Personality disorders-SEC.A


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Personality disorders-SEC.A

  4. 4. BURN THEM !
  5. 5. Senator Carl Levin
  6. 8. CLUSTER A PERSONALITY <ul><li>Also known as the odd and eccentric clusters </li></ul><ul><li>These are exemplified by the following: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Schizotypal personality disorder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Schizoid Personality disorder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Paranoid personality disorder </li></ul></ul>
  7. 9. Cluster B Personality Disorders <ul><li>Also known as the dramatic, erratic and emotional </li></ul><ul><li>These are exemplified by the following group </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Histrionic P.D. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Antisocial P.D. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Narcissistic P.D. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Borderline P.D. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 10. Cluster C personality disorders <ul><li>Also known as the anxious and fearful cluster </li></ul><ul><li>These are exemplified by the following </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoidant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dependent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Obsessive-compulsive </li></ul></ul>
  9. 11. Genetic Factors <ul><li>All clusters have genetic basis </li></ul><ul><li>Cluster A are more common in biological relatives patients with schizophrenia than in control groups </li></ul><ul><li>Cluster B especially the antisocial P.D. is associated with alcohol use disorders. In borderline P.D., depression and mood disorder is common. Histrionic PD with somatization disorder. </li></ul><ul><li>Cluster C especially with Avoidant P.D. have high anxiety levels. </li></ul>
  10. 12. Psychoanalytic factors <ul><li>Sigmund Freud suggested that personality traits are related to a fixation at one psychosexual stage of development. e.g. those with oral character are passive and dependent. While those of an anal character are stubborn, parsimonious and highly conscientious because of struggle over toilet training. </li></ul>
  11. 13. PARANOID P.D. <ul><li>Prevalence rate is 0.5 to 2.5% of the general population. </li></ul><ul><li>They are characterized by long-standing suspiciousness and mistrusts of person in general. They refuse responsibility of their own feelings and assign responsibility to others. They are often hostile, irritable, and angry. Bigots, injustice collectors, pathologically jealous spouses, and litigious. </li></ul><ul><li>They are usually formal in manner, usually serious and humorless. </li></ul><ul><li>The essential feature is a pervasive and unwarranted tendency to interpret other person’s action as demeaning or threatening. </li></ul>
  12. 16. PARANOID PD <ul><li>They usually dispute friend’s loyalty or trustworthiness. </li></ul><ul><li>This persons are pathologically jealous and questions the fidelity of the spouse or sexual partners. </li></ul><ul><li>Their affect are usually restricted and unemotional. </li></ul>
  13. 17. SCHIZOTYPAL PD <ul><li>Persons with this PD are strikingly odd or strange even to laymen. </li></ul><ul><li>Magical thinking, peculiar notions, ideas of reference, illusions and derealizations are part of his daily world. </li></ul><ul><li>They exhibit disturbed thinking and communicating </li></ul><ul><li>They may be superstitious or claim power of clairvoyance and believe they have special powers of thought and insight. This is the premorbid personality of patient with schizophrenia. </li></ul>
  14. 19. SCHIZOID PD <ul><li>Patients display a lifelong pattern of social withdrawal </li></ul><ul><li>They are introvert with constricted affect. </li></ul><ul><li>They are often seen as eccentric, isolated or lonely. </li></ul><ul><li>Prevalence rate is about 7.5% of the general population. </li></ul><ul><li>Always cold and aloof; they display a remote reserve and show no involvement with everyday events and the concerns of the others. </li></ul><ul><li>They are quiet, distant, seclusive, and unsociable </li></ul><ul><li>They are the last to be aware of the social fashion. </li></ul>
  15. 21. SCHIZOID PD <ul><li>The life histories of such persons reflect solitary interests and success at noncompetitive levels </li></ul><ul><li>Their sexual lives may exist exclusively at fantasy levels </li></ul><ul><li>They are usually involved in nonhuman interests such as astronomy and mathematics </li></ul>
  16. 22. ANTISOCIAL PD <ul><li>Is an inability to conform to the social norms that ordinarily govern many aspects of adolescents and adult behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Constitute about 75% of the prison population </li></ul><ul><li>Patients usually appear composed and credible </li></ul><ul><li>There is usually tension, hostility, irritability and rage. </li></ul><ul><li>They are usually charming and ingratiating </li></ul><ul><li>They life histories revealed many areas of life functioning such as lying, truancy, running away from home, thefts, fights, substance abuse and illegal activities </li></ul><ul><li>Promiscuity, spousal abuse, child abuse and animal cruelty is common. </li></ul>
  17. 24. ANTISOCIAL PD Diagnostic Criteria <ul><li>Failure to conform with the social norms with respect to lawful behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Deceitfulness as indicated by repeated lying, use of aliases or conning others for personal profit </li></ul><ul><li>Impulsivity or failure to plan ahead. </li></ul><ul><li>Irritability and aggressiveness by repeated physical fights </li></ul><ul><li>Reckless disregard of safety of self or others </li></ul><ul><li>Consistent irresponsibility </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of remorse </li></ul><ul><li>At least 18 years old </li></ul><ul><li>Presence of conduct disorder before age 15. </li></ul>
  18. 26. BORDERLINE PD <ul><li>This PD stands on border between neurosis and psychosis. </li></ul><ul><li>Almost always appear in the state of crisis. </li></ul><ul><li>Patients may have micropsychotic episodes </li></ul><ul><li>They cannot tolerate being alone </li></ul><ul><li>They consider each person as either all good or all bad. </li></ul><ul><li>The defense mechanism is projective identification wherein the intolerable aspects of self are projected onto another. </li></ul>
  19. 27. BORDERLINE PD Diagnostic Criteria <ul><li>Frantic efforts to avoid real or imagined abandonment </li></ul><ul><li>Unstable and intense interpersonal relationship. </li></ul><ul><li>Identity disturbance markedly and persistently unstable self image or sense of self. </li></ul><ul><li>Impulsivity that are potentially self damaging </li></ul><ul><li>Recurrent suicidal behavior or threats or self mutilating behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Affective instability due to marked reactivity of mood </li></ul><ul><li>Chronic feeling of emptiness </li></ul><ul><li>Inappropriate, intense anger or difficulty in controlling anger. </li></ul><ul><li>Transient stress related paranoid ideation </li></ul>
  20. 29. HISTRIONIC PD <ul><li>They are excitable and emotional and behave in a colorful, dramatic, extroverted fashion but unable to maintain deep, long lasting attachments. </li></ul><ul><li>Usually cooperative and eager to give a detailed history. Gestures and dramatic punctuations in their conversations </li></ul><ul><li>They make frequent slips of the tongue and use colorful language </li></ul><ul><li>They show a high degree of attention-seeking behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>They display temper tantrums, tears and accusations when they are not the center of attraction. </li></ul>
  21. 32. HISTRIONIC PD <ul><li>Seductive behavior is common on both sexes </li></ul><ul><li>Woman maybe anorgasmic while men are impotent </li></ul><ul><li>Their need for reassurance is endless </li></ul><ul><li>They may act on their sexual impulses to reassure themselves that they are attractive to other sex. </li></ul>
  22. 33. NARCISSISTIC PD <ul><li>They are characterized by heightened self-importance and grandiose feelings of uniqueness. </li></ul><ul><li>They have a grandiose sense of self-importance </li></ul><ul><li>They consider themselves as special and expect special treatment </li></ul><ul><li>They become enraged when criticized </li></ul><ul><li>They can make other furious by their refusal to obey conventional rules of behavior. </li></ul>
  23. 35. AVOIDANT PD <ul><li>Commonly described as persons with inferiority complex. </li></ul><ul><li>They show extreme sensitivity to rejection and may lead to a socially withdrawn life. </li></ul><ul><li>Hypersensitivity to rejection by others is the central feature. </li></ul><ul><li>Their main personality trait is timidity </li></ul><ul><li>When talking with someone, they expect uncertainty, show a lack of self-confidence, and may speak in self-effacing manner. </li></ul>
  24. 36. DEPENDENT PD <ul><li>They subordinate their own needs to those of others. </li></ul><ul><li>Get others to assume responsibility for major areas of their lives. Lack self-confidence </li></ul><ul><li>Pessimist </li></ul><ul><li>Fear of sexuality </li></ul><ul><li>Self doubt </li></ul><ul><li>Passivity </li></ul><ul><li>Suggestibility </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of perseverance </li></ul><ul><li>Persons with this disorder cannot make decisions without an excessive amount of assurance or advice </li></ul>
  25. 37. OBSESSIVE-COMPULSIVE PD <ul><li>This is characterized by emotional constriction, orderliness, perseverance, stubbornness and indecisiveness. </li></ul><ul><li>A pervasive pattern of perfectionism and inflexibility. </li></ul><ul><li>They are preoccupied with rules, regulations, orderliness, neatness and details. </li></ul><ul><li>They cannot tolerate infractions </li></ul>
  26. 39. So, what is your personality disorder?