Signal Transduction RevisedPresentation Transcript
SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION Marigold D.R. Majarucon-Ferrolino, M.D.
The process of converting extracellular signals into cellular responses.
extracellular signaling molecules ( ligands ) - substances synthesized and released by signaling cells and produce a specific response only in target cells that have receptors for the signaling molecules.
Receptor – a specific protein that specifically binds a signaling molecule to initiate a response in a target cell
Cell responses :
changes in gene expression cell morphology
Communication by extracellular signals usually involves six steps:
2) release of the signaling molecule by the signaling cell
3) transport of the signal to the target cell
4) detection of the signal by a specific receptor protein
5) a change in cellular metabolism, function, or development triggered by the receptor-signal complex ;and
6) removal of the signal, which often terminates the cellular response.
TWO GENERAL KINDS OF CELL RECEPTORS
CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS
LIGAND – hydrophilic signaling molecules
LIGAND – hydrophobic signaling molecules
CHARACTERISTICS OF RECEPTOR PROTEINS
-a ligand binds to a specific receptor
receptor-ligand complex mediates a specific cellular response
TYPES OF SIGNALING
ENDOCRINE SIGNALING - signaling molecules (hormones) act on target cells distant from their site of synthesis by cells of endocrine organs.
PARACRINE SIGNALING - the signaling molecules (neurotransmitters) released by a cell only affect target cells in close proximity to it.
AUTOCRINE SIGNALING - cells respond to substances (growth factors) which they themselves release.
CLASSIFICATION OF HORMONES BASED ON SOLUBILITY AND RECEPTOR LOCATION
SMALL LIPOPHILIC MOLECULES that diffuse across the plasma membrane and interact with intracellular receptors.
Examples: steroids, thyroxine and retinoic acid
WATER-SOLUBLE HORMONES with cell-surface receptors