Face

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Face

  1. 1. the FACE E.A.HILARIO, MD Assistant Professor Department of Anatomy Our Lady of Fatima University
  2. 2. BOUNDARIES OF THE FACE <ul><li>THE ANTERIOR ASPECT OF THE HEAD </li></ul><ul><li>FROM FOREHEAD TO CHIN </li></ul><ul><li>FROM ONE EAR TO THE OTHER EAR </li></ul>
  3. 3. AREAS OF THE FACE <ul><li>FOREHEAD </li></ul><ul><li>ORBITAL </li></ul><ul><li>MALAR </li></ul><ul><li>ZYGOMATIC </li></ul><ul><li>INFRAORBITAL </li></ul><ul><li>NASAL </li></ul><ul><li>MAXILLARY </li></ul><ul><li>BUCCAL </li></ul><ul><li>MANDIBULAR </li></ul><ul><li>AURICULAR </li></ul><ul><li>ORAL (LABIAL) </li></ul><ul><li>MENTAL (CHIN) </li></ul>
  4. 4. THE SHAPE OF THE FACE <ul><li>RELIES ON THE UNDERLYING STRUCTURES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>BONES </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BUCCAL FADS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FACIAL MUSCLES </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>STRUCTURES UNDERNEATH THE SKIN OF THE FACE </li></ul><ul><li>MUSCLES </li></ul><ul><li>FATS </li></ul><ul><li>NERVES </li></ul><ul><li>BLOOD VESSELS </li></ul>
  6. 6. THE MUSCLES OF THE FACE <ul><li>MUSCLES OF FACIAL EXPRESSIONS </li></ul><ul><li>IN THE SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE </li></ul><ul><li>ATTACHED FROM THE SKULL BONES & FASCIAE AND TO THE SKIN AND MUCOUS MEMBRANE WHERE THEY PRODUCE THEIR EFFECT </li></ul><ul><li>INNERVATED BY FACIAL NERVE (C.N.VII) </li></ul>
  7. 7. MUSCLES OF THE FOREHEAD <ul><li>FRONTALIS (EPICRANIUS) </li></ul>
  8. 8. MUSCLES OF THE FOREHEAD <ul><li>FRONTALIS (EPICRANIUS) </li></ul>
  9. 9. MUSCLES OF THE CHEEKS & LIPS SURROUNDING THE MOUTH <ul><li>ORBICULARIS ORIS </li></ul><ul><li>LEVATOR LABII SUPERIORIS ALA QUE NASI </li></ul><ul><li>MENTALIS </li></ul><ul><li>BUCCINATOR </li></ul><ul><li>DEPRESSOR ANGULI ORIS (TRIANGULARIS) </li></ul><ul><li>LEVATOR ANGULI ORIS </li></ul><ul><li>ZYGOMATICUS MAJOR </li></ul><ul><li>ZYGOMATICUS MINOR </li></ul><ul><li>LEVATOR LABII INFERIORIS </li></ul><ul><li>DEPRESSOR LABII INFERIORIS (QUADRANGULARIS) </li></ul><ul><li>RISORIUS </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>FACIAL EXPRESSION MUSCLE </li></ul><ul><li>BUCCINATOR </li></ul>
  11. 11. MUSCLES OF THE CHEEKS & LIPS SURROUNDING THE MOUTH <ul><li>ORBICULARIS ORIS </li></ul><ul><li>LEVATOR LABII SUPERIORIS ALA QUE NASI </li></ul><ul><li>MENTALIS </li></ul><ul><li>BUCCINATOR </li></ul><ul><li>DEPRESSOR ANGULI ORIS (TRIANGULARIS) </li></ul><ul><li>LEVATOR ANGULI ORIS </li></ul><ul><li>ZYGOMATICUS MAJOR </li></ul><ul><li>ZYGOMATICUS MINOR </li></ul><ul><li>LEVATOR LABII INFERIORIS </li></ul><ul><li>DEPRESSOR LABII INFERIORIS (QUADRANGULARIS) </li></ul><ul><li>RISORIUS </li></ul>
  12. 12. MUSCLES OF THE CHEEKS & LIPS SURROUNDING THE MOUTH <ul><li>ORBICULARIS ORIS </li></ul><ul><li>LEVATOR LABII SUPERIORIS ALA QUE NASI </li></ul><ul><li>MENTALIS </li></ul><ul><li>BUCCINATOR </li></ul><ul><li>DEPRESSOR ANGULI ORIS (TRIANGULARIS) </li></ul><ul><li>LEVATOR ANGULI ORIS </li></ul><ul><li>ZYGOMATICUS MAJOR </li></ul><ul><li>ZYGOMATICUS MINOR </li></ul><ul><li>LEVATOR LABII INFERIORIS </li></ul><ul><li>DEPRESSOR LABII INFERIORIS (QUADRANGULARIS) </li></ul><ul><li>RISORIUS </li></ul>
  13. 13. MUSCLES SURROUNDING THE ORBIT <ul><li>ORBICULARIS OCULI </li></ul><ul><ul><li>LACRIMAL PART </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PALPEBRAL PART </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ORBITAL PART </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CORRUGATOR SUPERCILII </li></ul>
  14. 14. MUSCLES SURROUNDING THE ORBIT <ul><li>ORBICULARIS OCULI </li></ul><ul><ul><li>LACRIMAL PART </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PALPEBRAL PART </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ORBITAL PART </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CORRUGATOR SUPERCILII </li></ul>
  15. 15. MUSCLES OF THE NOSE <ul><li>NASALIS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>COMPRESSOR PART </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>TRANSVERSE </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>BRIDGE </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DILATOR PART </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ALAE </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>PROCERUS </li></ul><ul><li>DEPRESSOR SEPTI </li></ul>
  16. 16. FACIAL EXPRESSIONS
  17. 17. FACIAL EXPRESSIONS
  18. 18. TRIGEMINAL NERVE: -THE SENSORY NERVE SUPPLY OF THE FACE -THE MOTOR NERVE SUPPLY OF THE MUSCLES OF MASTICATION <ul><li>Ophthalmic Nerve </li></ul><ul><li>Maxillary Nerve </li></ul><ul><li>Mandibular Nerve </li></ul>
  19. 19. TRIGEMINAL NERVE: -THE SENSORY NERVE SUPPLY OF THE FACE -THE MOTOR NERVE SUPPLY OF THE MUSCLES OF MASTICATION <ul><li>Ophthalmic Nerve </li></ul><ul><li>Maxillary Nerve </li></ul><ul><li>Mandibular Nerve </li></ul>
  20. 20. TRIGEMINAL NERVE: THE SENSORY NERVE OF THE FACE <ul><li>OPHTHALMIC N. </li></ul><ul><li>MAXILLARY N. </li></ul><ul><li>MANDIBULAR N. </li></ul>
  21. 21. TRIGEMINAL NERVE: THE SENSORY NERVE OF THE FACE <ul><li>OPHTHALMIC N. </li></ul><ul><li>MAXILLARY N. </li></ul><ul><li>MANDIBULAR N. </li></ul>
  22. 22. OPHTHALMIC NERVE (CNV1) THE SMALLEST DIVISION <ul><li>BRANCHES: </li></ul><ul><li>NASOCILIARY N. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ANTERIOR ETHMOIDAL N. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>EXTERNAL NASAL N. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>POSTERIOR ETHMOIDAL N. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>INFRATROCHLEAR N. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>FRONTAL N. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SUPRATROCHLEAR N. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SUPRAORBITAL N. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>LACRIMAL N. </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>OPHTHALMIC NERVE (CNV1) THE SMALLEST DIVISION </li></ul><ul><li>BRANCHES: </li></ul><ul><li>NASOCILIARY NERVE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ANTERIOR ETHMOIDAL NERVE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>EXTERNAL NASAL NERVE </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>POSTERIOR ETHMOIDAL NERVE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>INFRATROCHLEAR NERVE </li></ul></ul><ul><li>FRONTAL N. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SUPRATROCHLEAR NERVE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SUPRAORBITAL NERVE </li></ul></ul><ul><li>LACRIMAL NERVE </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>OPHTHALMIC NERVE (CNV1) THE SMALLEST DIVISION </li></ul><ul><li>MAJOR CUTANEOUS BRANCHES: </li></ul><ul><li>EXTERNAL NASAL NERVE </li></ul><ul><li>INFRATROCHLEAR N. </li></ul><ul><li>SUPRATROCHLEAR NERVE </li></ul><ul><li>SUPRAORBITAL NERVE </li></ul><ul><li>LACRIMAL NERVE </li></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>OPHTHALMIC NERVE (CNV1) THE SMALLEST DIVISION </li></ul><ul><li>MAJOR CUTANEOUS BRANCHES: </li></ul><ul><li>EXTERNAL NASAL NERVE </li></ul><ul><li>INFRATROCHLEAR NERVE </li></ul><ul><li>SUPRATROCHLEAR NERVE </li></ul><ul><li>SUPRAORBITAL NERVE </li></ul><ul><li>LACRIMAL NERVE </li></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>MAXILLARY NERVE (CNV2) THE INTERMEDIATE DIVISION </li></ul><ul><li>BRANCHES: </li></ul><ul><li>BRANCHES TO PTERYGOPALATINE GANGLION </li></ul><ul><li>ZYGOMATIC NERVE </li></ul><ul><li>ZYGOMATICOTEMPORAL NERVE </li></ul><ul><li>ZYGOMATICOFACIAL NERVE </li></ul><ul><li>INFRATROCHLEAR NERVE </li></ul><ul><li>COMMUNICATING BRANCH TO LACRIMAL NERVE </li></ul><ul><li>PALATINE NERVE </li></ul><ul><li>NASAL NERVE </li></ul><ul><li>INFRAORBITAL NERVE </li></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>MAXILLARY NERVE (CNV2) THE INTERMEDIATE DIVISION </li></ul><ul><li>MAJOR CUTANEOUS BRANCHES: </li></ul><ul><li>ZYGOMATICOTEMPORAL NERVE </li></ul><ul><li>ZYGOMATICOFACIAL NERVE </li></ul><ul><li>INFRAORBITAL NERVE </li></ul>
  28. 28. MANDIBULAR NERVE (CNV3) THE INFERIOR & LARGEST DIVISION <ul><li>MOTOR BRANCHES: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>TENSOR TYMPANI </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MUSCLES OF MASTICATION </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>TEMPORALIS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>MASSETER </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>MEDIAL PTERYGOID </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>LATERAL PTERYGOID </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>SENSORY BRANCHES: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>AURICULOTEMPORAL NERVE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BUCCAL NERVE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MENTAL NERVE </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. <ul><li>MANDIBULAR NERVE (CNV3) THE INFERIOR & LARGEST DIVISION </li></ul><ul><li>MOTOR BRANCHES: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>TENSOR TYMPANI </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MUSCLES OF MASTICATION </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>TEMPORALIS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>MASSETER </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>MEDIAL PTERYGOID </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>LATERAL PTERYGOID </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>SENSORY BRANCHES: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>AURICULOTEMPORAL NERVE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BUCCAL NERVE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MENTAL NERVE </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. MUSCLES OF MASTICATION
  31. 31. MUSCLES OF MASTICATION
  32. 32. FACIAL NERVE <ul><li>MOTOR </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NERVE TO STAPEDIUS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>POSTERIOR AURICULAR NERVE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>AURICULARIS POSTERIOR AND OCCIPITALIS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PAROTID PLEXUS: MUSCLES OF FACIAL EXPRESSION </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>TEMPORAL </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ZYGOMATIC </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>BUCCAL </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>MANDIBULAR </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CERVICAL </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>SENSORY </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NONE IN THE SKIN OF THE FACE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TASTE TO THE ANTERIOR TWO-THIRDS OF THE TOUNGE </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. FACIAL NERVE - THE SPECIAL SENSORY NERVE SUPPLY OF THE ANTERIOR TONGUE -THE MOTOR NERVE SUPPLY OF THE MUSCLES OF FACIAL EXPRESSION <ul><li>TEMPORAL N. </li></ul><ul><li>ZYGOMATIC N. </li></ul><ul><li>BUCCAL N. </li></ul><ul><li>MANDIBULAR N. </li></ul><ul><li>CERVICAL N. </li></ul>
  34. 34. FACIAL NERVE (CNVII) MIXED CRANIAL NERVE <ul><li>MOTOR BRANCHES: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>STAPEDIUS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MUSCLES OF EXPRESSIONS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>STYLOHYOID </li></ul></ul><ul><li>SENSORY BRANCHES: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PAROTID PLEXUS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TERMINAL BRANCHES: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>TEMPORAL NERVE </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ZYGOMATIC NERVE </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>BUCCAL NERVE </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>MANDIBULAR NERVE </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CERVICAL NERVE </li></ul></ul></ul>
  35. 35. FACIAL NERVE (CNVII) MIXED CRANIAL NERVE <ul><li>MOTOR BRANCHES: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>STAPEDIUS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MUSCLES OF EXPRESSIONS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>STYLOHYOID </li></ul></ul><ul><li>SENSORY BRANCHES: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PAROTID PLEXUS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TERMINAL BRANCHES: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>TEMPORAL N. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ZYGOMATIC N. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>BUCCAL N. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>MANDIBULAR N. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CERVICAL N. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  36. 36. <ul><li>FACIAL VASCULATURES ARTERIES OF THE FACE </li></ul><ul><li>FACIAL ARTERY </li></ul><ul><ul><li>FROM: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>EXT. CAROTID ARTERY </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BRANCHES: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SUPERIOR LABIAL A. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>INFERIOR LABIAL A. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ANGULAR A. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>SUPERFICIAL TEMPORAL ARTERY </li></ul><ul><ul><li>FROM: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>EXTERNAL CAROTID ARTERY </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>TRANSVERSE FACIAL ARTERY </li></ul><ul><ul><li>FROM: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SUPERFICIAL TEMPORAL ARTERY </li></ul></ul></ul>
  37. 37. <ul><li>FACIAL VASCULATURES ARTERIES OF THE FACE </li></ul><ul><li>FACIAL ARTERY </li></ul><ul><ul><li>FROM: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>EXT.ERNAL CAROTID ARTERY </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BRANCHES: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SUPERIOR LABIAL ARTERY </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>INFERIOR LABIAL ARTERY </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ANGULAR ARTERY </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>SUPERFICIAL TEMPORAL ARTERY </li></ul><ul><ul><li>FROM: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>EXTERNAL CAROTID ARTERY </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>TRANSVERSE FACIAL ARTERY </li></ul><ul><ul><li>FROM: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SUPERFICIAL TEMPORAL ARTERY </li></ul></ul></ul>
  38. 38. <ul><li>FACIAL VASCULATURES ARTERIES OF THE FACE </li></ul><ul><li>FACIAL ARTERY </li></ul><ul><ul><li>FROM: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>EXTERNAL CAROTID ARTERY </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BRANCHES: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SUPERIOR LABIAL ARTERY </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>INFERIOR LABIAL ARTERY </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ANGULAR ARTERY </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>SUPERFICIAL TEMPORAL ARTERY </li></ul><ul><ul><li>FROM: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>EXTERNAL CAROTID ARTERY </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>TRANSVERSE FACIAL ARTERY </li></ul><ul><ul><li>FROM: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SUPERFICIAL TEMPORAL ARTERY </li></ul></ul></ul>
  39. 39. ARTERIES OF THE FACE
  40. 40. <ul><li>FACIAL VASCULATURES VEINS OF THE FACE </li></ul><ul><li>SUPRATROCHLEAR V. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>TRIBUTARIES: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>VENOUS PLEXUS OF FORHEAD & SCALP </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>FRONTAL BRANCH OF SUPERFICIAL TEMPORAL V. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CONTRALATERAL V. (PARTNER) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SUPRAORBITAL V. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TERMINATION: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ANGULAR V. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>SUPRAORBITAL V. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>TRIBUTARIES: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>FRONTAL TRIBUTARY OF SUPERFICIAL TEMPORAL V. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SUPRATROCHLEAR V. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SUPERIOR OPHTHALMIC V. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TERMINATION: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ANGULAR V. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  41. 41. THE ARTERIES OF THE FACE <ul><li>SUPERFICIAL TEMPORAL ARTERY </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ORIGIN: EXTERNAL CAROTID ARTERY </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>COURSE: ASCENDS ANTERIOR TO EAR, TO TEMPORAL REGION AND ENDS IN THE SCALP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SUPPLIES: FACIAL MUSCLES, SKIN OF FRONTAL AND TEMPORAL AREAS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>TRANSVERSE FACIAL ARTERY </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ORIGIN: SUPERFICIAL TEMPORAL ARTERY </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>COURSE: CROSSES FACE EXTERNAL TO THE MASSETER AND INFERIOR TO THE ZYGOMATIC ARCH </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SUPPLIES: PAROTID GLAND AND DUCT, MUSCLES AND SKIN OF THE FACE </li></ul></ul><ul><li>FACIAL ARTERY </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ORIGIN: EXTERNAL CAROTID ARTERY </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>COURSE: ASCENDS DEEP TO THE SUBMANDIBULAR GLAND, WINDS AROUND THE INFERIOR BORDER OF THE MANDIBLE AND ENTERS THE FACE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BRANCHES: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SUPERIOR & INFERIOR LABIAL ARTERIES </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>TERMINAL: ANGULAR ARTERY </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>THE MAJOR BLOOD SUPPLY THE FACE (SKIN AND MUSCLES OF FACIAL EXPRESSIONS) </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. <ul><li>FACIAL VASCULATURES VEINS OF THE FACE </li></ul><ul><li>SUPRATROCHLEAR VEIN </li></ul><ul><ul><li>FORMATION: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>FROM A VENOUS PLEXUS ON THE FORHEAD AND SCALP, COMMUNICATES WITH THE FRONTAL BRANCH OF THE SUPERFICIAL TEMPORAL VEIN, CONTRALATERAL PARTNER AND SUPRAORBITAL VEIN </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>COURSE: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DESCENDS NEAR THE MIDLINE OF THE FOREHEAD TO THE ROOT OF THE NOSE WHERE IT JOINS THE SUPRAORBITAL VEIN </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TERMINATION: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ANGULAR VEIN AT THE ROOT OF THE NOSE </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AREAS DRAINED : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ANTERIOR PART OF THE SCALP AND FOREHEAD </li></ul></ul></ul>
  43. 43. <ul><li>FACIAL VASCULATURES VEINS OF THE FACE </li></ul><ul><li>SUPRAORBITAL VEIN </li></ul><ul><ul><li>FORMATION: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>AT THE FOREHEAD BY THE ANASTOMOSIS WITH THE TRIBUTARIES OF THE SUPERFICIAL TEMPORAL VEIN IN THE FRONTAL AREA </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>COURSE: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PASSES MEDIALLY SUPERIOR TO THE ORBIT </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>JOINS THE SUPRATROCHLEAR VEIN </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>COMMUNICATES WITH THE SUPERIOR OPHTHALMIC VEIN THROUGH A BRANCH PASSING THROUGH THE SUPRAORBITAL NOTCH </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TERMINATION: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ANGULAR VEIN AT THE ROOT OF THE NOSE </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AREAS DRAINED : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ANTERIOR PART OF THE SCALP AND FOREHEAD </li></ul></ul></ul>
  44. 44. <ul><li>FACIAL VASCULATURES VEINS OF THE FACE </li></ul><ul><li>ANGULAR VEIN </li></ul><ul><ul><li>FORMATION: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>UNION OF SUPRATROCHLEAR VEIN & SUPRAORBITAL VEIN </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ROOT OF THE NOSE </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>COURSE: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DESCENDS OBLIQUELY ALONG THE ROOT AND THE SIDE OF THE NOSE AND THEN TO THE INFERIOR MARGIN OF THE ORBIT </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TERMINATION: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>FACIAL VEIN AT THE INFERIOR MARGIN OF THE ORBIT </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AREAS DRAINED : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ROOT AND SIDE OF THE NOSE </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>INFERIOR MARGIN OF ORBIT </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>UPPER AND LOWER LIDS AND CONJUNCTIVAE </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CAVERNOUS SINUS </li></ul></ul></ul>
  45. 45. <ul><li>FACIAL VASCULATURES VEINS OF THE FACE </li></ul><ul><li>FACIAL VEIN </li></ul><ul><ul><li>TRIBUTARIES: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>COMMUNICATES WITH THE SUPERIOR OPHTHALMIC VEIN AT THE MEDIAL CANTHUS OF THE EYE THAT DRAINS INTO THE CEVERNOUS SINUS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DEEP FACIAL VEIN THAT DRAINS THE PTERYGOID VENOUS PLEXUS OF THE INFRATEMPORAL FOSSA ANTERIORLY </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SUPERIOR AND INFERIOR LABIAL VEINS THAT DRAIN THE UPPER AND LOWER LIPS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>JOINED BY THE ANTERIOR COMMUNICATING BRANCH OF THE RETROMANDIBULAR VEIN AT THE INFERIOR ANGLE OF THE MANDIBLE </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TERMINATION: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DIRECTLY OR INDIRECTLY INTO THE INTERNAL JUGULAR VEIN </li></ul></ul></ul>
  46. 46. THE FACIAL VEIN <ul><li>THE VENOUS DRAINAGE OF THE FACE </li></ul><ul><li>TRIBUTARIES: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DEEP FACIAL VEIN THAT DRAINS THE PTERYGOID VENOUS PLEXUS OF THER INFRATEMPORAL FOSSA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SUPERFIOR AND INFERIOR LABIAL VEINS THAT DRAIN THE UPPER AND LOWER LIPS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>JOINED BY THE ANTERIOR BRANCH OF THE RETROMANDIBULAR VEIN INFERIOR TO THE ANGLE OF THE MANDIBLE </li></ul><ul><li>COMMUNICATES WITH THE SUPERIOR OPHTHALMIC VEIN AT THE MEDIAL CANTHUS OF THE EYE WHICH DRAINS INTO THE RETROMANDIBULAR VEIN </li></ul><ul><li>DRAINS DIRECTLY OR INDIRECTLY INTO THE INTERNAL JUGULAR VEIN </li></ul>
  47. 47. <ul><li>FACIAL VASCULATURES VEINS OF THE FACE </li></ul><ul><li>SUPERFICIAL TEMPORAL VEIN </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ORIGIN: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>FORMED BY A WIDESPEAD VENOUS PLEXUS ON THE SIDE OF THE SCALP AND ALONG THE ZYGOMATIC ARCH </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>COURSE: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ITS FRONTAL AND PARIETAL TRIBUTARIES UNITE ANTERIOR TO THE AURICLE </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CROSSES THE TEMPORAL ROOT OF THE ZYGOMATIC ARCH TO PASS FROM THE TEMPORAL REGION AND ENTER THE SUBSTANCE OF THE PAROTID GLAND </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DRAINS THE: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SIDE OF THE SCALP </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SUPERFICIAL PART OF TEMPORALIS MUSCLE </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>EXTERNAL EAR </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DRAINS INTO: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>RETROMANDIBULAR VEIN AS IT IS JOINED BY THE MAXILLARY VEIN </li></ul></ul></ul>
  48. 48. <ul><li>FACIAL VASCULATURES VEINS OF THE FACE </li></ul><ul><li>RETROMANDIBULAR VEIN </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ORIGIN: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>FORMED BY THE UNION OF THE SUPERFICIAL TEMPORAL AND MAXILLARY VEIN ANTERIOR TO THE EAR </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>COURSE: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>RUNS POSTERIOR AND DEEP TO THE RAMUS OF THE MANDIBLE THROUGH THE SUBSTANCE OF THE PAROTID GLAND </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>COMMUNICATES AT ITS INFERIOR END WITH THE FACIAL VEIN </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DRAINS THE: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PAROTID GLAND </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>MASSETER MUSCLE </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DRAINS INTO: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>EXTERNAL JUGULAR VEIN VIA UNION WITH POSTERIOR AURICULAR VEIN </li></ul></ul></ul>
  49. 49. LYMPHATIC DRAINAGE OF THE FACE <ul><li>SUPERFICIAL & DEEP LYMPHATICS </li></ul><ul><li>ALL LYMPHS DRAINS INTO THE DEEP CERVICAL GROUP OF LYMPH NODES THEN INTO THE JUGULAR LYMPHATIC TRUNK </li></ul><ul><li>PAROTID LN. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>LATERAL FACE & EYELIDS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>DEEP CERVICAL LN. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DEEP PAROTID </li></ul></ul><ul><li>SUBMANDIBULAR LN. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>UPPER LIP & LATERAL LOWER LIP </li></ul></ul><ul><li>SUBMENTAL LN. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CHIN & MIDLOWER LIP </li></ul></ul>
  50. 50. LYMPHATIC DRAINAGE OF THE FACE <ul><li>SUPERFICIAL & DEEP LYMPHATICS </li></ul><ul><li>LYMPH NODE GROUPS: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PAROTID LYMPH NODES DRAINING THE LATERAL FACE & EYELIDS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DEEP PAROTID LYMPH NODES DRAINING TO THE DEEP CERVICAL LYMPH NODES </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SUBMANDIBULAR LYMPH NODES DRAINING THE UPPER LIP & LATERAL LOWER LIP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SUBMENTAL LYMPH NODES DRAINING THE CHIN & MIDLOWER LIP </li></ul></ul>
  51. 51. LYMPHATIC DRAINAGE OF THE FACE <ul><li>FLOW OF THE LYMPHATICS: </li></ul><ul><li>ALL LYMPHS DRAINS INTO THE DEEP CERVICAL GROUP OF LYMPH NODES THEN INTO THE JUGULAR LYMPHATIC TRUNK </li></ul>
  52. 52. CLINICAL CONDITIONS OF THE FACE <ul><li>FACIAL NERVE INJURY </li></ul><ul><li>LESIONS OF TRIGEMINAL NERVE </li></ul><ul><li>TRIGEMINAL NERVE NEURALGIA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>TIC DOLOREAUX </li></ul></ul><ul><li>THROMBOPHLEBITIS OF THE FACIAL VEIN </li></ul>
  53. 53. <ul><li>FACIAL </li></ul><ul><li>NERVE </li></ul><ul><li>INJURY </li></ul>
  54. 54. <ul><li>TRIGEMINAL NERVE </li></ul><ul><li>SENSORY DEFICIT </li></ul><ul><li>NEURALGIA (TIC DOLOREAUX) </li></ul>
  55. 55. <ul><li>DANGEROUS AREA OF THE FACE </li></ul><ul><li>CAVERNOUS SINUS THROMBOSIS </li></ul>
  56. 56. <ul><li>CLEFT LIP </li></ul><ul><li>(HARELIP) </li></ul>
  57. 57. <ul><li>CLEFT LIP </li></ul><ul><li>(HARELIP) </li></ul>
  58. 58. <ul><li>HYDROPS FETALIS </li></ul>
  59. 59. <ul><li>CHEILOPLASTY </li></ul>
  60. 60. <ul><li>MACROGNATIA </li></ul>
  61. 61. [email_address] <ul><li>SALAMAT PO. </li></ul>

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