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Hema intro anemia
Hema intro anemia
Hema intro anemia
Hema intro anemia
Hema intro anemia
Hema intro anemia
Hema intro anemia
Hema intro anemia
Hema intro anemia
Hema intro anemia
Hema intro anemia
Hema intro anemia
Hema intro anemia
Hema intro anemia
Hema intro anemia
Hema intro anemia
Hema intro anemia
Hema intro anemia
Hema intro anemia
Hema intro anemia
Hema intro anemia
Hema intro anemia
Hema intro anemia
Hema intro anemia
Hema intro anemia
Hema intro anemia
Hema intro anemia
Hema intro anemia
Hema intro anemia
Hema intro anemia
Hema intro anemia
Hema intro anemia
Hema intro anemia
Hema intro anemia
Hema intro anemia
Hema intro anemia
Hema intro anemia
Hema intro anemia
Hema intro anemia
Hema intro anemia
Hema intro anemia
Hema intro anemia
Hema intro anemia
Hema intro anemia
Hema intro anemia
Hema intro anemia
Hema intro anemia
Hema intro anemia
Hema intro anemia
Hema intro anemia
Hema intro anemia
Hema intro anemia
Hema intro anemia
Hema intro anemia
Hema intro anemia
Hema intro anemia
Hema intro anemia
Hema intro anemia
Hema intro anemia
Hema intro anemia
Hema intro anemia
Hema intro anemia
Hema intro anemia
Hema intro anemia
Hema intro anemia
Hema intro anemia
Hema intro anemia
Hema intro anemia
Hema intro anemia
Hema intro anemia
Hema intro anemia
Hema intro anemia
Hema intro anemia
Hema intro anemia
Hema intro anemia
Hema intro anemia
Hema intro anemia
Hema intro anemia
Hema intro anemia
Hema intro anemia
Hema intro anemia
Hema intro anemia
Hema intro anemia
Hema intro anemia
Hema intro anemia
Hema intro anemia
Hema intro anemia
Hema intro anemia
Hema intro anemia
Hema intro anemia
Hema intro anemia
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Hema intro anemia

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  • There are three types of granulocyte named according to their staining characteristics in blood films. They are neutrophils, eosinophils and basophils. Mononuclear cells are divided into lymphocytes and monocytes.
  • Eosinophils have granules which take up the acidic dye, eosin, hence their name. Eosinophil granules stain orange and usually pack the cytoplasm The eosinophil is produced in the bone marrow. It is released into the blood stream where it spends, on average, about 6 hours before migrating to tissues. Eosinophil functions include chemotaxis, phagocytosis and killing of bacteria and parasites. Eosinophils have harmful as well as beneficial effects, being implicated in allergic disease.
  • Basophils are produced in the bone marrow. They are released into the blood and then migrate into tissues. They have a role in allergic and inflammatory responses.
  • B lymphocytes differentiate into antibody-secreting plasma cells. The role of T lymphocytes and natural killer cells is in cell-mediated immunity.
  • Large lymphocytes sometimes have a visible nucleolus, a small round or oval structure within the nucleus which stains more lightly than the rest of the nucleus. The nucleolus is the site of synthesis and processing of ribosomal nucleic acid (RNA). Large lymphocytes may be either B, T or NK cells. They are somewhat more frequent in children than in adults.
  • Large granular lymphocytes include cytotoxic T lymphocytes and natural killer cells. Cytotoxic T cells are responsible for HLA-dependent cell-mediated immunity. Natural killer cells are responsible for HLA-independent cell mediated immunity
  • Monocytes are produced in the bone marrow. They spend several days in the circulation before migrating to the tissues where they differentiate into macrophages. Macrophages are also known as histiocytes. Monocytes and macrophages are phagocytic and can kill ingested bacteria and fungi. distinguished from large granular lymphocytes by their larger size, more opaque greyish cytoplasm and finer although often more numerous granules cytoplasmic outline is irregular and may be indented by surrounding red cells
  • neutrophils in the circulating blood are mainly mature segmented neutrophils smaller numbers of cells of neutrophil lineage with non-segmented nuclei. They are referred to as. They are less mature than segmented neutrophils. An increased number of band cells is referred to as a 'left shift'.
  • Platelets are produced in the bone marrow by demarcation of small areas of megakaryocyte cytoplasm which are then released into bone marrow sinusoids and thus into the circulating blood. Some budding of platelets may also occur from megakaryocytes lodged in pulmonary capillaries. Pulmonary megakaryocytes are derived from the bone marrow. composed of a central granulomere containing azurophilic granules and a peripheral hyalomere that is agranular
  • measurements of iron supply including serum iron, total iron-binding capacity (TIBC; an indirect measure of the transferrin level), and serum ferritin description of both the red and white cells, a white cell differential count, and the platelet count. may be important to assist in the diagnosis.
  • complete blood count (CBC) physiologic factors affect the normal CBC values including age, gender, pregnancy, smoking, and altitude High-normal hemoglobin values may be seen in men and women who live at altitude or smoke heavily. Hemoglobin elevations due to smoking reflect normal compensation due to the displacement of O2 by CO in hemoglobin binding. reticulocyte count
  • a complement to the red cell indices The degree of anisocytosis usually correlates with increases in the RDW or the range of cell sizes. Poikilocytosis suggests a defect in the maturation of red cell precursors in the bone marrow or fragmentation of circulating red cells The blood smear may also reveal polychromasia — red cells that are slightly larger than normal and grayish blue in color on the Wright-Giemsa stain. These cells are reticulocytes that have been prematurely released from the bone marrow, and their color represents residual amounts of ribosomal RNA. These cells appear in circulation in response to EPO1 stimulation or to architectural damage of the bone marrow (fibrosis, infiltration of the marrow by malignant cells, etc.) that results in their disordered release from the marrow. The appearance of nucleated red cells, Howell-Jolly bodies, target cells, sickle cells, and others may provide clues to specific disorders
  • Anisocytosis is a common, non-specific abnormality which can be associated with almost any type of anaemia. It is therefore not particularly useful in making a specific diagnosis. Anisochromasia indicates a changing situation, i.e. that haemoglobin synthesis has been reduced during production of some of the circulating red cells. It is usually caused by iron deficiency or 'anaemia of chronic disease'. When there is anisocytosis automated full blood counters show an increase in the RDW (red cell distribution width), a measurement of the amount of variation in red cell size. Some instruments can also measure the variation in the degree of haemoglobinization of individual red cells. In the presence of anisochromasia such instruments show an increase in the HDW (haemoglobin distribution width). Some cells are normally haemoglobinized while others show only a thin rim of haemoglobinized cytoplasm
  • suggests a defect in the maturation of red cell precursors in the bone marrow or fragmentation of circulating red cells
  • The reticulocyte count is often expressed as a percentage of red cells but is better expressed as an absolute count. The normal range is approximately 0.5-2% or 40-140 X 109/l. identified on a reticulocyte preparation rather than on a blood film stained in the normal way
  • With anemia, the percentage of reticulocytes may be increased while the absolute number is unchanged Abs retic = retic % x rbc count Nv after correction is same as normal retic va;es 0.5-1.5%
  • Correction of the reticulocyte count. In order to use the reticulocyte count as an indicator of effective red cell production, the reticulocyte number must be corrected based on the level of anemia and the circulating life span of the reticulocytes. Erythroid cells take ~4.5 days to mature. At normal hematocrit levels, they are released to the circulation with ~1 day left as reticulocytes. However, with different levels of anemia, erythroid cells are released from the marrow prematurely. Most patients come to clinical attention with hematocrits in the mid-20s and thus a correction factor of 2 is commonly used because the observed reticulocytes will live for 2 days in the circulation before losing their RNA. NORMAL bm activity RPI IS 1 Hemolysis 3 to 7 x higher Bone marrow damage index is 2 or less Measures erythropooietic act when stress retic are present, rationale of obtaining this value is that life span of circulating stress retic in 2 days instead of 1 TO compensate for the increased maturation time and consequent retention of residuals
  • +polychromatophilic macrocytes correction is necessary because these prematurely released cells survive as reticulocytes in circulation for >1 day, providing a falsely high estimate of daily red cell production divided by 2 to account for the prolonged reticulocyte maturation time -polychromatophilic cells second correction is not required doubly corrected reticulocyte count is the reticulocyte production If the reticulocyte production index is <2 in the face of established anemia, a defect in erythroid marrow proliferation or maturation must be present.
  • Iron studies reflect the availability of iron for hemoglobin synthesis Percent transferrin saturation derived by dividing the serum iron level (× 100) by the TIBC transferrin saturation ranges from 25 to 50% diurnal variation in the serum iron leads to a variation in the percent transferrin saturation Serum ferritin to evaluate total-body iron stores Adult males have serum ferritin levels that average about 100 ug/L, corresponding to iron stores of about 1 g Adult females have lower serum ferritin levels averaging 30 ug/L, reflecting lower iron stores serum ferritin level of 10 to 15 ug/L represents depletion of body iron stores ferritin is also an acute-phase reactant and, in the presence of acute or chronic inflammation, may rise severalfold above baseline levels As a rule, a serum ferritin >200 ug/L means there is at least some iron in tissue stores.
  • Bone marrow aspiration and biopsy. After a small area of skin is numbed, a Jamshidi needle (a long, hollow needle) is inserted into the patient’s hip bone. Samples of blood, bone, and bone marrow are removed for examination under a microscope.
  • The storage iron is in the form of ferritin or hemosiderin. On carefully prepared bone marrow smears, small ferritin granules can normally be seen in 20 to 40% of developing erythroblasts. Such cells are called sideroblasts
  • Even films without fragments are worth examining as useful information may be gained. However, assessment of cellularity and megakaryocyte numbers is unreliable and dilution with peripheral blood may lead to lymphocytes and neutrophils being over-represented in the differential count. make sure that particles or fragments are present Bone marrow aspirates which lack particles may be diluted with peripheral blood and may therefore be unrepresentative
  • Continuing with a low power examination, the number of megakaryocytes should be assessed. Most megakaryocytes [arrows] are large cells which can be identified with low power. Their numbers are very variable in normal bone marrow films, being partly related to the number of fragments present. This image shows increased megakaryocyte numbers.
  • A mature megakaryocyte sheds almost all its cytoplasm as platelets which are released into the circulating blood.
  • When there is iron deficiency the bone marrow iron stain shows no blue staining. Initial assessment should be with a medium power objective but absent iron should be confirmed by examination with a X 100 oil objective. If an adequate number of fragments are present, e.g. five to six fragments, this should be reported as 'absent storage iron'. Once all normal and abnormal bone marrow cells have been assessed on a routine stain an iron stain should be examined, using a medium power objective (X 40 or X 50). Storage iron, which stains blue, should be assessed in bone marrow fragments. This image shows normal bone marrow iron.
  • Commitment of the stem cell to the specific cell lineages appears not to be regulated by known exogenous growth factors or cytokines Following lineage commitment (or differentiation), hematopoietic progenitor and precursor cells come increasingly under the regulatory influence of growth factors and hormones
  • Pronormoblast 20-25um Baso 16 to 18um Poly 12 to 15 Ortho 10 to 15
  • stimulus for EPO production is the availability of O2 for tissue metabolic needs produced and released by peritubular capillary lining cells within the kidney (highly specialized epithelial-like cells) Impaired O2 delivery to the kidney can result from a decreased red cell mass (anemia) impaired O2 loading of the hemoglobin molecule (hypoxemia) impaired blood flow to the kidney (renal artery stenosis) normal level 10 to 25 U/L hemoglobin concentration falls below 100 to 120 g/L (10 to 12 g/dL), plasma EPO levels increase in proportion to the severity of the anemia
  • Hypoproliferative anemias are the most common anemias and anemia associated with acute and chronic inflammation is the most common of these. The anemia of acute and chronic inflammation, like iron deficiency, is related in part to abnormal iron metabolism. The anemias associated with renal disease, inflammation, cancer, and hypometabolic states are characterized by an abnormal erythropoietin response to anemia.
  • most important in the differential diagnosis of iron deficiency, many of the features brought about by inadequate iron delivery to the marrow, despite the presence of normal or increased iron stores serum ferritin values are often the most distinguishing feature between true iron deficiency anemia and the iron-deficient erythropoiesis associated with inflammation. Typically, serum ferritin values increase threefold over basal levels in the face of inflammation. All of these changes are due to the effects of inflammatory cytokines and hepcidin, the storage iron regulator, acting at several levels of erythropoiesis
  • level of the anemia correlates with the severity of the renal failure PTH Suppress erythropoiesis by renal calcification (decreased EPO formation) marrow sclerosis ( decreased proliferation of erythroid precursors)
  • ; tissues dependent on active mitosis are particularly susceptible Nuclear accidents can involve not only power plant workers but also employees of hospitals, laboratories, and industry (food sterilization, metal radiography, etc.), as well as innocents exposed to stolen, misplaced, or misused sources. While the radiation dose can be approximated from the rate and degree of decline in blood counts, dosimetry by reconstruction of the exposure can help to estimate the patient's prognosis and also to protect medical personnel from contact with radioactive tissue and excreta.
  • association between marrow failure and other chemicals is much less well substantiated
  • Aplasia is a major consequence and the cause of death in transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease, which can occur after infusion of unirradiated blood products to an immunodeficient recipient plastic anemia is strongly associated with the rare collagen vascular syndrome called eosinophilic fasciitis, which is characterized by painful induration of subcutaneous tissues (Chap. 303). Pancytopenia with marrow hypoplasia can also occur in systemic lupus erythematosus
  • Patients with an initial clinical diagnosis of PNH, especially younger individuals, may later develop frank marrow aplasia and pancytopenia patients with an initial diagnosis of aplastic anemia may suffer from hemolytic PNH years after recovery of blood counts
  • . The common X-linked variety is due to mutations in the DKC1 (dyskerin) gene; the more unusual autosomal dominant type has been linked to hTERC, the RNA component of the telomerase complex. These two gene products cooperate in maintaining telomere length.
  • cells bearing the CD34 antigen, a marker of early hematopoietic cells, are greatly diminished
  • days to weeks of easy bruising, oozing from the gums, nose bleeds, heavy menstrual flow, and sometimes petechiae will have been noticed. With thrombocytopenia, massive hemorrhage is unusual, but small amounts of bleeding in the central nervous system can result in catastrophic intracranial or retinal hemorrhage. , including lassitude, weakness, shortness of breath, and a pounding sensation in the ears. Infection is an unusual first symptom in aplastic anemia (unlike in agranulocytosis, where pharyngitis, anorectal infection, or frank sepsis occur early).
  • . Patient with Fanconi's anaemia showing short stature, hypoplastic thumbs and a typical 'Fanconi's facies' - small eyes, small chin and small mouth A central venous line has been inserted in preparation for bone marrow transplantation. autosomally recessive inherited conditions characterized by susceptibility to chromosome breakage and progressive bone marrow failure
  • severe aplasia, may show only red cells, residual lymphocytes, and stromal cells Residual hematopoietic cells should have normal morphology, except for mildly megaloblastic erythropoiesis; megakaryocytes are invariably greatly reduced and usually absent
  • showing a large poorly formed erythroblastic island with increased numbers of early erythroblasts
  • Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) typing should be ordered as soon as the diagnosis of aplastic anemia is established in a child or younger adult. In transplant candidates, transfusion of blood from family members should be avoided so as to prevent sensitization to histocompatibility antigens; while transfusions in general should be minimized, limited numbers of blood products probably do not seriously affect outcome.
  • Transcript

    • 1. INTRODUCTION TO HEMATOLOGY Erlinda E. Samson-Cruz, MD, FPCP, FPSHBT
    • 2. HEMATOLOGY
      • study of circulating blood components and blood forming tissues
      • Blood
        • 5 to 7 % of total BW
      • function
        • deliver nutrients, hormones and O2 to tissues
        • to collect and dispose of the wastes from cellular metabolism
        • to deliver specialized cells to tissues for protection against external environment
        • to prevent leakage of blood in blood vessels
    • 3. Elements of blood
      • Fluid elements
        • Water
        • Electrolytes
        • Proteins
      • Cellular elements
        • RBC
        • WBC
        • Platelets
    • 4. Cellular elements
      • with an area of central pallor about a third of the diameter of the cell
      • shape of a normal red cell resembles a disc that is thinner in the centre
      • Normal red cells
    • 5. Cellular elements
      • Scanning electron micrograph of a red cell
      • showing that it is disc shaped with central thinning
    • 6. Cellular elements
      • Normal white cells
    • 7. Cellular elements
      • Normal neutrophil and normal small lymphocyte
      • Neutrophils
        • have two to five lobes
        • cytoplasm is very pale blue and contains small lilac-staining granules, called neutrophilic granules
    • 8. Cellular elements
      • Normal eosinophil
      • Eosinophils
        • granules stain orange and usually pack the cytoplasm
        • nucleus is most often bilobed
        • cytoplasm is weakly basophilic so when it is visible it stains pale blue
    • 9. Cellular elements
      • Normal basophil
      • Basophil
        • cytoplasm is packed with large purple granules which often almost obscure the lobulated nucleus
    • 10. Cellular elements
      • Normal small lymphocyte
      • Lymphocyte
        • cell is round with very scanty cytoplasm
        • cytoplasm is moderately blue or basophilic
        • high nucleocytoplasmic ratio
    • 11. Cellular elements
      • Normal large lymphocyte
      • Large lymphocyte
        • less condensed chromatin and more voluminous irregular cytoplasm than a small lymphocyte
        • cytoplasm is weakly or moderately basophilic
    • 12. Cellular elements
      • Normal large granular lymphocyte
      • Large granular lymphocyte
        • large lymphocytes containing a small number of azurophilic (light purple) granules
        • cytoplasm is usually weakly basophilic
        • nucleolus may be visible
    • 13. Cellular elements
      • Normal monocyte
      • Monocyte
        • largest normal white cell found in the blood
        • irregular lobulated nucleus and opaque grey-blue cytoplasm containing fine azurophilic (light purple) granules
        • cytoplasm is sometimes vacuolated
    • 14. Cellular elements
      • Neutrophil band cell
      • Neutrophil band cells or band forms
        • cells of neutrophil lineage with non-segmented nuclei
        • less mature than segmented neutrophils
        • increased number of band cells is referred to as a 'left shift'
    • 15. Cellular elements
      • Normal platelets
      • Platelets
        • small anuclear cytoplasmic fragments
        • small purple-staining granules
        • seen between the red cells in a blood film
    • 16. PRINCIPLES OF HEMATOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS
      • History
        • Present illness
        • Exposure to drugs or chemicals
        • Past med history
        • Family history
        • Review of symptoms
      • Physical Examination
        • clues to the mechanisms of hematologic disease/ anemia may be provided
    • 17. PRINCIPLES OF HEMATOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS
      • Peripheral blood measurements
        • CBC
        • PBS
        • Reticulocyte count
        • Iron studies
      • B one marrow aspirate or biopsy
    • 18. LABORATORY EVALUATION
      • COMPLETE BLOOD COUNT
        • Hemoglobin
        • Hematocrit
        • RBC count
        • red cell indices
        • WBC count with cell differential
        • Platelet count
        • reticulocyte count
    • 19. LABORATORY EVALUATION
      • RBC indices
      • MCV in fl
          • = hct/rbc ct x 1000
      • MCH in pg per cell
          • = hgb/rbc ct x 1000
      • MCHC in grams per liter
          • hgb/hct x 100
      • average volume of individual red cells
      • hgb content per red cell
      • hgb concentration of the red cells
    • 20. LABORATORY EVALUATION
      • PERIPHERAL BLOOD SMEAR 
      • information about defects in red cell production
        • anisocytosis
        • poikilocytosis
        • polychromasia
      • wbc immaturity or abnormality
      • platelet number and morphology
    • 21. LABORATORY EVALUATION
      • Anisocytosis
        • variations in cell size
      • Anisochromasia
        • variation in staining from cell to cell
        • Ida pt
    • 22. LABORATORY EVALUATION
      • Poikilocytosis
        • means an increased variability in red cell shape
      • Classification of poikilocytes
    • 23. LABORATORY EVALUATION
      • Polychromasia
      • indicates the presence of increased numbers of red cells with a bluish tinge superimposed on the red colour of haemoglobin
      • increased numbers of polychromatic cells correlates with an increased reticulocyte count
      • polychromatic cells are often larger than mature red cells and may then be referred to as polychromatic macrocytes
    • 24. LABORATORY EVALUATION
      • RETICULOCYTE COUNT 
      • key to the initial classification of anemia
        • patient's reticulocyte count is compared with the expected reticulocyte response
      • Normally red cell production rate increases to 2-3x normal within 10 days following the onset of anemia
      • In established anemia, a reticulocyte response less than two to three times normal indicates an inadequate marrow response
    • 25. LABORATORY EVALUATION
      • Reticulocytes
        • young red cells newly released from the bone marrow
      • identified by staining with a supravital dye that precipitates the residual ribosomal RNA
      • precipitates appear as blue or black punctate spots
      • residual RNA is metabolized over the first 24 to 36 h of the reticulocyte's lifespan in circulation
      • reticulocyte count ranges from 1 to 2% and reflects the daily replacement of 0.8 to 1.0% of the circulating red cell population
    • 26. RETICULOCYTE COUNT 1 st CORRECTION
      • adjusts the reticulocyte count based on the reduced number of circulating red cells
      • provides an estimate of the retic ct corrected for anemia
      • corrected retic
      • = retic % x (actual hgb or hct /ideal hgb or hct )
      • Example
      • retic ct 9%
      • hemoglobin 7.5 g/dL
      • hematocrit 23%
      • corrected retic count
      • = 9 x (7.5/15) [or x (23/45)]
      • = 4.5%
    • 27. RETICULOCYTE COUNT 2 nd CORRECTION
      • for longer life of prematurely released reticulocytes in the blood
      • produces the reticulocyte production index
      • maturation time correction factor
    • 28. RETICULOCYTE COUNT 2 nd CORRECTION
      • necessary to convert the corrected reticulocyte count to an index of marrow production
      • provides an estimate of marrow production relative to normal
        • +polychromatophilic macrocytes
          • divided by 2 to account for the prolonged reticulocyte maturation time
        • -polychromatophilic cells
          • second correction is not required
    • 29. LABORATORY EVALUATION
      • TESTS OF IRON SUPPLY AND STORAGE 
      • Serum iron
        • normal serum iron ranges from 9 to 27 umol/L (50 to 150 ug/dL)
      • TIBC
        • normal TIBC is 54 to 64 umol/L (300 to 360 ug/dL)
      • Percent transferrin saturation
        • derived by dividing the serum iron level (× 100) by the TIBC
        • transferrin saturation ranges from 25 to 50%
      • Serum ferritin
        • to evaluate total-body iron stores
    • 30. Bone marrow aspiration
    • 31. Bone marrow aspiration
    • 32. Sites of BMA
    • 33. LABORATORY EVALUATION
      • BONE MARROW EXAMINATION 
      • Cellularity
      • M/E ratio 3-4:1
      • Morphology of cells
      • assessment of iron stores or iron in developing red cells
      • bone marrow aspirate and needle biopsy maybe useful in the diagnosis of a marrow disorder
    • 34. How to examine a bone marrow aspirate
    • 35. Bone marrow aspirate
      • Macroscopic view of bone marrow film
      •   
      • Normal bone marrow fragment in an adult
    • 36. Bone marrow aspirate
      • Megakaryocytes in bone marrow
      • without any associated megakaryocytes
    • 37. Bone marrow aspirate
      • Normal mature megakaryocyte in the bone marrow
      • megakaryocyte is the largest normal bone marrow cell
      • has a large lobulated nucleus and its cytoplasm contains fine azurophilic granules
      • Normal megakaryocyte
    • 38. Bone marrow aspirate
      • Bone marrow iron stain, iron deficiency
      • Bone marrow iron stain, normal
    • 39. SITES OF HEMATOPOIESIS
      • NORMAL CONDITIONS
      • Fetal sites of Hematopoiesis
        • Yolk sac
          • 3-12 wks AOG
        • Liver
          • 5-6 weeks upto 6 months AOG to 2 weeks after birth
        • Spleen
          • 4-8 months AOG
        • Bone marrow
          • 5 months AOG
          • primary site by 7 months
    • 40. SITES OF HEMATOPOIESIS
      • Post natal sites of hematopoiesis
        • At birth
          • all BM cavities are hematopoietic
        • After 20 years
          • axial skeleton
      • Gross morphologic changes
        • Red marrow
        • Yellow marrow
    • 41. SITES OF HEMATOPOIESIS
      • DISEASE
      • Fetal hematopoietic sites
        • Extramedullary site can serve as the primary sites of blood cell development
        • Liver, spleen
      • Adult medullary sites
        • to help meet the demand for increased blood cell production
    • 42. Hematopoiesis
      • process by which the formed elements of the blood are produced
      • Stem cells are capable of producing red cells, all classes of granulocytes, monocytes, platelets, and the cells of the immune system
    • 43. Hematopoiesis
      • stem cells develop into differentiated cell types through incompletely defined molecular events that are intrinsic to the stem cell
      • Following lineage commitment hematopoietic progenitor and precursor cells come increasingly under the regulatory influence of growth factors and hormones
    • 44. HEMATOPOIESIS PLURIPOTENT STEM CELL MYELOID MULTIPOTENT STEM CELL LYMPHOID MULTIPOTENT STEM CELL LYMPHOCYTES BFU-EYTHROID MEG PROGENITOR CFU-MEG GRAN/MONO PROGENITOR CFU-GM EO PROGENITOR CFU-Eo E PROGENITOR CFU-E RBC PLATELET MONOCYTE NEUTROPHIL BASOPHIL EOSINOPHIL
    • 45. ERYTHROPOIESIS
    • 46. ERYTHROPOIESIS
      • critical elements
        • EPO production
        • iron availability
        • proliferative capacity of the bone marrow
        • effective maturation of red cell precursors
    • 47. ERYTHROPOIESIS
      • regulated process of red cell production
      • regulated by erythropoietin (EPO) the hormone required for the maintenance of committed erythroid progenitor cells that, in the absence of the hormone, undergo apoptosis
    • 48. ERYTHROPOIETIN
      • produced and released by peritubular capillary lining cells within the kidney
      • small amount is produced by hepatocytes
      • stimulus for EPO production
        • Impaired O2 delivery to the kidney resulting to decreased red cell mass
        • impaired O2 loading of the hemoglobin molecule
        • impaired blood flow to the kidney
    • 49. Physiologic regulation of red cell production
    • 50. Anemia classification
    • 51. HYPOPROLIFERATIVE ANEMIAS
    • 52. HYPOPROLIFERATIVE ANEMIAS
      • normocytic and normochromic red cells
      • inappropriately low reticulocyte response
      • includes:
        • acute and chronic inflammation
        • renal disease
        • hypometabolic states such as protein malnutrition and endocrine deficiencies
        • early iron deficiency
        • anemias from marrow damage
    • 53. ANEMIA OF CHRONIC DISEASE
      • one of the most common forms of anemia seen clinically
      • includes the following:
        • inflammation
        • infection
        • tissue injury
        • cancer
      • features:
        • low serum iron
        • increased red cell protoporphyrin
        • hypoproliferative marrow
        • transferrin saturation in the range of 15 to 20%,
        • normal or increased serum ferritin
    • 54. Cytokines effect
    • 55. ANEMIA OF CHRONIC DISEASE
      • Cytokines effect
      • IL-1
        • directly decreases erythropoietin production in response to anemia
        • IL-1 acting through accessory cell release of IFN-g suppresses the response of the erythroid marrow to erythropoietin — an effect that can be overcome by increased erythropoietin administration
      • TNF
        • acting through the release of IFN-g by marrow stromal cells, also suppresses the response to erythropoietin
      • Hepcidin
        • made by the liver
        • increased in inflammation and acts to suppress iron absorption and iron release from storage sites
    • 56. TREATMENT
      • Treat underlying disease
      • If reversals are not possible
        • Transfusions
        • Erythropoietin
          • cancer up to 300 U/kg three times a week
          • Hgb levels of 10 to 12 g/dL are usually reached within 4 to 6 weeks if iron levels are adequate
          • only about 60% of patients may respond
    • 57. ANEMIA OF RENAL DISEASE
      • due to a failure to produce adequate amounts of erythropoietin
      • reduction in red cell survival
      • normocytic and normochromic RBC
      • Reticulocytes are decreased
      • normal serum iron, TIBC, and ferritin levels
      • Assessment of iron status provides information to distinguish the anemia of renal disease from the other forms of hypoproliferative anemia and to guide management
    • 58. ANEMIA OF RENAL DISEASE
      • EPO
        • 50-150 u/kg/wk iv or sc 1 to 3 x a wk
        • 11-12 g/dl target hgb
        • Increase hgb by 1 to 2 g/dl over 4 week period
      • Iron supplement
        • <20 TS and < 100 ug/l serum ferritin
          • Give iron 50-100mg IV twice per week
        • >50 TS and 800 ug/l serum ferritin
          • Withhold iron
    • 59. ANEMIA OF ENDOCRINE DISORDERS
      • Anemia of Hypothyroidism
      • Thyroid hormones
      • + effect on erythropoiesis
      • controlling cellular oxygen requirements through their effects on the metabolic rates of the tissues
      • Hypothyroidism
          • Normocytic or slightly macrocytic anemia
          • Reponse of BM to decreased tissue oxygen consumption that occurs in hypothyroidism
          • Normal BM but rate of hematopoiesis is low bec of diminished release of EPO from kidney
          • 10% with macrocytosis
    • 60. ANEMIA OF ENDOCRINE DISORDERS
      • Anemia of Hypopituitarism
      • Androgen
      • direct effect on BM stimulating production of EPO
      • making marrow cells responsive to EPO
      • GH
      • trophic effect on the BM
      • Hypopituitarism
        • Normochromic normocytic
        • Reduced retic ct
        • Low EPO levels
        • Hypocellular marrow
    • 61. ANEMIA OF ENDOCRINE DISORDERS
      • Anemia of Hyperparathyroidism
      • PTH
      • Suppress erythropoiesis by
        • renal calcification (decreased EPO formation)
        • marrow sclerosis ( decreased proliferation of erythroid precursors)
    • 62. ANEMIA OF ENDOCRINE DISORDERS
      • TREATMENT
        • Correction of underlying endocrine disorder
    • 63. Hypoproliferative Anemias: Treatment
      • Transfusions
      • Thresholds for transfusion based on the patient's symptoms
      • patients without serious underlying cardiovascular or pulmonary disease can tolerate hemoglobin levels above 8 g/dL and do not require intervention until the hemoglobin falls below that level
      • Erythropoietin (Epo)
      • useful in anemias in which endogenous EPO levels are inappropriately low
      • Iron status must be evaluated and iron repleted to obtain optimal effects
      • Longer-acting preparations of EPO can reduce the frequency of injections
    • 64. APLASTIC ANEMIA
    • 65. DEFINITION
      • Aplastic anemia
        • pancytopenia with bone marrow hypocellularity
      • Acquired aplastic anemia
        • abrupt onset of low blood counts in a previously well young adult
        • seronegative hepatitis or a course of an incriminated medical drug may precede the onset
    • 66. DEFINITION
      • Constitutional Aplastic anemia
        • Fanconi's anemia
        • Dyskeratosis congenita
          • frequently associated with typical physical anomalies and the development of pancytopenia early in life, can also present as marrow failure in normal-appearing adults
      • Iatrogenic marrow aplasia
        • marrow hypocellularity after intensive cytotoxic chemotherapy for cancer
    • 67. EPIDEMIOLOGY
      • 2 cases per million persons annually in Europe and Israel
      • 5 to 7 per million In Thailand and China
      • men and women are affected with equal frequency
      • biphasic age distribution
        • major peak in the teens and twenties
        • second rise in the elderly
    • 68. ETIOLOGY
      • ACQUIRED
      • Idiopathic
      • Secondary
        • Radiation 
          • Marrow aplasia is a major acute sequela of radiation
          • Radiation damages DNA
          • MDS and leukemia are late effects of irradiation
    • 69. ETIOLOGY
      • Secondary
        • Chemicals  Benzene
          • notorious cause of bone marrow failure
            • aplastic anemia, acute leukemia, and blood and marrow abnormalities
          • occurrence of leukemia is roughly correlated with cumulative exposure
          • employment history is important
    • 70. ETIOLOGY
      • Secondary
        • Drugs
          • Dose dependent effect
          • Idiosyncratic reactions
        • Infections 
          • Hepatitis is the most common preceding infection
          • Rarely IM, EBV
    • 71. ETIOLOGY
      • Secondary
        • Immunologic Diseases 
          • transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease
          • eosinophilic fasciitis
          • systemic lupus erythematosus
        • Pregnancy 
          • Rarely may occur and recur during pregnancy and resolve with delivery or with spontaneous or induced abortion
    • 72. ETIOLOGY
      • Secondary
        • Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria 
          • acquired mutation in the PIG-A gene in a hematopoietic stem cell resulting to clone of progeny deficient in glycosylphosphatidylinositol-linked cell surface membrane proteins
          • aplastic anemia/PNH syndrome is selection of the deficient clones, because they are favored for proliferation in the peculiar environment of immune-mediated marrow destruction
    • 73. ETIOLOGY
      • INHERITED
      • Fanconi's anemia
        • autosomal recessive disorder
        • congenital developmental anomalies
        • progressive pancytopenia
        • increased risk of malignancy
        • Chromosomes susceptibility to DNA cross-linking agents
        • features
          • short stature
          • cafe au lait spots
          • anomalies involving the thumb, radius, and genitourinary tract
    • 74. ETIOLOGY
      • INHERITED
      • Dyskeratosis congenita
        • characterized by mucous membrane leukoplasia
        • dystrophic nails
        • reticular hyperpigmentation
        • development of aplastic anemia during childhood
      • Shwachman-Diamond syndrome
        • marrow failure with pancreatic insufficiency and malabsorption
    • 75. PATHOPHYSIOLOGY
      • Bone marrow failure results from severe damage to the hematopoietic cell compartment
      • Aplastic anemia does not appear to result from defective stroma or growth factor production
      • replacement of the bone marrow by fat is apparent in
        • the morphology of the biopsy specimen
        • magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the spine
      • cells bearing the CD34 antigen, are greatly diminished
    • 76. CLINICAL FEATURES
      • History
      • Abrupt/ insidious onset
      • Bleeding is the most common early symptom
      • Symptoms of anemia are also frequent
      • restriction of symptoms to the hematologic system
    • 77. CLINICAL FEATURES
      • Physical Examination 
      • Petechiae, ecchymoses, retinal hemorrhages
      • Pallor of the skin and mucous membranes
      • Lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly are highly atypical
      • Cafe au lait spots and short stature suggest Fanconi's anemia
      • peculiar nails and leukoplakia suggest dyskeratosis congenita
    • 78. CLINICAL FEATURES
      • Fanconi's anaemia
      • Hands of patient with Fanconi's anaemia showing hypoplastic thumbs
    • 79. CLINICAL FEATURES
      • Abdomen of patient with Fanconi's anaemia showing abnormal depigmented skin
      • as in many such patients the skin abnormality worsened following bone marrow
      • Abnormal skin in Fanconi's anaemia
    • 80. LABORATORY STUDIES
      • Blood 
      • smear shows large erythrocytes and a paucity of platelets and granulocytes
      • MCV is commonly increased
      • Reticulocytes are absent or few
      • lymphocyte numbers may be normal or reduced
    • 81. LABORATORY STUDIES
      • Bone Marrow 
      • usually readily aspirated but appears dilute on smear
      • fatty biopsy specimen may be grossly pale on withdrawal
      • <25% cellularity and shows mainly fat
      • Residual hematopoietic cells should have normal morphology
    • 82. LABORATORY STUDIES
      • Trephine biopsy in Fanconi's anaemia
      • oil
      • Trephine biopsy in AA, acquired
      • lpo
    • 83. LABORATORY STUDIES
      • Ancillary Studies 
      • Chromosome breakage studies of peripheral blood using diepoxybutane (DEB) or mitomycin C should be performed on children and younger adults to exclude Fanconi's anemia
      • Chromosome studies negative in typical aplastic anemia
      • Flow cytometric assays have replaced the Ham test for the diagnosis of PNH
      • Serologic studies may show evidence of viral infection, especially Epstein-Barr virus and HIV
      • Posthepatitis aplastic anemia is typically seronegative
    • 84. DIAGNOSIS
      • pancytopenia with a fatty, empty bone marrow
      • bone marrow in constitutional aplastic anemia is indistinguishable morphologically from the aspirate in acquired disease
      • diagnosis can be suggested by family history, abnormal blood counts since childhood, or the presence of associated physical anomalies
    • 85. PROGNOSIS
      • natural history of severe aplastic anemia is rapid deterioration and death
      • major prognostic determinant is the blood count
        • severe disease is defined by the presence of 2 of 3 parameters:
          • absolute neutrophil count <500/uL
          • platelet count <20,000/uL
          • corrected reticulocyte count <1%
        • Survival of patients who fulfill these criteria is about 20% at 1 year after diagnosis with only supportive care
        • very severe disease
          • defined by an absolute neutrophil count <200/u
          • fare even more poorly
    • 86. TREATMENT
      • can be cured by replacement of the absent hematopoietic cells by stem cell transplant
      • can be ameliorated by suppression of the immune system to allow recovery of the patient's residual bone marrow function
    • 87. TREATMENT
      • Bone Marrow Transplantation 
        • best therapy for the young patient with a fully histocompatible sibling donor
        • allogeneic transplant from fully matched siblings, long-term survival rates for children are 80%
    • 88. TREATMENT
      • Immunosuppression 
      • ALG or antithymocyte globulin (ATG) induces hematologic recovery in about 50% of patients
      • addition of cyclosporine to either ALG or ATG has further increased response rates to about 70% and especially improved outcomes for children and for severely neutropenic patients
    • 89. TREATMENT
      • ATG is given at 40 mg/kg per day for 4 days
        • anaphylaxis is a rare but occasionally fatal complication
        • ATG binds to peripheral blood cells; therefore, platelet and granulocyte numbers may fall further during active treatmen
        • Serum sickness, a flulike illness with a characteristic cutaneous eruption and arthralgia, often develops about 10 days after initiating treatment
        • Most patients are given methylprednisolone, 1 mg/kg per day for 2 weeks, to ameliorate the immune consequences of heterologous protein infusion
      • ALG is administered at 3.5 mg/kg per day for 5 days
      • Cyclosporine is administered orally at an initial dose of 12 mg/kg per day in adults (15 mg/kg per day in children), with subsequent adjustment according to blood levels obtained every 2 weeks
    • 90. TREATMENT
      • Supportive Care 
      • infection in the presence of severe neutropenia must be aggressively treated by prompt institution of parenteral, broad-spectrum antibiotics
      • Granulocyte transfusions using G-CSF-mobilized peripheral blood have been effective in the treatment of overwhelming or refractory infections in a few patients
      • Hand washing, the single best method of preventing the spread of infection
      • Total reverse isolation does not reduce mortality from infections
    • 91. TREATMENT
      • Supportive Care
      • transfusions once or twice weekly in order to maintain the platelet count >10,000/uL
      • Menstruation should be suppressed either by oral estrogens or nasal follicle-stimulating hormone/luteinizing hormone (FSH/LH) antagonists
      • Aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents inhibit platelet function and must be avoided
      • Red blood cells should be transfused to maintain a normal level of activity, usually at a hemoglobin value of 70 g/L (90 g/L if there is underlying cardiac or pulmonary disease)

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