JUNE 2009
SPEAKEASY MAGAZINE, JUNE 2009

              LETTER FROM THE EDITOR                                                       ...
SPEAKEASY MAGAZINE, JUNE 2009

          RECENT RESEC ACTIVITIES                                                    This m...
SPEAKEASY MAGAZINE, JUNE 2009

                                                               the oracle

By Fernanda Sara...
SPEAKEASY MAGAZINE, JUNE 2009

                   THE ORACLE                                          Steps To Learn A For...
SPEAKEASY MAGAZINE, JUNE 2009

                                                                             goofing off: w...
SPEAKEASY MAGAZINE, JUNE 2009

                                                                     FEATURE

    WE ALMOST...
SPEAKEASY MAGAZINE, JUNE 2009

positions. The ruse worked as planned. Part of
the English army went in pursuit of the flee...
SPEAKEASY MAGAZINE, JUNE 2009

Spanish, Portuguese, Italian, and Romanian.
     The Normans had come in enough num-
bers t...
SPEAKEASY MAGAZINE, JUNE 2009

middle classes a certain degree of bilingual-     to its former position of power in the co...
SPEAKEASY MAGAZINE, JUNE 2009

decided to keep their English estates and give    French language.
                        ...
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Speakeasy June Issue 2009

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Speakeasy June Issue 2009

  1. 1. JUNE 2009
  2. 2. SPEAKEASY MAGAZINE, JUNE 2009 LETTER FROM THE EDITOR contents Welcome to this first edition of Speakeasy, the English lan- guage magazine of UTPL. When three students from our English major pro- gramme approached me with the idea of creating an Eng- lish language newspaper I was both excited and terrified by the prospect. I was excited because I was pleased that the students themselves had initiated the idea. I was interested in what they had in mind and what they would come up with for features and articles. However, I also had some trepidation The battles of Stamford Bridge and Hastings lead to the end of Anglo-Saxon England as I knew the project would mean a lot of work; I wasn’t sure if the end product would reflect the initial enthusiasm 3 7 once pen was put to paper! THIS MONTH IN HISTORY FEATURE: WE ALMOST LOST IT Over the period of time since then I’ve been pleasantly A list of important events that happened The story of how English conquered surprised and deeply impressed by the quality and vari- in history in this month. the Conquerors. ety of the articles, alongside the hard work put in by the students in order to create the newspaper you are reading today. 4 11 Within these pages you can find out about some of THE ORACLE DO YOU KNOW HOW TO DANCE the fascinating events that helped to form the English lan- Your future foretold by our resident LAMBADA? fortune-teller, Fernanda. Learn how to outshine everybody on guage we speak today, alongside learning how to let go and the dance floor. lambada the night away. You will also find out what the future has in store for you, according to the stars, together 5 ON THE COVER with games and valuable advice to help you learn English STEPS TO LEARN A FOREIGN Of all the animals that have walked on English soil, more effectively. LANGUAGE QUICKER perhaps the most respected in Anglo-Saxon times There really is something in these pages for everybody Frustrated with your English classes? Read was the wolf. A sign of power, loyalty and freedom, so… these tips to get quicker results. the wolf often appeared engraved on helmets, swords and shields. Happy reading! The wolf was often an inspiration for names in 6 Anglo-Saxon England. Bardawulf (Bright Wolf), THE GAME CORNER Randwulf (Shield Wolf), Wulfric (Wolf Power/Ruler), Mathew French Who said that learning English could not Æthelwulf, Wuffa were all names used in Anglo- be fun? Saxon England. The White Wolfshead is a design fmathew@utpl.edu.ec created by Saxon North. 2
  3. 3. SPEAKEASY MAGAZINE, JUNE 2009 RECENT RESEC ACTIVITIES This month in history  From May 25th to 27th, RESEC faculty partici- June is the sixth month of the year, although it was originally the fourth in the Roman pated in End of Program Seminar for the School calendar. It has 30 days. of Educational Sciences: 7 RESEC professors ob- The name of the month of June originated from the Roman goddess Juno, who was served and coached students graduating from the the queen of the Gods and is the protecting and guardian spirit of females. English major during 3 days of teaching practice In this month around the world... sessions.  June 6, 1944: D-Day began in the early hours of the morning as Allied forces landed on the north coast of France. At a great loss of life they managed to push back the  On June 3rd, RESEC professors and students from German forces and some people consider this to be the decisive turning point in the the English major participated in a videoconference Second World War. entitled “What teachers do next” from the UTPL Regional Center in the city of Quito. It was given by Jeremy Harmer, author of The Practice of Eng-  June 4, 1989: The Chinese government massacred over 3000 unarmed protesters in Tiananmen Square in Beijng. lish Language Teaching and the “How to” series.  Dr. George Iber, Ph.D. of Nova Southeastern Uni-  June 11, 1994: After 49 years, the Soviet military occupation of East Germany end- ed. versity, Florida visited the UTPL this month to work with RESEC teachers enrolled in the Master of Science, Teaching of English as Foreign Lan-  June 30, 1997: In Hong Kong, the flag of the British Crown Colony was officially lowered at midnight and replaced by a new flag representing China’s sovereignty and guage program. the official transfer of power.  RESEC represented the UTPL at the annual TEFL  June 12, 1898: The Philippines declared their independence from Spain. The islands Conference in the city of Riobamba: 7 students were named after King Philip II. from the English major participated and 3 profes- sors gave workshops at the event. Donatien Alphonse François de Sade, Marquis de Sade was born on June 2, 1740, in Paris. He was a military lead-  RESEC welcomes three new volunteers: Harpreet er, governor-general, and author, whose acts of cruelty and Ahuja from the University of Guelph and David violence resulted in the term sadism being created from his Axelson from the University of Michigan are both name to describe gratification in inflicting pain on others. de with the AIESEC program and Rachel Lipson, a Sade spent around 32 years of his life imprisoned in various student at Harvard University, is a volunteer with prisons and an insane asylum. It is during this period that he WorldTeach. wrote prolifically. His last 13 years were spent in the Charen- ton asylum, where he died on December 2, 1814, at age 74.
  4. 4. SPEAKEASY MAGAZINE, JUNE 2009 the oracle By Fernanda Sarango CANCER LIBRA June 22-July 22. You will experience some September 23-October 22. You ought to take ARIES difficult moments in your studies, things easy, and control your March 21-April 19. Be careful however, you are strong so problems since these can affect Aries there are some obstacles you should persevere. You your health. Some changes will coming your way. Be friendly know that any knowledge or take place in your work. Re- and talkative with your partners. study will help you in your member: Do not fear taking Remember: Learn how to make f u t u r e . Remember: If you want to succeed, risks to reach your goals. the most of the beautiful moments in your start thinking of yourself as a success. life. SCORPIO LEO October 23 - November 21. You need to TAURUS July 23-August 22. In order for your projects to relax and have fun, but do it April 20-May 20. Your work give the desired effect, you should carefully and in moderation. will experience an important avoid expenses, bad investments On the other hand, your change. You should be or loans. Remember: Discover family and your children will be friendlier to those who the inner beauty of the people very understanding. Remember: If you surround you, so they know how who are close to you. really love your life, do not be afraid. important they are to you. Remember: Today’s optimism is tomorrow’s happiness. VIRGO SAGITTARIUS August 23-September 22. You will be a November 22-December 21. Be clever, your GEMINI little tense and the consequent boss may treat you unfairly and communica- May 21-June 21. Your family excessive vulnerability won’t tions will be difficult. Be careful will be in need of your support. allow you to see situations with and demonstrate confidence. Express your respect, solidarity objectivity. Remember: If you Remember: Smile when you and love to them, it will be want to reach your goals, you are facing difficulties. This useful for their inner peace. should work efficiently. could be the best ingredient to Remember: Show your love to the live happily. people who are close to you.
  5. 5. SPEAKEASY MAGAZINE, JUNE 2009 THE ORACLE Steps To Learn A Foreign Language Quicker CAPRICORN By Germania Garcia December 22-January 19. Your job has been A lot of people get very frustrated when learning a foreign language because learning a difficult; try to rest and take sometime for new language is a process that demands a lot of time and effort. Part of the frustration yourself. Also, you will be more finan- they experience is not related to the actual learning curve process, it’s due to the lack cial stable. Remember: Enjoy your life proper techniques. by taking part in upcoming opportuni- There are three things that you should be aware of when trying to learn a foreign lan- ties that will enrich your life guage quickly. First: Try to listen to music, read books and watch movies or TV programmes in the language you are learning. Remember to write down the words you don’t know so you AQUARIUS can check them after. You have to understand what they are saying, so, do not forget to January 20-February 18. There are some ask yourself if what you are listening to makes sense. Do this as often as possible and beautiful and great things to do, but you will see immediate results. Second: Speaking in the language you are learning is remember there is a time for everything, as important as listening to it. That is how you learnt your mother tongue, you heard and you should prioritize. Remember: people around you speaking, and you began imitating what you heard. It works the same Appreciate all the good things that you way when learning a second language.Talking for fifteen minutes a day will help you a are experiencing. great deal. You will find yourself speaking more confidently and you will see progress at a much faster pace. Third: You need to spend as much time as possible exposing yourself to the language you are learning. If you are somebody with a laid-back (lazy?!) attitude, PISCES that is fine, just use your time appropriately. Instead of listening to music in Spanish, February 19-March 20. Your bad mood listen to something in the language you are learning. can cause conflicts with those who If you have a busy daily schedule, organize yourself so you have thirty minutes a day surround you; you must be aware of it. to listen and/or speak in that other language. Remember: Only think about what is To experience quicker results, try to find an environment to relax and concentrate. It positive. is necessary to have a comfortable learning environment. If you would like to go to a great place to practice English, watch movies, listen to music, read or relax and make friends, the Speakeasy English Club next to RESEC is the place for you. It’s free for the UTPL community, fun, and full of friendly staff all waiting to help you improve your English! Good luck and happy learning!
  6. 6. SPEAKEASY MAGAZINE, JUNE 2009 goofing off: wasting time. the Game corner flick: movie. go bananas: go slightly mad. By Fernanda Sarango geek: someone who works too hard, is more intelligent than usual, and is slightly unattractive. In this game, you are going to practice your English and the good news nosh: food. is that if you do it well, I am sure you will learn some new words and nuke: heat in a microwave. improve your vocabulary. So, have fun and enjoy. fox: attractive, alluring person. ditch: leave. How to play? can: a restroom or toilet. First you have to read all the sentences below. boo-boo: mistake. Secondly, you should find seven new words in the word-search box be- low. Thirdly, you are going to fill in the blanks in the sentences with the new “If your coffee’s cold, just_________________it for about a minute.” words. “Let’s go out tonight and watch a___________________________.” f f o g n i f o o g “She made a big___________________.” o b i n o p o s w a “Why did you______________________me at that party?” b t o y u n x i c h “Is it true that Dave is a _______________________?” a s w o m k d k a j n o s h b c e l n k “Stop _________________ and help me clean the house!” a e r y t o u j g d “Do you know where the _____________________is?” n z a x g c o s d i “There’s plenty in the refrigerator if you want something to ________ a c c v e y g j e t on”. s x n b e t f u r c “This project is causing me to ____________________!” f l i c k e l f j h “Bill Gates is kind of a _______________”.
  7. 7. SPEAKEASY MAGAZINE, JUNE 2009 FEATURE WE ALMOST LOST IT By Nick Izquierdo S poken by hundreds of millions around the world, English is the lingua franca of our times. Like its predecessors, Latin and French, English enjoys unrivalled clout and prestige around the world. However, in the history of the English language there was a period in which it could have followed the fate of Latin by joining the list of dead lan- guages. A scene from the Bayeux Tapestry depicting the battle of Hastings Nowadays it seems hard to entertain the idea of a world without English, but around and landed at Pevesey, on the south coast of were sent home to help in the harvest. Now nine hundred years ago an important event England, to claim the throne of England for that William had finally arrived, Harold had that completely changed the history of Eng- himself. no other choice but to face him with the few land took place. With it, the fate of the Eng- William’s landing was not a surprise for men he had left at his disposal. lish language was placed at risk. Harold, but the timing of his landing came Harold and his army clashed in battle In January, 1066, the English king, Ed- at the worst moment for the English. Wil- with the Norman invaders near Hastings. ward the Confessor, died childless, and Wil- liam was not the only claimant to the throne From early in the morning on the 14th Oc- liam, duke of Normandy, being Edward’s of England. The king of Norway, Harald tober, the English host fought bravely on the second cousin, had hoped to succeed him. Hardrada, had landed with his army in the battlefield, and by mid afternoon victory over However, immediately, after the death of Ed- north of England, and he also wanted to seize the Normans was close at hand. The coura- ward, Harold, the earl of West Saxon, was the throne from Harold. Just after Harold and geous resistance given by the English had crowned King of England. Frustrated, but his army had been north to defeat the Norwe- placed the Normans in a despairing situation. not discouraged at all by Harold’s coronation, gian king at a cost to his forces, he got news Realising that he could not win the battle William began planning his invasion of Eng- of William’s arrival on English soil. Months by sheer force alone, William devised a cun- land to assert his claim to the English throne. before, Harold had summoned an army to ning ploy to change the course of the ongoing In September of that year, William crossed face William; but, after the expected invasion battle to his favour. William’s army feigned a the Channel with a powerful Norman army failed to materialise, many of Harold’s men retreat to attract the English away from their
  8. 8. SPEAKEASY MAGAZINE, JUNE 2009 positions. The ruse worked as planned. Part of the English army went in pursuit of the flee- ing Normans who then turned around and ambushed the English attack. Unfortunately, PICARDY for the English, Harold fell in the foray, leav- ing them leaderless. The Normans soon took advantage of the state of disarray into which the English army had fallen, and by nightfall they had driven the English into a full retreat. Rouen Harold’s death and the English army’s defeat at Hastings was not enough to secure Bayeux Caen the English throne at once for William, now called the Conqueror. Two months passed be- NORMANDY fore the city of London decided to surrender and recognize William as king. On Decem- ber 25, 1066, William the Conqueror, was crowned King of England in the Abbey of PERCHE Westminster. BRITTANY This was not the first time England had a MAINE foreigner as king. For a time of just over twenty years immediately before Edward the Confes- The Duchy of Normandy circa 1066 sor was king, England had been under Danish rule. This time, though, things were different. was not immune to this shift in the balance of settled. Both languages, at that time, were in A large number of English nobles had fallen in power that swept the country. Within a few some degree mutually intelligible due to the battle at Hastings, and many others who had years after the Conquest almost all the impor- fact that they were part of the same family of survived went into exile or were later executed. tant positions in the Church of England were Germanic languages. The positions in government, and estates once occupied by Norman prelates. Now, under William’s reign, English was held by the now-disgraced English nobility During the period of Danish rule, going to be displaced by Norman-French, the were given as a reward to the Norman aristo- the English language had coexisted rather language of the Norman conquerors. Nor- crats, who had come to fight along with Wil- peacefully with Old Norse, the language of man-French was a French dialect spoken in liam in his conquest of England. During Wil- the Scandinavian rulers and settlers of the Normandy, France. French, unlike English, liam’s reign the important positions of power Danelaw; a region in south-eastern England is an offshoot from Latin and belongs to the in every sphere of government changed from where a large number of Scandinavians had branch of Romance languages along with English to Norman hands. Even the church
  9. 9. SPEAKEASY MAGAZINE, JUNE 2009 Spanish, Portuguese, Italian, and Romanian. The Normans had come in enough num- bers to continue using their language without Sept 25: facing any pressure at all to learn English. Battle of During William’s reign, a constant influx Stamford Bridge Harald Hardrada’s of both upper class and lower ranking Nor- mans were to arrive, increasing the number of YORK Norwegian fleet French speakers in England. Now that French was the official language of court, govern- ment, literature, and education, the English upper class had to adapt to the times, learning French to keep its influence at court. Inter- marriage between English and Norman upper 2-6 Oct: class families also helped to accelerate the pro- Harold southwards 20-24 Sept: cess in which speaking French was favoured Harold northwards over speaking English by this new Anglo- Norman nobility. The use of French by the aristocracy in England seemed likely to continue unabated LONDON in the future because of the strong existing links between England and the Continent. Oct 14: HASTINGS Battle of The King and many of the Anglo-Norman PEVENCEY aristocrats had titles and estates in both Eng- Hastings land and France so it was natural for them to spend time on both sides of the Channel. Sept 28: Before the Norman Conquest, English William of Normandy’s had developed a rich literary tradition, but ENGLISH landing after the Conquest English literature fell in esteem as a consequence of the change in the CHANNEL preferences of its patrons, the court and the NORMANDY aristocracy, in favour of the French language. The knowledge and use of French also ex- tended to the middle class circles in England. Timeline of the battles of Stamford Bridge and Hastings - 1066 It is safe to assume that for members of the 9
  10. 10. SPEAKEASY MAGAZINE, JUNE 2009 middle classes a certain degree of bilingual- to its former position of power in the court. ism was present during this time. Knights and That event was the loss of Normandy. KEY DATES IN THE HISTORY OF THE merchants constituted two groups in which Since William the Conqueror, the kings of ENGLISH LANGUAGE FROM 449 TO bilingualism must have been fairly common, England had also retained their titles as dukes 1362 and even taken for granted. of Normandy. So much had their power and At the other end of the social scale, how- estate grown in France that they began to be A.D. 449: Angles, Saxons and Jutes begin ever, the lower classes in England continued to seen with increasing suspicion by the French to settle in England. The dialects of these speak English with no need to learn French, crown. In 1202 John, king of England, was Germanic tribes will become the basis for due to the profound social division between called to Paris by King Philip of France, to the English language. upper and lower classes, and the lack of access stand trial for having attacked the Lusignans to education for poorer people. family without any justification. John request- 792: Old Norse, the language of the For how long English could have re- ed a safe passage in order to appear at his trial, Scandinavian settlers of the Danelaw, mained safe from the growing use and in- but Philip, seeing this as chance to humiliate begins to influence Old English. As a result fluence of French in England is a matter of John, imposed conditions that he knew John of the extensive borrowning, many of speculation. However, we do not have to look would not accept. Hence, John did not attend the most common words in English have too far back in time to find a good example of his trial, and the court ordered the confisca- Scandinavian origin. what may happen when two languages are pit- tion of his estate. In 1204, after two years of ied against each other. In 449 Germanic tribes fighting, the duchy of Normandy was finally c. 850: Beowulf, the most famous Old coming from the Continent settled in Eng- in control of Philip, and the link the King of English heroic poem is written. land. These Germanic peoples spoke closely England had with Normandy was severed. related Germanic dialects, that were later to The confrontation England and France 1066: King Harold dies in the battle of become the basis of the English language, had because of the confiscation of Norman- Hastings and William the Conqueror is while the indigenous inhabitants of England, dy from King John had sown the seeds for a crowned King of England. Norman-French the Celts, spoke Celtic. The clash between state of animosity between the two kingdoms. becomes the language of the courts, these two languages resulted in the rise of the The Anglo-Norman nobility that held estates education, and upper classes. English language and the subsequent fall of in both England and France were caught in Celtic language. between the enmity of both kings, and faced 1349: English begins to be used in schools During the time French was actively used the dilemma of choosing which side to pledge as a medium of instruction again. in England, the amount of French and Latin alliance. Some families divided themselves words that became part of the English lan- and their estates in two; the English family 1362: The Statute of Pleading makes guage grew to constitute around fifty percent branch would remain in possession of their English the official language in England. of its lexicon. This trend could have contin- English lands and the French family branch Parliament is opened with its first speech ued were it not for an important event that would do the same with their lands in Nor- delivered in English. was pivotal for the reestablishment of English mandy. Other families, on the other hand, 10
  11. 11. SPEAKEASY MAGAZINE, JUNE 2009 decided to keep their English estates and give French language. DO YOU KNOW HOW TO DANCE LAMBADA? up their Norman lands. In 1244 the king of The lack of prestige of Anglo-French, the France summoned all nobles who had lands Hundred Years’ War, and the improving con- By Germania García in England to Paris, and asked them to choose ditions of the English middle class came to once and for all between their French or their benefit English. By the beginning of the fif- The Lambada is a fast and sensual dance that English holdings. teenth century the use of French in England can be performed alone, with a partner, or in Due to the antagonism between France was doomed, and English was once again the a group. The name refers to the rhythm of and England, the Anglo-Norman nobility national language of England. But something the music. Although the music has its origins began to develop a sense of identity as Eng- we always have to remember is that the flame in Brazil it reached worldwide popularity in lish. This new-found English identity was of the English language was kept alive thanks the late 80s mainly due to the group Kaoma. strengthened even further when a very large to the humble people who lived in the coun- Their number worldwide number one sum- number of French nationals were embraced in tryside, towns, and cities of England. If there mer hit “Lambada” sold 5 million singles in the court of King John, and given prominent ever were heroes in the history of the Eng- 1989. posts to the detriment of the English nation- lish language, they surely have to be counted Unlike other dances, the Lambada is bet- als. A second and third wave of French and among them. ter danced on bare feet, as you do most of the other foreigners that came to profit from King dancing on your tip toes! Henry III’s favour were to rekindle the flame You must listen to the music, feel the of nationalism in the English people’s hearts. rhythm filling you, and your body will start Around this time French had acquired a moving on its own. Bend your knees a little, RECOMMENDED FURTHER READING: as if you were skiing. Find the rhythm and highly respected status as a cultured language across Europe. In England French was still cadence. At first do not worry about fancy A History of the English Language steps, just let your hips move whilst changing used by the upper classes and, by tradition, by Albert C.Baugh and Thomas Cable. in several key institutions such as Parliament, weight from one foot to the other. law courts, and universities. But English had Stand on the balls of your feet and twist A History of the English Language them as if stubbing a cigarette out; first one, already begun to make some steady progress edited by Richard Hogg and David in places once considered strongholds of the then the other. Try to keep your upper body Denison. steady. This will emphasize the movement of French language. By the end of the thirteenth century, clear signs that the use of French in your hips. Stay close to your partner, do not The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the pay too much attention to getting the steps England was going into decline had begun to English Language appear. In monasteries and universities rules perfect, instead just enjoy the music and the edited by David Crystal. way your body starts moving and feeling! forbidding novices and students to speak in English had to be placed lest French go into Remember that the Lambada is a sensual disuse. In 1332 Parliament issued a decree dance: A dance of pleasure and seduction. En- bidding all nobles to teach their children the joy the music, feel the rhythm and have fun! 11
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