop ‘Good Practice Enforcement Guidelines’ will also inform the implementation of this action.35 Review, in consultation with stakeholders and States and An Austroads project to review BAC limits in Australia and New the community, the application of BAC limits territories Zealand commenced mid-2012 and will inform the currently applying to certain licence categories. implementation of this action. Both WA and the ACT have adopted zero BAC limits for a number of driver categories including novice drivers and heavy and public vehicle drivers. Zero BAC for motorcyclists is under consideration in some states: it is one of a number of motorcycle licensing proposals in SA, and QLD has recently completed research.
Implementation status P a g e 2536 In relation to alcohol interlocks: 36 (a) Extend the application of alcohol interlocks to States and All jurisdictions have interlock programs or are preparing to cover a wider segment of drink driving territories introduce them in the near future, though implementation offenders. models and coverage vary. A 2012-13 Austroads project examining options to extend the coverage of alcohol interlocks will inform the implementation of this action. 36 (b) Undertake research on options to extend States and Some jurisdictions are currently investigating options to extend alcohol interlock applications to other high-risk territories interlock applications and NSW is preparing a discussion paper road user groups and potentially to the broader on the issue. driver population. Current Austroads work (see #36a) will inform the implementation of this action. 36 (c) Encourage voluntary use of alcohol interlocks States and Some jurisdictions are investigating options in this area. by corporate fleets and other drivers. territories Current Austroads work (see #36a) will inform the implementation of this action. 36 (d) Investigate the option of requiring demonstrated States and Queensland is currently investigating drink driving rehabilitation rehabilitation from alcohol-dependence before territories programs and has been nominated to lead an Austroads project removal of interlock conditions. in 2012-13 addressing this action.37 Expand the use of vehicle sanctions for repeat States and Some jurisdictions have introduced, or are considering, more drink and drug driving offences. territories severe penalties including vehicle sanctions for these offences.38 Review (with liquor control commissions and States and Most jurisdictions have taken steps to improve training the health and police sectors) the adequacy of territories requirements and agreements relating to the responsible operating responsibilities applying to venues for service of alcohol, and to improve coordination across sectors responsible alcohol serving. to address drink driving issues.
Implementation status P a g e 2639 In relation to mobile phones: 39 (a) Strengthen education and enforcement States and All jurisdictions have amended, or will soon amend, their road measures to improve compliance with current territories rules to clarify a ban on the use of hands free phones except for laws. the making and receiving of a call. Most jurisdictions regularly conduct publicity about mobile phone laws and risks. NSW (with police) is investigating enforcement of mobile phone laws and the development of a new communication campaign to support compliance. Austroads work to develop ‘Good Practice Enforcement Guidelines’, planned for 2013-14, will inform the implementation of this action. A planned Austroads project (commencing 2014-15) to review the evidence and options on driver distraction may inform this action in the longer term. 39 (b) Promote the safety benefits of phone-off All jurisdictions Some jurisdictions currently promote phone-off policies in policies (including hands-free) with all fleet government and other fleets, and others are considering action operators. in this area. A planned Austroads project (commencing 2014-15) to assess the road safety benefits of mobile phone restrictions for fleet vehicles may inform this action in the longer term. 39 (c) Examine the case for extending the coverage of States and Some jurisdictions are planning to investigate the extension of novice driver prohibitions on mobile phone use territories existing mobile phone bans as part of their graduated licensing (including hands-free) to include, for example, systems. all ‘P2’ drivers or all young drivers under 26 Austroads work planned for 2013-14, to examine the road years of age. safety benefits of mobile phone restrictions for novice drivers, will inform the implementation of this action.
Implementation status P a g e 2740 Address the risk associated with unlicensed drivers and unregistered vehicles: 40 (a) Increase traffic surveillance to improve States and Most jurisdictions currently use or are introducing Automatic detection of unregistered vehicles and territories Number Plate Recognition technology to increase detection of unlicensed drivers. unregistered vehicles. An active Austroads project to develop measures to reduce the incidence of unlicensed driving will contribute to this action. 40 (b) Extend the use of vehicle sanctions to drivers of States and Some jurisdictions have extended or are considering extending unregistered vehicles, and unlicensed or territories vehicle sanctions to drivers of unregistered vehicles, and/or to suspended drivers. unlicensed or suspended drivers. Current Austroads work (see # 40a) will contribute to this action.41 Assess the risks on school bus routes and All jurisdictions NSW is investigating options to increase the provision of address risks through infrastructure seatbelts on school buses and is also considering improvements, vehicle safety features such as recommendations from a broader investigation of the safety of seatbelts and road user awareness programs. regional and remote school bus travel. Queensland has developed a school bus strategy and is funding school bus improvements. The Commonwealth is continuing to provide funding for seatbelts on school buses in regional areas.42 Review international best practice and identify States and NSW is currently developing a repeat offender strategy and is cost-effective interventions for dealing with high territories investigating options from a recent Auditor General report to risk and repeat traffic offenders. strengthen sanctions for serious and repeat offenders. Victoria has strengthened impoundment provisions for repeat offenders. NT is developing a new traffic offender program as part of a broader package of initiatives to break the cycle of reoffending. The ACT has introduced changes to require high risk and repeat drink drivers to attend alcohol awareness courses. Austroads work scheduled to commence early in 2013, to consider best practice interventions for high risk and repeat traffic offenders, will inform the implementation of this action.
Implementation status P a g e 28Making it happenRef Action Jurisdictional Implementationno. responsibility status Complete or well advanced Commenced and progressing No significant action to date43 Examine the scope to improve institutional All jurisdictions WA has conducted a state-level capacity review and structures, capacities and delivery recommendations are being considered by Government. arrangements at a national level to optimise NSW is finalising a new organisational structure based on the road safety efforts ahead of a scheduled full Safe System approach, which is expected to strengthen road review of this strategy in 2014. safety policy capacity. Austroads work proposed for 2012-13, to develop a model safety management system, may inform the implementation of this action.44 If adopted by the International Standards All jurisdictions IS0 39001 was released by the International Standards Organisation, consider adopting and promoting Organisation in October 2012. the new standard for road traffic safety Several jurisdictions have been involved in the development of management systems (ISO 39001), - this is the Standard and are committed to promotion efforts. intended for all organisations wishing to reduce Austroads work planned for 2012-13, to develop a model safety death and serious injury related to road travel, management system, will inform the implementation of this and will help them to define their contribution to action. this goal.45 Engage with organizations that can influence and build community support for road safety: 45 (a) (a) Form a closer alliance between road, States and All jurisdictions have established cooperative arrangements transport and police agencies to support the territories between road, transport and police agencies. enforcement elements of the strategy. An Austroads project planned for 2013-14 to develop ‘Good Practice Enforcement Guidelines’ will also inform the implementation of this action.
Implementation status P a g e 29Ref Action Jurisdictional Implementationno. responsibility status Complete or well advanced Commenced and progressing No significant action to date 45 (b) (b) Work with and support local governments in States and All jurisdictions have partnership programs in place to work with improving the safety of local roads and territories local government to improve the safety of local roads, to share communities. information and to engage with the community. Some are developing or trialling new funding models for local government road safety programs. 45 (c) (c) Work with the motor vehicle industry in All jurisdictions All jurisdictions liaise and work with industry through SVSEG. advancing the safety of Australia’s vehicle fleet. Some jurisdictions are undertaking or planning local ‘Stars on Cars’ campaigns supported by industry and dealerships. Most are also contributing to the development of a national ‘Stars on Cars’ program. 45 (d) (d) Work with the National Road Safety Council All jurisdictions The NRSC has held discussions with a range of stakeholders, to raise the profile of road safety as a major including all state and territory road safety agencies, and used public health issue across government, industry, various means of communication to raise awareness of road business and community sectors. safety issues. Road safety agencies, through the NRSEG, have worked with the NRSC on various activities, including the development of future options for national road safety leadership. 45 (e) (e) Work with the National Heavy Vehicle All jurisdictions Most jurisdictions are actively involved in the development of Regulator and the National Rail Safety the National Heavy Vehicle Regulator and the National Rail Regulator. Safety Regulator. Neither has yet commenced operation. 45 (f) (f) Engage with key stakeholders to exchange All jurisdictions have established mechanisms to engage with expertise, experiences and research. key stakeholders, and review these periodically,46 Explore opportunities to secure alternative All jurisdictions Some jurisdictions are exploring or have recently secured sources of funding or shared funding alternative sources of funding for road safety activities, arrangements for road safety activities, including from insurers, other private sector sources and road including targeted infrastructure investment. safety levies.
Implementation status P a g e 30Ref Action Jurisdictional Implementationno. responsibility status Complete or well advanced Commenced and progressing No significant action to date47 Explore the allocation of monies collected for States and Most states now allocate all camera revenue directly to road penalties imposed for camera detected territories safety-related programs (Tasmania allocates some of its offences, in excess of the administrative cost, to speeding revenue to road safety initiatives). road safety education and awareness programs, injury rehabilitation programs, and road funding to improve the safety of sections of State- controlled roads.48 Develop and maintain a National Road Safety Commonwealth An NRSS web page has been established on the DIT site. Strategy website as a prime means of sharing The Commonwealth is also examining options for a new road safety information and reporting on standalone NRSS website. progress.49 Ensure public education campaigns and States and All jurisdictions are engaged in ongoing efforts to align their resources are aligned with the Safe System territories public education efforts with the Safe System approach and to objectives of this strategy. integrate Safe System principles into public education campaigns.50 Work with local government to promote the States and All jurisdictions are working with local government through development and implementation of local or territories partnership arrangements to assist with local road safety regional road strategies. strategies.51 From 2012 each Minister responsible for road All jurisdictions Parliamentary Secretary King reported to the Australian safety (state, territory and federal) to report Parliament on 27 June 2012. annually to their parliament on the progress in Some jurisdictions already have Parliamentary reporting road safety, including safety performance requirements in place, with most intending to report later in indicators. 2012. BITRE and Austroads work (see #53) will inform the implementation of this action.
Implementation status P a g e 31Ref Action Jurisdictional Implementationno. responsibility status Complete or well advanced Commenced and progressing No significant action to date52 A review of the strategy will be undertaken All jurisdictions To be considered in 2013. before the end of 2014, including an BITRE and Austroads work (see #53) will inform the assessment of implementation progress, a implementation of this action. review of the strategy objectives and targets, and identification of priority actions for the next three years.53 Publish and regularly update the key statistical All jurisdictions BITRE has established a national road crash database that measures of road safety progress. supports annual reporting against the NRSS performance indicators. Most jurisdictions already have regular reporting requirements. A four-year Austroads project to analyse Australian and New Zealand crash data, commenced in mid-2012, will inform the implementation of this action.54 Present an annual report to the Australian All jurisdictions DIT, with the support of the NRSEG, will prepare a Transport Council documenting progress in comprehensive progress report for SCOTI in the second half of implementing this strategy. each calendar year. BITRE has established a national road crash database that supports annual reporting against the NRSS performance indicators.55 Work towards the adoption of nationally All jurisdictions The NRSEG has undertaken a review of current road crash consistent road crash classification definitions classification practices. The findings suggest that the and the development of an improved national differences between jurisdictions are quite marginal and that it serious injury database. would be difficult to justify the effort required to engineer strict national consistency. The BITRE is working with the states and territories on the development of standardised definitions for national collection and reporting of crash data; and is working with jurisdictions on the creation of a national serious injury database.
Implementation status P a g e 32Ref Action Jurisdictional Implementationno. responsibility status Complete or well advanced Commenced and progressing No significant action to date56 Work towards the creation of a national vehicle All jurisdictions The Commonwealth is investigating options for the safety database to provide real-time research development of a database. data on the characteristics of the Australian vehicle fleet and crashes.57 Ensure that jurisdictional and Austroads road All jurisdictions Planning processes have been established to ensure that safety research programs adequately support current and forward Austroads research programs are strongly the objectives of this strategy. aligned with the NRSS – this is reflected in the large number of Austroads projects directly supporting specific strategy actions. All jurisdictions have been involved in the development of the Austroads program and are working to ensure that their own research efforts are appropriately targeted with results shared between jurisdictions.58 Consider the scope for road safety management All jurisdictions WA conducted a capacity review in 2010-11. capacity reviews within each jurisdiction. NSW has recently completed a review resulting in a new organisational structure based on the Safe System approach. Other jurisdictions are considering the scope for similar reviews.59 Review the training of road safety specialists States and NRSC is providing funding support for a national training and the value of offering more formal territories program to build road safety skills and capacity among training/education opportunities in road safety. NRSC practitioners. Some jurisdictions have reviewed or are currently reviewing training opportunities for road safety specialists.
Statistical progress P a g e 33High level outcome measures BaselineMeasure 2011 % Change (2008 – 2010)1Number of deaths resulting from road crashes 1,425 1,280 -10.2Number of road crashes resulting in deaths 1,297 1,154 -11.0Number of deaths per 100,000 population 6.5 5.7 -12.3Number of deaths per 100 million vehicle-kilometres travelled 0.65 0.58 -10.8Number of deaths per 10,000 registered vehicles 0.91 0.79 -13.31 Average annual number during the three-year period 2008 to 2010.
Statistical progress P a g e 34Safety performance indicators BaselineMeasure 20113 % Change (2008 – 2010)2Safe roadsNumber of deaths from head-on crashes 272 252 -7.4Number of deaths from single-vehicle crashes 650 542 -16.6Number of deaths from intersection crashes 301 285 -5.3Number of deaths from crashes on metropolitan roads 492 413 -16.1Number of deaths from crashes on regional roads 787 726 -7.8Number of deaths from crashes on remote roads 135 131 -3.0Safe speedsNumber of deaths from crashes where speed was a contributory factor Data not yet availableMean free speeds at designated sites across the network Data not yet availablePercentage of vehicles speeding by vehicle type and offence category Data not yet availableSafe vehiclesAverage age of the Australian vehicle fleet (years)4 9.96 10.03 +0.8Percentage of new vehicles sold with a 5-star ANCAP rating Data not yet availablePercentage of new vehicles sold with key safety features Data not yet available2 Average annual number during the three-year period 2008 to 2010.3 Crash-based data for 2011 are provisional and subject to change.4 Based on estimates from the annual Motor Vehicle Census.
Statistical progress P a g e 35 BaselineMeasure 20113 % Change (2008 – 2010)2Safe people – responsible road useNumber of young driver and motorcycle rider deaths (aged 17-25 years) 222 176 -20.7Number of deaths from crashes involving a young driver or motorcycle 469 393 -16.2rider (aged 17-25 years)Number of older driver and motorcycle rider deaths (aged 65+ years) 114 114 0.0Number of deaths from crashes involving an older driver or motorcycle 207 203 -1.9rider (aged 65+ years)Number of motorcyclist deaths 234 200 -14.5Number of bicyclist deaths 32 35 +9.4Number of pedestrian deaths 186 186 0.0Number of deaths from crashes involving a heavy vehicle 252 239 -5.2Safe people – irresponsible road use5Number of drivers and motorcycle riders killed with a blood alcohol 1866 1376 -26.3concentration (BAC) above the legal limitNumber of deaths from crashes involving a driver or motorcycle rider with 2626 1966 -25.2a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) above the legal limitNumber of deaths from crashes involving an unlicensed driver or 173 126 -27.2motorcycle riderNumber of vehicle occupants killed who were not wearing a restraint 2165 181 -16.25 Fatality counts for each of the following indicators are lower-bound estimates – due to a substantial number of cases with unknown values.6 Excludes data from Victoria and the ACT.