Emil Kraepelin – uses the term demence precox to emphasized the distinct pattern of dementia in early onset.
Eugen Bleuler – coined the term schizophrenia. He chose the term schisms between thought, emotion, and behavior in patients with this disorder
Eugen Bleuler 4 A’s of schizophrenia
Lifetime prevalence rate is 1%
Equally prevalent in men and women
Onset is earlier in men than in women
The peak age of onset is 10 to 25 for men and 25 to 35 years for women
About 3 – 10% of women present this illness after age 40.
90% of schizophrenia in treatment is between 15 to 55 years old.
Onset of schizophrenia before age 10 or after age 60 is extremely rare
In the northern hemisphere, including the US, persons with schizophrenia are more often born in the months of January to April. In southern hemisphere, it is between July to September
Ireland have an unusual high prevalence of schizophrenia.
First degree biological relatives have a 10x greater risk for developing the disease.
Persons with schizophrenia have a higher mortality rates from accidents and natural causes than the general population.
Suicide is the leading cause of mortality.
Persons who have realistic awareness of the deteriorative effects of the illness, hopelessness, excessive dependence on treatment or loss of faith in treatment increases the risk of suicide.
Schizophrenic patients are in the low socioeconomic status of life.
Downward drift hypothesis – that affected persons move into, or failed to rise out of, low socioeconomic status of life
Social causation hypothesis – proposes that stresses experienced by low socioeconomic groups contribute to the development of schizophrenia
Stress Diathesis Model
Neuropeptides - cholecystokinin and neurotensin
Subtypes of schizophrenia
Auditory hallucinations, such as hearing voices Delusions, such as believing a co-worker wants to poison you Anxiety Anger Aloofness Violence Verbal confrontations Patronizing manner Suicidal thoughts and behavior SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF PARANOID SCHIZOPHRENIA
In paranoid schizophrenia, delusions are often focused on the perception that you're being singled out for harm. Your brain misinterprets experiences and you hold on to these false beliefs despite evidence to the contrary
you may believe that the government is monitoring every move you make or that a co-worker is poisoning your lunch. You may also have delusions of grandeur — the belief that you can fly, that you're famous or that you have a relationship with a famous person
Delusions can result in aggression or violence if you believe you must act in self-defense against those who want to harm you.
These voices may talk either to you or to each other. The voices are usually unpleasant. They may give a running critique of what you're thinking or doing, or they may harass you about real or imagined faults. Voices may also command you to do things that can be harmful to yourself or to others. When you have paranoid schizophrenia, these voices seem real. You may talk to or shout at the voices.
Disorganized schizophrenia is characterized by illogical and incoherent thoughts and behaviors.
Disorganized schizophrenia is considered a more severe type of schizophrenia because you may be unable to carry out routine daily activities, such as bathing and meal preparation. With disorganized schizophrenia, others may not be able to understand what you're saying. Also, frustration and agitation may cause you to lash out. Disorganized schizophrenia is sometimes known as hebephrenic schizophrenia.
Disorganized type symptoms
Disorganized thinking. With disorganized thinking, you can't form logical or coherent thoughts. This disorganization is also noticeable in your speech patterns. You may not be able to stay on track in a conversation, instead jumping from one unrelated idea to another. Your disorganized speaking is so severe that it may appear garbled and unintelligible to others, and you may make up words. These same disorganized patterns are evident in your written communication
Disorganized type symptoms
Grossly disorganized behavior. The disorganized behavior of this type of schizophrenia is severe and causes significant impairment in your ability to function in regular daily activities. You may not be able to bathe, dress appropriately or prepare meals, for instance. You may have unprovoked agitation or confrontations, wear many layers of clothes on a warm day, appear disheveled or engage in sexual behavior in public
Absent or inappropriate emotional expression.
When you lack emotional expression (flat affect), your face appears blank. You don't make eye contact or display common body language. Although you may occasionally show some emotion, your range of expression is usually very limited. Sometimes you may have emotions that are inappropriate to the situation, such as acting silly or laughing loudly during a serious event.
Other symptoms of disorganized type
Having beliefs not based on reality (delusions)
Seeing or hearing things that don't exist (hallucinations), especially voices
Trouble functioning at school or work
Clumsy, uncoordinated movements
Having a family history of schizophrenia
Exposure to viruses while in the womb
Malnutrition while in the womb
Stressful life circumstances
Trauma or abuse during childhood
Older paternal age
Taking psychoactive drugs during adolescence
a chronic mental illness in which reality is interpreted abnormally (psychosis). Catatonic schizophrenia includes extremes of behavior. At one extreme of catatonic schizophrenia, you're unable to speak, move or respond. At the other, you have overexcited or hyperactive motion
Catatonic type symtoms
Mimicking speech or movement
A form of schizophrenia that is characterized by a number of schizophrenic symptoms such as delusion(s), disorganized behavior, disorganized speech, flat affect, or hallucinations but does not meet the criteria for any other type of schizophrenia.
A form of schizophrenia that is characterized by a previous diagnoses of schizophrenia, but no longer having any of the prominent psychotic symptoms. There are some remaining symptoms of the disorder however, such as eccentric behavior, emotional blunting, illogical thinking, or social withdrawal.
Positive symptoms of schizophrenia
Positive formal thought disorder
Pressure of speech
Negative symptoms of schizophrenia
Good prognostic feature of schizophrenia
Obvious precipitating stressors
Mood disorder symptoms
Family history of mood disorder
Good support system
Poor prognostic feature of Schizophrenia
No precipitating stressor
Withdrawn, autistic behavior
Single, divorced or widowed
Family history of schizophrenia
Neurological signs and symptoms
History of perinatal trauma
No remissions in three years
History of assaultiveness
For diagnostic purposes
For stabilization of medications
For patient’s safety because of suicidal or or homicidal ideation
For grossly disorganized or inappropriate behavior
Establishing an effective association between patients and community support system