It is a discreet period of intense fear or discomfort which developed suddenly peaked within 10 minutes with four or more symptoms of panic attack
Occurrence of 2 or more panic attacks in a month
Presence of one panic attack but preoccupied of having another panic attack within a month’s duration
May occur with agoraphobia or without agoraphobia
Ablutophobia – fear of washing or bathing
Achluophobia – fear of darkness
Aeroacrophobia – fear of heights
Agliophobia – fear of pain
Agoraphobia – fear of crowded places
Aichmophobia – fear of needles
Alliumphobia – fear of garlic
Altophobia – fear of heights
Haemophobia – fear of blood
Gynephobia – Fear of women
Cacophobia – fear of ugly people
Homophobia – fear of being homosexual
Iatrophobia - fear of doctors
Ithyphallophobia – fear of having an erect penis
Pelladophobia – fear of bald people
Penteraphobia – fear of mother-in-law
Claustrophobia – fear of being locked
Triskaidekaphobia – fear of number 13
Somniphobia – fear of going to sleep
Paraskavedekatriaphobia - Fear of Friday the 13th
Coprophobia – fear of feces
Photophobia - Fear of light.
Oneirophobia - Fear of dreams.
Is described as recurring obsessions or compulsions “severe enough to be time consuming… or caused mark distress or significant impairment.” People with this disorder recognize that their actions are irrational or disproportionate.
Obsessive – Compulsive Disorder
Obsessions - Compulsions
Need for symmetry
Need to ask or confess
Symmetry and precision
Obsession vs Compulsions
Recurrent and intrusive thought, feeling, idea, or sensation.
Is a conscious standardized, recurrent pattern of behavior, such as counting, checking, or avoidance.
Compulsions decrease anxiety.
Major Presenting Symptom of Obsessions
Concern or disgust with bodily wastes or secretions (urine, stool, saliva), dirt, germs, environmental toxins. Fear concerns
Fear something terrible may happen (fire, death or illness of loved one, self, or others)
Concern or need for symmetry, order, or exactness.
Scrupulosity (excessive praying or religious concerns out of keeping with patient’s background)
Lucky and unlucky numbers
Forbidden or perverse sexual thoughts, images, or impulses
Intrusive nonsense sounds, words, or music
Major Presenting Symptoms of Compulsion
Excessive or ritualized hand washing, showering, bathing, tooth brushing, or grooming
Repeating rituals (going in and out of door, up and down from chair)
Checking doors, locks, stove, appliances, car brakes
Cleaning and other rituals to remove contact with contaminants
Ordering and arranging
Measures to prevent harm to self or others (e.g., hanging clothes a certain way)
Hoarding and collecting
Miscellaneous rituals (e.g., licking, spitting, special dress pattern)
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
A set of typical symptoms that develop after a person sees, is involved in, or hears of an “extreme traumatic stressor.”
The symptoms must last for more than a month and impairs important matters of life such as family and work.
The stress is overwhelming enough to affect almost everyone.
It can arise from experiences in war, torture, natural catastrophes, assault, rape, and serious accidents in cars and burning buildings.
Re-experiencing of the traumatic event in their dreams and their daily thoughts, they are determined to evade anything that would bring the event to mind causing hyper arousal.
Clinical Features of PTSD
Painful experiencing of the event
A pattern of avoidance and emotional numbing, and fairly constant hyper arousal
The disorder may not develop until months or even years after the event
The MSE often reveals feelings of guilt, rejection, humiliation.
Patients may also describe the dissociative states and panic attacks, and illusions and hallucinations may be present.
Cognitive testing may reveal that patients have impairments of memory and attention.
Associative symptoms include aggression, violence, poor impulse control, and substance-related disorders.
Clinical Features of PTSD
Persistent symptoms of increased arousal not present before the trauma as indicated by two or more of the ff; Difficulty falling or staying asleep Irritability or outburst of anger Difficulty concentrating Hyper vigilance Exaggerated startled response Duration of the symptoms is more than one month
Acute Stress Disorder
The person has been exposed to a traumatic event
Experiencing the distressing event which has three or more ff dissociative symptoms
A traumatic event is persistently re=experienced in one of the ff way: recurrent images, illusions, thoughts, dreams, flashback episodes
Marked avoidance of stimuli that arouse recollections of the trauma
Marked symptoms of anxiety or increased arousal
The disturbance last for a minimum of two days or maximum of 4 weeks and occurs within 4 weeks of the traumatic events.
Generalized Anxiety Disorder
Is defined as excessive anxiety and worry about several events or activities for a majority of days during at least a six-month period.
The worry is difficult to control and is associated with its somatic symptoms such as muscle tension, irritability, difficulty of sleeping, and dresslessness.
Criteria for GAD
Excessive anxiety and worry (Apprehensive expectation) occurring more days than not for six month
The person find it difficult to control the worry
The anxiety and worry are associated with the ff six symptoms