Neoplasia Lab-2 Malignant Tumours

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Neoplasia Lab-2 Malignant Tumours

  1. 1. Pathology LabMalignant TumoursNeoplasia-2<br />5th November<br />Ravi A Patel<br />
  2. 2. Memory (M++)<br />Picture of Metastatic<br />Tumour in Liver<br />Papillary <br />Carcinoma <br />Metastasizing <br />To Lymph node<br />Dermoid<br />Cyst<br />Gross &<br />Microscopic<br />Basal Cell CA<br />Well pink<br />stained<br />H-mole<br />Gross &<br />Microscopic<br />Pulmonary <br />Embolus<br />Hashimoto’s<br />Thyroiditis<br />Basal<br />Cell CA<br />Skin<br />Infiltrating<br />Ductal CA<br />Breast<br />Squamous<br />Cell CA<br />Skin<br />Adeno<br />Carcinoma<br />Rectum<br />Thyroid<br />Hyperplasia<br />Amyloid<br />Thyroid<br />Hemangioma<br />Chart demo<br />
  3. 3. Malignant tumours<br />Basal cell CA-Skin<br />Squamous cell CA-Skin<br />3. Infiltrating ductal CA<br />-Breast<br />4. Adenocarcinoma-Rectum<br />
  4. 4. Pathways of Spread<br />Papillary CA- Metastatic to Lymph node<br />2. Tumor Embolus<br />
  5. 5. Special Tumour<br />H-mole (Microscopic + Gross)<br />Dermoid Cyst<br />
  6. 6. Immune<br />Thyroid Hyperplasia<br />Amyloid Thyroid<br />Hashimoto’s Thyroidoitis<br />
  7. 7. Cellular Features of Malignant Tumours<br />Anaplasia- No differentiation<br />Pleomorphism (Size,shape and nucleus)<br />Mitosis increases(Atypical increase in mitosis)<br />Increase in N:C ratio<br />Hyperchromatic nucleus(highly stained)<br />
  8. 8. Malignant Tumours<br />
  9. 9.
  10. 10. Basal cell CA-Skin<br />Non-Invasive (No metastasis)<br />Epidermis + Nest of tumour cells<br />Peripherally arranged in Palisading/Picket Fence<br />
  11. 11. Nests are formed by downward growth of <br />Basal cells deep into dermis <br /> Nests are Formed in columns<br /> and sheets of basophilic cells<br />Stroma around tends to seperate<br />And forms well defined space<br />Nests of Tumour cells<br />
  12. 12. Well stained section of Basal cell CA<br />Palisading formation/Picket fencing is clear<br />
  13. 13.
  14. 14.
  15. 15.
  16. 16.
  17. 17. Infiltrating Ductal Carcinoma of Breast<br />Due to abnormally proliferating ductal lining cells, there is invasion of stroma<br />In normal breast tissue<br />Ducts= Stroma<br />Whereas in Infiltrating ductal carcinoma there is very little stroma<br />
  18. 18. Normal Breast tissue is not found<br />HPO<br />Malignant Ductal lining cells<br />Observed to be arranged in <br />sheets<br />Pleomorphism<br />And Hyperchromatic<br /> nuclei Of the ductal<br /> lining cells<br />
  19. 19. LPO<br />
  20. 20. LPO<br />
  21. 21. HPO<br />
  22. 22.
  23. 23. Squamous cell carcinoma-Skin<br />Most common tumour arising from sun-exposed sites in older people.<br />Locating the area where epidermis show atypical cells<br />Keratinization of the squamous cells<br />Cells show Keratin pearls like structure within<br />Rest of cellular changes would be same as those manifested by all malignant tumours.<br />
  24. 24. Keratin pearl<br />Within squamous cell<br />Atypical epidermal <br />cells<br />Hyperchromatic<br />Nuclei<br />
  25. 25. Observing keratinization<br />Within the squamous cells<br />Seen in HPO <br />Next slide<br />
  26. 26. Keratin pearls<br />
  27. 27.
  28. 28. Adencarcinoma of Rectum<br />More differentiated <br />There is abnormal proliferation of the rectal glands<br />
  29. 29.
  30. 30. Usually arising from <br />Adenomatous polyps<br />Atypical Gland<br /> in mucosa layer<br />Well differentiated slide<br />Goblet cells are numerous<br />
  31. 31. Pathways of Spread<br />
  32. 32.
  33. 33. Papillary Carcinoma metastatic to lymph node<br />From Thyroid gland Lyphoid follicle with germinal center<br />It metastasize evenly<br />
  34. 34.
  35. 35. LPO<br />Psamomma Body<br />
  36. 36. HPO<br />Psamomma Body<br />
  37. 37. Orphan Annie- Nuclei<br />HPO<br />
  38. 38.
  39. 39. Tumour Embolus-Lung<br />Hematogenous spread of cancer cells result to embolization of the cells to distant site from the primary tumour<br />There are neoplastic cells with in the blood vessel which will lead to congestion caused by the obstruction in blood flow.<br />
  40. 40.
  41. 41.
  42. 42.
  43. 43. Special Tumours<br />
  44. 44.
  45. 45. Hydatidiform Mole<br />It is a benign tumour but can be converted to chorio carcinoma<br />Occurs in pregnancy, uterus becomes large..<br />3 Microscopic Changes Occurs<br />Hydrophic degeneration- stroma enlarges due to accumulation of water.<br />Cystic swelling<br />Proliferation of trophoblastic cells.<br />
  46. 46. Gross Description<br />Endometrial cavity is occupied by grayish irregular to nodular tissues.<br />Nodules resemble – small,cystic,translucent structures similar to small FISH EGGS.<br />These are actually swollen chorionic villi which have undergone hydrophic degeneration.<br />
  47. 47.
  48. 48. Grayish Nodular Tissue <br />FISH EGGS- they are enlarged<br />Chorionic villi which have undergone <br />Hydrophic degeneration <br />
  49. 49. At the pointer<br />Enlarged Chorionic VIlli<br />Syncitio-Trophoblast<br />Proliferation<br />
  50. 50. Syncitio-Trophoblast<br />Proliferation<br />
  51. 51. HPO<br />At the pointer<br />Enlarged Chorionic VIlli<br />Syncitio-Trophoblast<br />Proliferation<br />
  52. 52.
  53. 53. Mature Cystic Teratoma-DermoidCyst,Ovary<br />A.K.A Mature Benign teratoma of totipotent cells.<br />Things to observe under microscope<br />Cystic wall & Ectodermal elements as stratified squamous epithelium with underlying hair follicles and sweat glands.<br />
  54. 54. Gross<br />Ovary opened<br />Revelaing Inner lining epithelium of the cystic wall<br />Hair shafts and protruding incisor tooth from the wall.<br />
  55. 55.
  56. 56.
  57. 57. Hair Shafts &<br />Protruding incisor <br />Tooth from the wall<br />
  58. 58.
  59. 59. Cystic Wall<br />Ectodermal stratified<br />Sqamous epithelium<br />Sweat glands<br />Hair Follicle<br />
  60. 60. Immune<br />
  61. 61.
  62. 62. Thyroid Hyperplasia<br />It is an Autoimmune disease<br />A.K.A Grave’s Disease<br />Body produces Antibodies<br />There is increased thyroid hormones-Hyperthyroidism<br />Metabolism:- <br />Increased Thyroid function<br />Tremors<br />Weight loss after eating.<br />
  63. 63. Increase in number of thyroid<br /> follicular cells surrounding the<br />Acini.<br />
  64. 64.
  65. 65. Amyloid Thyroid<br />Amyloid is a proteinaceous substance deposited between the adjacent cells.<br />Amyloid is pink hyalinized material.<br />Amyloid is seen to be compressing the thyroid acini.<br />
  66. 66. Deposition of amyloid<br />Around the acini<br />
  67. 67.
  68. 68. Hashimoto’s Throiditis<br />It is a disease occuring due to T-lymphocyte defect, b lymphocyte also produces antibodies against the thyroid antigens.<br />There is replacement of thyroid parenchyma by Lymphocytic infiltrates.<br />In some areas lymphoid follicles are found.<br />Remnants of thyroid follicles show atrophy but some are swollen with pinkish,granular cytoplasm– Hurthle cells<br />
  69. 69. Hurthle cells<br />Lymphocyte infiltrates<br />At the pointer<br />
  70. 70. Thanking to the entire Universe<br />

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