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Vaccinationspclass 090903125222 Phpapp02



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  • 1. PREVENTIVE PEDIATRICS DR. DENNIS V. S. DELLOSA Chairman Clinical Pediatrics
  • 2.
  • 3. What kind of vaccine is DTaP?
    • The diphtheria and tetanus components are inactivated toxins called a toxoids.
    • For the pertussis component of DTaP and Tdap vaccines, purified components of the bacterium are grown and then inactivated.
  • 4. How is this vaccine given?
    • The DTaP vaccine is given as an Intramuscular injection.
  • 5. For children, how many doses of DTaP vaccine are required?
    • Children up 2 months – 6 years:
      • A series of 4 doses given at 2, 4, 6, and 15-18 months of age.
      • A 5 th shot, or booster dose, is recommended at 4-6 years of age, unless the fourth dose was given late (after the fourth birthday).
      • A booster dose of Td (adult tetanus and diphtheria) is recommended every ten years. The new Tdap vaccine can be substituted for one booster dose of adult Td.
  • 6. Should adults who weren't immunized as children receive this vaccine as adults?
      • Children 7 years and older without documentation of DTaP vaccination should receive a primary series of three doses of Tetanus-diphtheria toxoid (Td).
      • The first 2 doses should be separated by 4 - 8 weeks, and the 3rd dose given 6 - 12 months after the second dose.
      • Tdap vaccine can be substituted for one of these three doses, preferably the first dose for persons 11 years and older.
  • 7. How safe is this vaccine?
    • The most common reactions are
        • Soreness, redness, and swelling at the injection site.
        • Mild fever
        • Loss of appetite
        • Tiredness
        • Vomiting
  • 8. Who should NOT receive diphtheria vaccine?
    • People who have had a serious allergic reaction to one dose of DTaP, DT, Td, or Tdap vaccine.
    • Persons with a moderate or severe illness should postpone receiving the vaccine until their condition has improved.
  • 9. What adverse side effects have been reported with this vaccine?
    • Moderate to serious reactions include:
      • Crying for three hours or more
      • High fever
      • Collapse or shock-like state
      • Convulsions within three days
    • Believed to be due to the pertussis component of the vaccine
  • 10.
  • 11. What kind of vaccine is Hepatitis B vaccine?
    • Hepatitis B vaccines are recombinant DNA vaccines.
    • They are produced by inserting the gene for HBV into common baker's yeast where it is grown, harvested, and purified.
  • 12. How is this vaccine given?
    • Intramuscular Injection
  • 13. Who should get this vaccine?
    • Recommended for all infants and children 0 -18 years of age beginning at birth in the hospital.
    • Can be given to any person who desires protection from Hepatitis B.
  • 14. What groups of adults are at increased risk of HBV infection?
    • Healthcare workers and public safety workers with reasonably anticipated risk for exposure to blood or blood-contaminated body fluids
    • Men who have sex with men
    • Sexually active people who are not in long-term, mutually monogamous relationships
    • People seeking evaluation or treatment for a sexually transmitted disease
    • Current or recent injection drug users
  • 15.
    • Inmates of long-term correctional facilities
    • People with end-stage kidney disease, including predialysis, hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, and home dialysis patients
    • Staff and residents of institutions or group homes for the developmentally challenged
    • Household members and sex partners of people with chronic HBV infection
  • 16. Why is this vaccine recommended for all babies?
    • First , babies and young children have a very high risk for developing chronic HBV infection if they become infected at a young age.
    • Second , early childhood infection occurs.
    • Third , long-term protection following infant vaccination is expected to last for decades. Moreover, hepatitis B vaccine is the first vaccine to prevent cancer--HBV-related liver cancer.
  • 17. What is the recommended schedule for HBV?
    • HBV should be given an birth.
    • The minimum recommended dosing intervals are 4 weeks between the 1 st and 2 nd doses and 8 weeks between the 2 nd and 3 rd doses.
    • The minimum interval between the 1 st and 3 rd doses is 16 weeks.
  • 18. Who should NOT receive hepatitis B vaccine?
    • Serious allergic reaction to one dose of hepatitis B vaccine
    • Hypersensitivity to common backer’s yeast
  • 19.
  • 20. What kind of vaccine is IPV?
    • Inactivated virus vaccine
  • 21. How is the vaccine administered?
    • IPV is given as an IM injection.
  • 22. Who should get this vaccine?
    • All infants should get this vaccine.
    • A primary series of IPV consists of 3 properly spaced doses, usually given at 2, 4, and 6 - 18 months.
    • A booster dose is given at 4 - 6 years (before or at school entry).
  • 23. What side effects have been reported with this vaccine?
    • Possible side effects include minor local reactions at the site of injection (e.g., pain, redness).
  • 24. Who should not receive the polio vaccine?
    • Those with life-threatening allergic reaction to neomycin, streptomycin, or polymyxin B.
    • Anyone who had a severe allergic reaction to a dose of polio vaccine should not get another one.
    • Anyone who is moderately or severely ill at the scheduled time.