Cellular Features of Malignant Tumours Anaplasia- No differentiation Pleomorphism (Size,shape and nucleus) Mitosis increases(Atypical increase in mitosis) Increase in N:C ratio Hyperchromatic nucleus(highly stained)
Basal cell CA-Skin Non-Invasive (No metastasis) Epidermis + Nest of tumour cells Peripherally arranged in Palisading/Picket Fence
Nests are formed by downward growth of Basal cells deep into dermis Nests are Formed in columns and sheets of basophilic cells Stroma around tends to seperate And forms well defined space Nests of Tumour cells
Well stained section of Basal cell CA Palisading formation/Picket fencing is clear
Infiltrating Ductal Carcinoma of Breast Due to abnormally proliferating ductal lining cells, there is invasion of stroma In normal breast tissue Ducts= Stroma Whereas in Infiltrating ductal carcinoma there is very little stroma
Normal Breast tissue is not found HPO Malignant Ductal lining cells Observed to be arranged in sheets Pleomorphism And Hyperchromatic nuclei Of the ductal lining cells
Squamous cell carcinoma-Skin Most common tumour arising from sun-exposed sites in older people. Locating the area where epidermis show atypical cells Keratinization of the squamous cells Cells show Keratin pearls like structure within Rest of cellular changes would be same as those manifested by all malignant tumours.
Keratin pearl Within squamous cell Atypical epidermal cells Hyperchromatic Nuclei
Observing keratinization Within the squamous cells Seen in HPO Next slide
Adencarcinoma of Rectum More differentiated There is abnormal proliferation of the rectal glands
Usually arising from Adenomatous polyps Atypical Gland in mucosa layer Well differentiated slide Goblet cells are numerous
Pathways of Spread
Papillary Carcinoma metastatic to lymph node From Thyroid gland Lyphoid follicle with germinal center It metastasize evenly
LPO Psamomma Body
HPO Psamomma Body
Orphan Annie- Nuclei HPO
Tumour Embolus-Lung Hematogenous spread of cancer cells result to embolization of the cells to distant site from the primary tumour There are neoplastic cells with in the blood vessel which will lead to congestion caused by the obstruction in blood flow.
Hydatidiform Mole It is a benign tumour but can be converted to chorio carcinoma Occurs in pregnancy, uterus becomes large.. 3 Microscopic Changes Occurs Hydrophic degeneration- stroma enlarges due to accumulation of water. Cystic swelling Proliferation of trophoblastic cells.
Gross Description Endometrial cavity is occupied by grayish irregular to nodular tissues. Nodules resemble – small,cystic,translucent structures similar to small FISH EGGS. These are actually swollen chorionic villi which have undergone hydrophic degeneration.
Grayish Nodular Tissue FISH EGGS- they are enlarged Chorionic villi which have undergone Hydrophic degeneration
At the pointer Enlarged Chorionic VIlli Syncitio-Trophoblast Proliferation
HPO At the pointer Enlarged Chorionic VIlli Syncitio-Trophoblast Proliferation
Mature Cystic Teratoma-DermoidCyst,Ovary A.K.A Mature Benign teratoma of totipotent cells. Things to observe under microscope Cystic wall & Ectodermal elements as stratified squamous epithelium with underlying hair follicles and sweat glands.
Gross Ovary opened Revelaing Inner lining epithelium of the cystic wall Hair shafts and protruding incisor tooth from the wall.
Hair Shafts & Protruding incisor Tooth from the wall
Thyroid Hyperplasia It is an Autoimmune disease A.K.A Grave’s Disease Body produces Antibodies There is increased thyroid hormones-Hyperthyroidism Metabolism:- Increased Thyroid function Tremors Weight loss after eating.
Increase in number of thyroid follicular cells surrounding the Acini.
Amyloid Thyroid Amyloid is a proteinaceous substance deposited between the adjacent cells. Amyloid is pink hyalinized material. Amyloid is seen to be compressing the thyroid acini.
Deposition of amyloid Around the acini
Hashimoto’s Throiditis It is a disease occuring due to T-lymphocyte defect, b lymphocyte also produces antibodies against the thyroid antigens. There is replacement of thyroid parenchyma by Lymphocytic infiltrates. In some areas lymphoid follicles are found. Remnants of thyroid follicles show atrophy but some are swollen with pinkish,granular cytoplasm– Hurthle cells
Hurthle cells Lymphocyte infiltrates At the pointer