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  1. 1. ProxemicsIntroduction:Proxemics is what brings us together, today. The term ``proxemics was coined by researcher EdwardHall during the 1950s and 1960s and has to do with the study of our use of space and how variousdifferences in that use can make us feel more relaxed or anxious. physical territory, such as why desks face the front of a classroom rather than towards a center isle, and personal territory that we carry with us, the "bubble" of space that you keep between yourself and the person ahead of you in a line.Body: Another important aspect of proxemics is the use of Personal territory. Let me briefly outline the four areas of personal territory; public, social, personal, and intimate, that we Americans intuitively respect and use. Public space ranges from 12 to 25 feet and is the distance maintained between the audience and a speaker such as the President. Social space ranges from 4 to 10 feet and is used for communication among business associates, as well as to separate strangers using public areas such as beaches and bus stops. Personal space ranges from 2 to 4 feet and is used among friends and family members, and to separate people waiting in lines at teller machines for example. Finally, intimate space ranges out to one foot and involves a high probability of touching. We reserve it for whispering and embracing.Personal territories, however, can vary both culturally and ethnically.Proxemics is the study of measurable distances between people as they interact. The term wasintroduced by anthropologist Edward T. Hall in 1966. The effects of proxemics, according to Hall, canbe summarized by the following loose rule:Like gravity, the influence of two bodies on each other is inversely proportional not only to the squareof their distance but possibly even the cube of the distance between them.Body spacing and posture, according to Hall, are unintentional reactions to sensory fluctuations orshifts, such as subtle changes in the sound and pitch of a persons voice. Social distance betweenpeople is reliably correlated with physical distance, as are intimate and personal distance, according tothe following delineations: Intimate distance for embracing, touching or whispering o Close phase – less than 6 inches (15 cm) o Far phase – 6 to 18 inches (15 to 46 cm) Personal distance for interactions among good friends or family members o Close phase – 1.5 to 2.5 feet (46 to 76 cm) o Far phase – 2.5 to 4 feet (76 to 120 cm) 1
  2. 2. Social distance for interactions among acquaintances o Close phase – 4 to 7 feet (1.2 to 2.1 m) o Far phase – 7 to 12 feet (2.1 to 3.7 m) Public distance used for public speaking o Close phase – 12 to 25 feet (3.7 to 7.6 m) o Far phase – 25 feet (7.6 m) or more.Hall notes that different cultures maintain different standards of personal space. In Latin cultures, for instance,those relative distances are smaller, and people tend to be more comfortable standing close to each other; inNordic cultures the opposite is true. Realizing and recognizing these cultural differences improves cross-cultural understanding, and helps eliminate discomfort people may feel if the interpersonal distance is toolarge ("stand-offish") or too small (intrusive). Comfortable personal distances also depend on the culture,social situation, gender, and individual preference.Types of spaceProxemics defines three different types of space:Fixed-feature spaceThis comprises things that are immobile, such as walls and territorial boundaries. However, some territorialboundaries can vary (Low and Lawrence-Zúñiga point to the Bedouin of Syria as an example of this) and arethus classified as semifixed-features.Semifixed-feature spaceThis comprises movable objects, like mobile furniture, while fixed-furniture is a fixed-feature.Informal space ; This comprises the individual space around the body, travels around with it, determining thepersonal distance among people.Proxemics also classifies spaces as either sociofugal or sociopetal (c.f. the sociofugal-sociopetal behaviourcategory). The terms are analogous to the words "centrifugal" and "centripetal". Sociopetal spaces are spacesthat are conducive, by means of how they are organized, to interpersonal communcation, whereas sociofugalspaces encourage solidarity.Behaviour categoriesProxemics also defines eight factors in nonverbal communication, or proxemic behaviour categories, thatapply to people engaged in conversation:Posture -gender identifiers ; This category relates the postures of the participants and their gender. Sixprimary sub-categories are defined: man prone, man sitting or squatting, man standing, woman prone, womansitting or squatting, and woman standing. 2
  3. 3. The sociopetal-sociofugal axis: This axis denotes the relationship between the positions of one personsshoulders and anothers shoulders. Nine primary orientations are defined: face-to-face, 45°, 90°, 135°, andback-to-back. The effects of the several orientations are to either encourage or discourage communication.Kinesthetic factors : This category deals with how closely the participants are to touching, from beingcompletely outside of body-contact distance to being in physical contact, which parts of the body are incontact, and body part positioning.Touching code : This behavioural category concerns how participants are touching one another, such ascaressing, holding, feeling, prolonged holding, spot touching, pressing against, accidental brushing, or nottouching at all.Visual code : This category denotes the amount of eye contact between participants. Four sub-categories aredefined, ranging from eye-to-eye contact to no eye contact at all.Thermal code : This category denotes the amount of body heat that each participant perceives from another.Four sub-categories are defined: conducted heat detected, radiant heat detected, heat probably detected, andno detection of heat.Olfactory code : This category deals in the kind and degree of odour detected by each participant from theother.Voice loudness : This category deals in the vocal effort used in speech. Seven sub-categories are defined:silent, very soft, soft, normal, normal+, loud, and very loud. .ClaustrophobiaThe word "claustrophobia" is derived from two words, "Claustrum" (which means "A shut in place" in Latin)and "Phobos" (which means "Fear" in Greek). Claustrophobia can be defined as "Abnormal, morbid, intenseand irrational fear of confined, closed or narrow spaces. Person suffering from claustrophobia panics wheninside places like elevator, small room, narrow lane, etc. The fear is focused on not being able to escape or nothaving enough oxygen to breath. Around 5 percent of the world population suffer from this anxiety disorder.Causes of claustrophobiaExperts have not been able to arrive at exact factors which cause claustrophobia. It is generally believed thatclaustrophobia may be caused by a traumatic experience involving confined spaces (like getting trapped in acloset). When the person encounters similar situations after this experience, they often trigger panic attacks.This is because a program would be formed in the brain which would have associated enclosed space withanxiety. As a result of this program, the person becomes claustrophobic.Symptoms of claustrophobia:When a person affected by claustrophobia finds himself/herself in an enclosed space, he/she may displaysome of the following symptoms: 3
  4. 4. -Increased heartbeat (palpitations).-Shaking.-Light headedness.-Dry mouth.-Breathlessness or sometimes hyperventilation (breathing faster and / or deeper than normal.-Excessive sweating.-Inability to think clearly.-Unclear speech.-Fainting.-Nausea.-Fear of imminent physical harm.These symptoms vary in degree in different persons affected by claustrophobia.Treatment of claustrophobiaThere is no one treatment for claustrophobia. Doctors generally use a combination of medication (anti -depressants, beta - blockers, etc), exposure therapy (flooding, counter - conditioning), regressionhypnotherapy and behavior therapy.There have been cases where claustrophobia has been cured. If you or any one you know are displayingsymptoms of claustrophobia, it is very important that you take assistance of a mental health expert as soon aspossible. Ignoring this anxiety disorder can cause further complications.Environmental conditions, specifically physical density and crowding, may affect several key dimensions ofretail shopping behavior. Exploratory research indicates that these forces are a salient force in the retailsetting.An emerging interdisciplinary field of inquiry, environmental psychology, has evolved which focuses on therelationship between the physical environment and human behavior. While in an early stage of development,the presence and importance of influences emanating from the environment of human behavior have beenestablished in a number of diverse empirical studies. Clearly, environmental influences are worthy of morethorough investigation in the study of buyer behavior. The central purpose of this paper is to outline aparadigm of buyer behavior and one environmental condition, crowding.While the effects of crowding have been empirically examined by a number of researchers, exploration of theconcept in the marketing setting is absent from the literature. Important trends in marketing point up the needfor inquiry into the area. First, scrambled merchandising, regional shopping centers and, more recently, thesuper store, all require heavy concentrations of shoppers. Second, because of the growing number of workingwives, available shopping hours have been cut, thus placing a heavier burden on peak shopping times, e.g.,Saturdays.When is a store "crowded"? A manager and a consumer may respond differently to this query. Stokols (1972)identifes two components of crowding: (1) a physical condition, and (2) an experiential state. The physicalcondition, density, involves the restriction of movement imposed by limited space, while the experientialstate, crowding, encompasses the individuals perception of the restrictive aspects of limited space. The 4
  5. 5. challenge for the manager is to increase density without triggering the experiential state of crowding amongshoppers.FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS OF CROWDINGPsychological or perceived crowding is a function of several environmental and individual variables inaddition to the apparent lack of space. The more salient research findings suggest that crowding is a functionof the situation including the difficulty of the task (Stokols, 1972); the amount of interpersonal stimulationand interaction (Desor, 1970) (Zlutnick and Altman, 1972); the individuals personal characteristics such asaggressiveness (Stokols, et al., 1973); and the individuals previous experience and expectations in thesituation (Zlutnick and Altman, 1972). Moreover, the presence of these conditions results in informationoverload, confusion, and frustrated goal seeking (Proshansky, et al., 1972). In turn, coping or adaptationstrategies are evoked and behavior is altered.Situational Determinants of CrowdingThe obvious situational determinant of crowding is the presence of a high density of people per unit of space.Animal studies confirmed the deleterious effects of high density on behavioral patterns and populationgrowth. For example, Calhoun (1962) reported abnormal social patterns and drastically reduced birth rateswith rats confined in high density experiments. Christian, Flyger, and Davis (1960) studied deer on a naturallyconfined island and reported similar findings. Generally, human studies have shown that density alone maynot produce aberrant human behavior in the experimental setting. Freedman, et al. (1971), found fewexperimental effects on task behavior by variations in experimental room size.Since man is a cognizing and goal-directed organism dependent on interactions and exchanges in hisenvironment, crowding occurs only when space restrictions confine goal directed behavior (Proshansky, et al.,1972). For example, high density may actually facilitate goal achievement at a social function. The "richnessof environmental resources" (Zlutnick and Altman, 1972, p. 51) is definitely a factor. However, in asupermarket, high density may impede mobility and decrease shopping efficiency. The degree to which timeeffectiveness is altered becomes important to the shopper.Interpersonal Stimulation and InteractionDesor (1972, p. 79) has stressed the interpersonal de-determinants of crowding by defining "being crowded"as "receiving excessive stimulation from social sources." Obviously, the amount of total stimulation from boththe physical and the social environment affect the individuals perception of a situation. For example, theZlutnick and Altman (1972, p. 52) add another important social determinant of crowding. They point out thata feeling of crowding relates to "peoples ability and inability to control their interaction with others."Crowding becomes most pronounced when interference occurs. Restricted or redirected movement due to thepresence of other individuals would enhance a crowded feeling. At the same time, high density situationswhich allow maximum freedom of movement produce less psychological crowding. Conditions of control andmovement have not been empirically studied in enough detail to specify the exact relationship to crowding.Individual Characteristics 5
  6. 6. Research indicates that individual characteristics have an effect on the degree to which a particularenvironment is perceived as being crowded. Stokols, et al. (1973) found that aggressiveness and anxietyinfluenced crowding when subjects were engaged in a competitive game. Few additional probes have beenmade into the significance of personality traits to psychological crowding. Clearly, further research is needed.Individuals Previous ExperienceThe psychological makeup of any individual is largely determined by previous learning. Crowding is arelative concept--environments are more or less crowded and the anchors for judgment can be somewhatelusive. The Japanese, who are accustomed to extremely high population density, perceive crowdingdifferently than the rural American. In buying behavior it is important to determine the circumstances underwhich crowding is experienced by the shopper. The environment most certainly has a normative property,although no particular measure for it exists. When the norm is violated, adaptation or coping strategiesbecome operative. By developing an understanding of these strategies the marketer could become moreresponsive to the needs of the consumer. The obvious alternative to crowding for the consumer is to leave thecrowded store and never return. However, there are tradeoffs. To illustrate, convenience of location, priceconsiderations, and merchandising variety may more than compensate for the crowded condition. In fact, themanager attempts to obtain high density by offering a large number of buyers a package of rewards whichexceed the costs of the shopping task.Environmental psychology addresses environmental problems such as density and crowding, noise pollution,sub-standard living, and urban decay. Noise increases environmental stress. Although it has been found thatcontrol and predictability are the greatest factors in stressful effects of noise; context, pitch, source andhabituation are also important variables. Environmental psychologists have theorized that density andcrowding can also have an adverse effect on mood and may cause stress-related illness. To understand andsolve environmental problems, environmental psychologists believe concepts and principles should comedirectly from the physical settings and problems being looked at. For example, factors that reduce feelings ofcrowding within buildings include: Windows - particularly ones that can be opened and ones that provide a view as well as light High ceilings Doors to divide spaces (Baum and Davies) and provide access control Room shape - square rooms feel less crowded than rectangular ones (Dresor) Using partitions to create smaller, personalized spaces within an open plan office or larger work space. Providing increases in cognitive control over aspects of the internal environment, such as ventilation, light, privacy, etc. Conducting a cognitive appraisal of an environment and feelings of crowding in different settings. For example, one might be comfortable with crowding at a concert but not in school corridors. Creating a defensible space (Calhoun) Personal space and territory Having an area of personal territory in a public space, e.g. at the office, is a key feature of many architectural designs. Having such a defensible space can reduce the negative effects of crowding in urban environments.. 6
  7. 7. Creating barriers and customizing the space are ways of creating personal space, e.g. using pictures ofones family in an office setting. This increases cognitive control as one sees oneself as having controlover the competitors to the personal space and therefore able to control the level of density andcrowding in the space.Systems orientedThe systems oriented approach to experimenting is applied to individuals or people that are a part ofcommunities, groups, and organizations. This approach particularly examines group interaction, asopposed to an individual‘s interaction and it emphasizes on factors of social integration. In thelaboratory, experiments focus on cause and effect processes within human nature.[11]Interdisciplinary orientedEnvironmental psychology relies on interaction with other disciplines in order to approach problemswith multiple perspectives. The first discipline is the category of behavioral sciences, which include:sociology, political science, anthropology, and economics. Environmental psychology also interactswith the interspecializations of the field of psychology, which include: developmental psychology,cognitive science, organization theory, psychobiology, and social neuroscience. In addition to themore scientific fields of study, environmental psychology also works with the design field whichincludes: the studies of architecture, interior design, urban planning, industrial and object design,landscape architecture, and preservation.[12]Space-over-time orientationSpace over time orientation highlights the importance of the past. Examining problems with the past inmind creates a better understanding of how past forces, such as social, political, and economic forces,may be of relevance to present and future problems.[13] Time and place are also important to consider.It‘s important to look at time over extended periods. Physical settings change over time; they changewith respect to physical properties and they change because individuals using the space change overtime.[14] Looking at these spaces over time will help monitor the changes and possibly predict futureproblems.There are a variety of tests that can be administered to children in order to determine theirtemperament. Temperament is split up into three types: ―easy‖, ―difficult‖, and ―slow-to-warm-up‖.Alexander Thomas, Stella Chess, Herbert G. Birch, Margaret Hertzig and Sam Korn created an infanttemperament test in the 1950s and rated them using nine temperament criteria.[15] By finding out achild‘s temperament at birth, it enables us to know what to expect as the child progresses intoadulthood.ConceptsPlace identityAs a person interacts with various places and spaces, he/she is able to evaluate which properties indifferent environments fulfill his/her various needs. When a place contains components that satisfy a 7
  8. 8. person biologically, socially, psychologically and/or culturally, it creates the environmental past of aperson. Through ‗good‘ or ‗bad‘ experiences with a place, a person is then able to reflect and definetheir personal values, attitudes, feelings and beliefs about the physical world.Place identity has been described as the individuals incorporation of place into the larger concept ofself; a "potpourri of memories, conceptions, interpretations, ideas, and related feelings about specificphysical settings, as well as types of settings".[17] Other theorists have been instrumental in the creationof the idea of place identity. Three humanistic geographers, Tuan (1980), Relph (1976) and Buttimer(1980), share a couple of basic assumptions. As a person lives and creates memories within a place,attachment is built and it is through one‘s personal connection to a place, that he/she gains a sense ofbelonging and purpose, which then gives significance and meaning to their life. Five central functionsof place-identity have been depicted: recognition, meaning, expressive-requirement, mediating change,and anxiety and defense function. Place identity becomes a cognitive "database" against which everyphysical setting is experienced.[18] The activities of a person often overlap with physical settings,which then create a background for the rest of life‘s interactions and events. The individual isfrequently unaware of the array of feelings, values or memories of a singular place and simplybecomes more comfortable or uncomfortable with certain broad kinds of physical settings, or prefersspecific spaces to others. In the time since the term "place identity" was introduced, the theory hasbeen the model for identity that has dominated environmental psychology.Place attachmentPlace attachment, is defined as one‘s emotional or affective ties to a place, and is generally thought tobe the result of a long-term connection with a certain environment.[23] This is different from a simpleaesthetic response such as saying a certain place is special because it is beautiful. For example, onecan have an emotional response to a beautiful (or ugly) landscape or place, but this response maysometimes be shallow and fleeting. This distinction is one that Schroeder (1991) labeled ―meaningversus preference‖.Place attachment happens to many people of all ages and seems to occur after a person remains in aplace for a certain amount of time and becomes accustomed to all the things around them. There aremany ways to characterize a person who has place attachment. Some of these things are easy torecognize, while others are not. Like every disorder, it is a combined involvement of certaincharacteristics. The number of characteristics possessed and the degree to which these characteristicsare present will determine the extent to which an individual has this problem.Environmental consciousnessLeanne Rivlin theorized that one way to examine an individual‘s environmental consciousness is torecognize how the physical place is significant, and look at the people/place relationship.Environmental cognition (involved in human cognition) plays a crucial role in environmentalperception. Environmental judgment is made by the orbitofrontal cortex in the brain.[26] Because of therecent concern with the environment environmental consciousness or awareness has come to be relatedto the growth and development of understanding and consciousness toward the biophysicalenvironment and its problems. 8
  9. 9. Impact on the built environmentEnvironmental psychologists rejected the laboratory-experimental paradigm because it of itssimplification and skewed view of the cause-and-effect relationships of humans behaviors andexperiences. Environmental psychologists examine how one or more parameters produce an effectwhile other measures are controlled. It is impossible to manipulate real-world settings in a laboratory.(Proshansky, 1987)Environmental psychology is oriented towards influencing the work of design professionals(architects, engineers, interior designers, urban planners, etc.) and thereby improving the humanenvironment.On a civic scale, efforts towards improving pedestrian landscapes have paid off, to some extent,fromthe involvement of figures like Jane Jacobs and Copenhagens Jan Gehl. One prime figure here is thelate writer and researcher William H. Whyte. His still-refreshing and perceptive "City", based on hisaccumulated observations of skilled Manhattan pedestrians, provides steps and patterns of use in urbanplazas.The role and impact of architecture on human behavior is debated within the architectural profession.Views range from: supposing that people will adapt to new architectures and city forms; believing thatarchitects cannot predict the impact of buildings on humans and therefore should base decisions onother factors; to those who undertake detailed precedent studies of local building types and how theyare used by that society.Social distanceWe like to keep our distance from others and there are very specific social rules about how closewe can go to others in particular situations.This social distance is also known as body space and comfort zone and the use of this space is calledproxemics.Why the distance?Regulating the distances between us and other people provides us with several benefits, including: Safety: When people are distant, they cant surprise attack us. Communication: When people are closer, it is easier to communicate with them. Affection: When they are closer still, we can be intimate. Threat: The reverse can be used - you may deliberately threaten a person by invading their body space.Social distancesThe social distances here are approximate, of course and will vary with people. But they are still agood general rule. Hall (1966) identified four zones that are common for Americans: 9
  10. 10. Public Zone : > 12 feet (3m)The public zone is generally over 12 feet. That is, when we are walking around town, we will try tokeep at least 12 feet between us and other people. For example, we will leave that space between usand the people walking in front.Of course there are many times when we cannot do this. What the theory of social distance tells us isthat we will start to notice other people who are within this radius. The closer they get, the more webecome aware and ready ourselves for appropriate action.When we are distant from another person, we feel a degree of safety from them. A person at adistance cannot attack us suddenly. If they do seem to threaten, we will have time to dodge, run orprepare for battle.Social Zone : 4 - 12 feet (1.5m - 3m)Within the social zone, we start to feel a connection with other people. When they are closer, thenwe can talk with them without having to shout, but still keep them at a safe distance.This is a comfortable distance for people who are standing in a group but maybe not talking directlywith one another. People sitting in chairs or gathered in a room will tend to like this distance.Personal Zone : 1.5-4 feet (0.5m - 1.5m)In the personal zone, the conversation gets more direct, and this is a good distance for two peoplewho are talking in earnest about something.Intimate Zone < 1.5 feet (< 0.5m)When a person is within arms reach or closer, then we can touch them in intimate ways. We can alsosee more detail of their body language and look them in they eyes. When they are closer, they alsoblot out other people so all we can see is them (and vice versa). Romance of all kinds happens in thisspace.Entering the intimate zone of somebody else can be very threatening. This is sometimes done as adeliberate ploy to give a non-verbal signal that they are powerful enough to invade your territory atwill.Varying rulesThe rules about social distance vary with different groups of people. You can detect this by watchingpeoples reactions. If you feel safe and they seem not to feel safe, back off. If they invade your space,decide whether to invade back or act otherwise. Turning sideways is an easy alternative for this, as aperson to the side is less threatening than a person at the same distance in front of you. 10
  11. 11. Town and countryPeople who live in towns spend more time close to one another and so their social distances maycompact somewhat. In a large and crowded city, the distances will be less than in a small town.People who normally live a long way from others will expand their social distances and may evenhave to lean over towards another person to shake hands and then back off to a safe distance.Different countriesDifferent countries also have different rules about social distances. The overcrowded nature of someAsian countries means that they are accustomed to talking to others from a very close distance.Watch a Japanese person talking at a party with a person from the Western countryside. TheJapanese will step in and the Westerner will step back. Speeded up it is like a dance around theroom.Interpersonal DistancePeople surround themselves with a "bubble" of personal space that they claim as their own, and theytend to become stressed when other people invade their "bubble." Our personal space protects usfrom too much arousal and helps us feel comfortable when we communicate with other people. Hall(1966) called the study of interpersonal distance proxemics. From observing Americans, Hallconcluded that four interpersonal distances were important in our social interactions: intimate,personal, social, and public. Intimate distance is from 0 to 1.5 feet. What can be done at this closerange? Vision is minimal, and we rely on our senses of smell and touch. Making love or comfortingsomeone are intimate activities, usually restricted to private encounters, which can be performedcomfortably at intimate distances. We tend not to get this close to people we are not intimate with,and usually try to escape if we do. Personal distance is from about 1.5 feet to around 4 feet. At thisdistance, touch is minimal (except perhaps when shaking hands), and vision and hearing becomeimportant. This is the distance we use to interact with friends. Within this range, normalconversations can take place easily. We might allow strangers into the outer limits, but reserve theinner limits strictly for friends. Social distance extends from approximately 4 to 12 feet, and includesthe space required for more formal social interactions. Hearing and vision are the primary sensesinvolved. The social distance is often utilized in business, for example, in interviewing newapplicants for employment or negotiating for a raise. Public distance includes distances greater than12 feet. Hall suggested that after 25 feet, interpersonal interaction is not possible. At this distancethere is little detail involved in communication. A public speaker (actor or politician) communicatesonly one way with an audience. Research suggests that we feel uncomfortable when we are too closeor too distant from another person (Scott, 1984). How do we learn appropriate social distances?Baxter (1970) suggested that we imitate others in our culture. He reported differences in threecultures in interpersonal spacing, with Mexicans moving closest, White Americans next, and AfricanAmericans staying farthest apart. Sex differences have been reported in personal spacing, as well,with women usually feeling more comfortable at closer distances than men (Ashton & colleagues,1980). Still other research suggests that interpersonal distance is influenced by social relationships. 11
  12. 12. Women prefer more distance between themselves and an opposite-sex stranger than do men. Ashton and colleagues found that when they asked pairs of friends and strangers to stand at various distances from each other, both men and women felt more comfortable when an opposite-sex friend stood close (about 1@fr{1/2} feet) than when a stranger of either sex stood at that distance. In general, women tend to stand closer when talking with friends than do men. Understanding these sex differences can help us behave appropriately in social situations with both men and women.Human behavior refers to the range of behaviors exhibited by humans and which are influenced byculture, attitudes, emotions, values, ethics, authority, rapport, hypnosis, persuasion, coercion and/orgenetics.The behavior of people (and other organisms or even mechanisms) falls within a range[disambiguationneeded ] with some behavior being common, some unusual, some acceptable, and some outsideacceptable limits. In sociology, behavior in general is considered as having no meaning, being notdirected at other people, and thus is the most basic human action. Behavior in this general sense shouldnot be mistaken with social behavior, which is a more advanced action, as social behavior is behaviorspecifically directed at other people. The acceptability of behavior is evaluated relative to social normsand regulated by various means of social control.The behavior of people is studied by the academic disciplines of psychiatry, psychology, social work,sociology, economics, and anthropology.Factors affecting human behavior and actions Genetics (see also evolutionary psychology) – affects and governs the individuals tendencies toward certain directions. Attitude – the degree to which the person has a favorable or unfavorable evaluation of the behavior in question. Social norms – the influence of social pressure that is perceived by the individual (normative beliefs) to perform or not perform a certain behavior. Perceived behavioral control – the individuals belief concerning how easy or difficult performing the behavior will be. Core faith – The persons set of beliefs, like religion, philosophy, etc. Provided, sometimes subconsciously, by his or her family, peers, social media, and the society where he or she lives. Survivor instinct - engaging in certain behaviors may abate fear and become habitual, as in addiction.Genetics affect ones tendencies to make choices based on their core beliefs[clarification needed] andattitudes.Social NormsSocial norms grow out of social value and both serve to differentiate human social behavior from thatof other species. The significance of learning in behavior varies from species to species and is closelylinked to processes of communication. Only human beings are capable of elaborate symbolic 12
  13. 13. communication and of structuring their behavior in terms of abstract preferences that we have calledvalues. Norms are the means through which values are expressed in behavior.Norms generally are the rules and regulations that groups live by. Or perhaps because the words, rulesand regulations, call to mind some kind of formal listing, we might refer to norms as the standards ofbehavior of a group. For while some of the appropriate standards of behavior in most societies arewritten down, many of them are not that formal. Many are learned, informally, in interaction withother people and are passed "that way from generation to generation.The term "norms" covers an exceedingly wide range of behaviour. So that the whole range of thatbehaviour may be included. Sociologists have offered the following definition. Social norms are rulesdeveloped by a group of people that specify how people must, should, may, should not, and must notbehave in various situations.Some norms are defined by individual and societies as crucial to the society. For example, allmembers of the group are required to wear clothing and to bury their dead. Such "musts" are oftenlabeled "mores", a term coined by the American sociologist William Graham Sumner.Many social norms are concerned with "should "; that is, there is some pressure on the individual toconform but there is some leeway permitted also. The should behaviors are what Sumner called "folk-ways"; that is, conventional ways of doing things that are not defined as crucial to the survival ofeither the individual or the society. The should behaviors in our own society include the prescriptionsthat peoples clothes should be clean, and that death should be recognized with public funerals. Acomplete list of the should behaviors in a complex society would be virtually without end.Social norms cover almost every conceivable situation, and they vary from standards where almostcomplete conformity is demanded to those where there is great freedom of choice. Norms also vary inthe kinds of sanctions that are attached to violation of the norms. Since norms derive from values, andsince complex societies have multiple and conflicting value systems, it follows that norms frequentlyare in conflict also.Normative conflict is also deeply involved in social change. As statistical norms come to differ tooblatantly from existing prescriptive norms, new prescriptive norms give sanction to formerlyprohibited behaviour and even extend it. Recent changes in the sex norms of teenage and young adultgroups provide examples. The change is more apparent in communal living groups where sometimesthere is an explicit ideology of sexual freedom and the assumption that sexual activities will be sharedwith all members of the group. In less dramatic fashion, the change is evident among couples whosimply begin to live together without the formality of a marriage ceremony.Sociological Human NeedPeoples perception of their environment influences their social interaction within that environment.Social interaction can be discussed in terms of four concepts: privacy, personal interaction levels,territoriality, and crowding. 13
  14. 14. Privacy is a central regulatory human process by which persons make themselves more or lessaccessible to others. In an office environment, privacy may be manipulated through the use ofpartitions which protect the individual from physical, visual and acoustical intrusion. The plan of anoffice environment establishes the privacy level at which the office functions. Definition of anindividuals interaction levels is one mechanism used in achieving a desired level of privacy. Besidesneeding enough space to move about and perform various tasks, each person moves within a domainthat expands and contracts to meet individual needs and social circumstances. The size of a spacedetermines perceptions, experiences, and uses of that particular environment. People inherentlydiscern their relationship with others in terms of distances, or spaces, between them. Edward T. Halldefines four distinct distances at which interpersonal transactions normally take place. These arecategorized as intimate, personal, social, and public:· Intimate space is that area immediately surrounding the individual‘s body. This area is the mostprivate and involves both physical and emotional interactions.· Personal space is that area within which a person allows only select friends, or fellow workers withwhom personal conversation is mandatory.· Social space is that area within which the individual expects to make purely social contacts on atemporary basis.· Public space is that area within which the individual does not expect to have direct contact withothers.The more intimate the spatial relationship, the more people resist intrusion by others. Personal spacefactors are important in establishing privacy requirements for interior design.Territoriality is a means of achieving a desired level of privacy. It involves the exclusive control of aspace by an individual or group. This control implies privileges and may involve aggressive actions inits defense. For the individual, territorial control provides security and identity and is communicatedthrough personalization and definition.Crowding occurs when personal space and territoriality mechanisms function ineffectively, resultingin an excess of undesired external social contact. Sociologically, people respond to crowding indifferent ways depending upon the situation. Sometimes humans tolerate crowding, though it may beunpleasant, because they know it is only temporary. In some situations crowding may be considereddesirable, it may even be sought after if it is perceived as "part of the fun" or the expectation within asocial setting. In either situation, however, psychological discomfort may be experienced if thecrowding is perceived as too confining. 14
  15. 15. Levels of space: intimate, personal, social, and public.Human Response to the Interior EnvironmentEach person responds uniquely when confronted with a specific situation or experience. Theseresponses fall into three categories—sociological, psychological and physiological—all of which areinfluenced by factors within the interior environment. Sociological determinants relate to the socialneeds and problems of the occupants. Factors that pertain to these sociological responses, includinggroup dynamics and communication, should be considered during planning. Group dynamics (theinterpersonal relationships among members of a small group) are a result of the personality andcultural backgrounds of the individuals involved, their task, and the nature of the physical setting.Spatial arrangements in small groups are functions of environment, task, and personality. Variouscultures respond differently to the amount and arrangement of space. In determining the physicalarrangement of an interior space, the interaction distances between work groups and the tasks to beperformed are very important to successful communication and social relationships.The scale of a room—its size relative to the occupants— also influences conversational distance. Asroom scale diminishes, people tend to sit closer together. Likewise, increased noise levels anddistractions drive people to sit closer together.Psychological determinants in the planning of an interior environment relate to the psychologicalneeds and concerns of the occupants. Visual privacy, acoustic privacy, and aesthetic factors are keydeterminants to be considered.Visual privacy addresses the ability to limit others view of oneself. Inherent in human behavior is thetendency to avoid situations in which one can be watched without being aware of who is watching.Visual privacy can be achieved through the use of furnishings, partitions or walls. In a private space oran office, people will often orient their desk in order to visually control the doorway and achieve avisually private space on one side of the desk.Similarly, people prefer to sit with a protected back, controlling the area they cannot see directly. Inrestaurants, the first seats to be filled are usually those along the walls. In outdoor spaces, peopletend to sit against or beside objects such as trees and bushes rather than in the open. 15
  16. 16. Acoustic privacy in an interior space results from effective treatment of the acoustic environment as aninterrelationship of many components: ceiling, partitions, furniture, equipment, and floor. A completeacoustic system will generally provide adequate speech privacy. Speech privacy is achieved whenthere is sufficient acoustic shielding to allow conversation to be unheard beyond the participants of theconversation.Visual control is a key to visual privacyA high quality of speech privacy will contribute significantly to a desirable level of communication,social interaction, and productivity. An appropriate relationship between background noise and thatproduced within the activity space is conducive to speech privacy.Aesthetic appreciation is both expressed in and influenced by the environment. To define aestheticqualities, the designer needs to understand that the concept of beauty differs with time and place,purpose and context.Values captured under the label "aesthetic" can best be understood at a universally comprehensiblelevel. These aspects of a design go beyond the functional and constructional concerns, and areassociated with the specific way the design presents itself to the human senses. The designer uses anobject to serve some need or want. When we look at an object, its physical appearancecauses a sensoryexperience in us above and beyond its mere utility. The designer‘s appreciation of this experiencehelps him to communicate his intent and understanding to the user. 16
  17. 17. Physiological determinants relate to physical needs of the occupants. Factors to be considered duringthe planning phase that deal with physiological responses include functionality, ergonomics, lifesafety, and health concerns.Functional efficiency relates to the degree to which physiological needs are supported in the interiorspace plan. These needs, which are physical in nature, relate to human body requirements. Interiorenvironments must respond to basic human functional needs—vision, hearing, stability, andmobility—to achieve both comfort and efficiency.· Proper illumination for each task.· A suitable acoustic environment that allows ease of communication, limited intrusive noise (andresultant distraction), and protection from ear damage where appropriate.· Human/facility interface features designed to be used within human mobility and strength limits.(Special attention should be given to the removal of accessibility barriers for the handicapped worker.)· Physical features of the facility that are compatible with typical human expectations andcomprehension.· A plan that conserves human energy.· An environment that allows workers to function within their most productive range of motion.Flexible Working ConditionsA recent review by the Cochrane Collaboration has found that flexible working arrangements, such asflextime and telecommuting can have positive effects on health, but the effects are primarily seenwhen employees have some control over their new schedules.[1] Additionally, individuals whotelecommute to work most of the work week are more satisfied with their jobs than are traditionalemployees who commute into a physical office location.[2]Diversity in the WorkplaceGender and racial diversity in the workplace actually increases sales revenue, brings more customers,results in greater market share, and greater relative profits.[3] Despite this fact, racial and ethnicminorities and women are still under-represented in management in U.S. corporations.[4] The figurebelow illustrates their under-representation:Job InsecurityJob insecurity has a deleterious effect on social capital and social involvement of workers.[5]Individuals who have experienced an involuntary job loss (through layoff, downsizing, etc.), are 35#less likely to be involved in their communities than are individuals who have never experienced aninvoluntary job loss.Personality, Perception, and Attribution 17
  18. 18. Individual Differences and Organizational BehaviorSocial PerceptionPerception is used every day. Perception is how we, as individuals, asses situations. A burning stovetop is perceived to be hot. Traffic is perceived to be speeding up or slowing down. People areperceived to be friendly or threatening. Yet when it comes to perceiving people, there are many moreperceptions that are made. These social settings and environments are what make up social perception.The same settings can be applied to a smaller scale. This scale can be school, family, or the workforce. The work setting can be one of many challenging social perceptions. From the job interview, toleaving the company, and everything in between, employers are evaluating their employee‘s jobperformances, and employees are not only assessing one another, but their employer as well.First impressions can be slowly swayed over time. It is not easy to change someone‘s first impression,nor is it ever changed much. The anchor can only be pulled in one direction or another so far, and aftermuch effort, in this case continuous interactions. Familiarity is the only way to obtain the truest senseof who a person really is. By learning the personality and tendencies of a person, one can betterunderstand that person‘s behaviors and actions.PersonalityEach individual has their own unique personality. This personality can show how a person behavesand reacts to certain situations. There are many different factors to consider when determiningpersonality, like environment settings and heredity traits. A person‘s personality can also have aneffect on self-esteem, which is an individual‘s general feeling of self-worth, as well as self-monitoring,the ability to base behavior on social cues. Different theories are used today to help measure a person‘sCommunicationEvery day, we use communication to express our thoughts and feelings. There are many differenttypes and styles of communication. From verbal to nonverbal communication and from face-to-face toelectronic, every word said and move made is communicating different emotions and ideas to thosearound us.Ethical BehaviorFirst, ethics is the concept of having moral values and behaviors. Ethical behavior is conducting onesself in a way that is common with a certain set of values whether personal or institutional. Businessesare dependent on their reputations, so when a company withholds strong ethical values it bringspositive results. One effect of ethical behavior is the retention and attraction of employees. Employeeturnover tends to be lower as well as an increase in applicants resulting in higher qualified employees.Unethical behavior can hurt a company, so through technology businesses are able to monitor Internetcontent.Stress 18
  19. 19. Stress does not have an exact meaning. There are many different ways to look at it. Stress or theresponse to stress is defined as,‖ the unconscious preparation to the flight or fight that a personexperiences when faced with any demand‖ (Peterson 1995). The demand on your body is known as thestressor. Once the stressor is applied there are many reactions, psychologically, physically,behaviorally, and organizationally.The Four Approaches to StressHomeostatic (also known as the medical approach) was researched by Walter B. Cannon. Hedetermined that our bodies have an emergency response, the flight or fight. He found that whenaroused, the body goes out of homeostasis, the balanced state.Cognitive Richard Lazarus emphasized that stress was caused by the environment that the person is inrather than the body itself. He found that people differ greatly in that respect.Person Environment Fit approach-Robert Kahn focused on how expectations in a person‘s life andtheir conflicting roles. The person becomes stressed when they aren‘t able to meet the demands.Psychoanalytic Harry Levinson took that Freudian approach. He believed that there were two partsbeing: #1 Ego-ideal, how they feel about their perfect self. #2 Self image, how they feel aboutthemselves in respect to their perfect self. If there is any wrong thinking then there is stress becausethey feel that they cannot obtain that.Work StressWork stress is caused by demands and pressure from inside and outside the workplace.Basic Design DimensionsThere are six basic design dimensions of an organization. These are a way to establish a level ofstructural dimension from high to low and also develop a form of structure that is desired. One of thesesix basic designs is formalization. This is basically an employee‘s role that is written down, such as ajob description. Second of these six basic designs is centralization. Centralization is a form decision-making through out an organization. Third of these six basic designs is specialization. Meaning, whentasks are turned into separate jobs making job titles spell out the job description. Forth of these sixbasic designs is Standardization. When this is used, a job is the same thing everyday with little change.Fifth of these six basic designs is Complexity. This happens when there are multiple activities goingon within the organization and the job force is more complex. Lastly, the sixth basic design ishierarchy of authority. Hierarchy of authority are the different levels of management throughout anorganization. 19
  20. 20. Five Structural ConfigurationsOrganizational Structures are classified into 5 categories that were proposed by Mintzberg. The 5Structural configurations proposed by Mintzberg are: Simple Structure- centralized form oforganization that emphasizes the upper echelon and direct supervision. Most small business is run thisway. Machine Bureaucracy – a form of organization that emphasizes the technical staff andstandardization of work processes. Professional Bureaucracy- decentralized form of organization thatemphasized the operating core and standardization of skills. Hospitals are an example. Divisionalizedform – moderately decentralized of organization that emphasizes the middle level and standardizationof outputs. This configuration is composed of divisions that have their organizations structure.Adhocracy – a selectively decentralized form of organization that emphasizes the support of staff andmutual adjustment among people.Contextual VariablesThere are four contextual variables in the design process of an organization. The number of employeesis considered to be the size of the organization. Size is an integral part in design process of anorganization. The second variable that is technology is anything an organization can use to make theoutputs of the organization less complicated. Organizations must be careful with the installation oftechnology because it usually increases the complexity of the organization and the difficulty of thetask at hand. Third is everything outside of the organization is considered to be the environment.Situations where circumstances are directly and indirectly associated with organization are alsoconsidered to environment. Last there are strategy and goals which are the plans and objectives of theorganizational design. No one variable appears to be more important than the other but they must allbe utilized together in the design of an organization.1. A territory is a defended space. In the broadest sense, there are three kinds of human territory:tribal, family and personal.2. It is rare for people to be driven to physical fighting in defence of these ‗owned‘ spaces, butfight they will, if pushed to the limit. The invading army encroaching on national territory, the gangmoving into a rival district, the trespasser climbing into an orchard, the burglar breaking into a house,the bully pushing to the front of a queue, the driver trying to steal a parking space, all of theseintruders are liable to be met with resistance varying from the vigorous to the savagely violent. Even ifthe law is on the side of the intruder, the urge to protect a territory may be so strong that otherwisepeaceful citizens abandon all their usual controls and inhibitions. Attempts to evict families from theirhomes, no matter how socially valid the reasons, can lead to siege conditions reminiscent of thedefence of a medieval fortress. 20
  21. 21. 3. The fact that these upheavals are so rare is a measure of the success of Territorial Signals as asystem of dispute prevention. It is sometimes cynically stated that ‗all property is theft‘, but in realityit is the opposite. Property, as owned space which is displayed as owned space, is a special kind ofsharing system which reduces fighting much more that it causes it. Man is a co-operative species, buthe is also competitive, and his struggle for dominance has to be structured in some way if chaos is tobe avoided. The establishment of territorial rights is one such structure. It limits dominancegeographically. I am dominant in my territory and you are dominant in yours. In other words,dominance is shared out spatially, and we all have some. Even if I am weak and unintelligent and youcan dominate me when we meet on neutral ground, I can still enjoy a thoroughly dominant role assoon as I retreat to my private base. Be it ever so humble, there is no place like a home territory.4. Of course, I can still be intimidated by a particularly dominant individual who enters my homebase, but his encroachment will be dangerous for him and he will think twice about it, because he willknow that here my urge to resist will be dramatically magnified and my usual subservience banished.Insulted at the heart of my own territory, I may easily explode into battle—either symbolic or real—with a result that may be damaging to both of us.5.In order for this to work, each territory has to be plainly advertised as such. Just as a dog cocks itsleg to deposit its personal scent on the trees in its locality, so the human animal cocks its legsymbolically all over his home base. But because we are predominantly visual animals we employmostly visual signals, and it is worth asking how we do this at the three levels: tribal, family andpersonal.6.First: the Tribal Territory. We evolved as tribal animals, living in comparatively small groups,probably of less than a hundred, and we existed like that for millions of years. It is our basic socialunit, a group in which everyone knows everyone else. Essentially, the tribal territory consisted of ahome base surrounded by extended hunting grounds. Any neighbouring tribe intruding on our socialspace would be repelled and driven away. As these early tribes swelled into agricultural super-tribes,and eventually into industrial nations, their territorial defence systems became increasingly elaborate.The tiny, ancient home base of the hunting tribe became the great capital city, the primitive war-paintbecame the flags, emblems, uniforms and regalia of the specialized military, and the war-chantsbecame national anthems, marching songs and bugle calls. Territorial boundary-lines hardened intofixed borders, often conspicuously patrolled and punctuated with defensive structures—forts andlookout posts, checkpoints and great walls, and today, customs barriers.7.Today each nation flies its own flag, a symbolic embodiment of its territorial status. But patriotism isnot enough. The ancient tribal hunter lurking inside each citizen finds himself unsatisfied bymembership of such a vast conglomeration of individuals, most of whom are totally unknown to him 21
  22. 22. personally. He does his best to feel that he shares a common territorial defence with them all, but thescale of the operation has become inhuman. It is hard to feel a sense of belonging with a tribe of fiftymillion or more. His answer is to form sub-groups, nearer to his ancient pattern, smaller and morepersonally known to him—the local club, the teenage gang, the union, the specialist society, the sportsassociation, the political party, the college fraternity, the social clique, the protest group, and the rest.Rare indeed is the individual who does not belong to at least one of these splinter groups, and takefrom it a sense of tribal allegiance and brotherhood. Typical of all these groups is the development ofTerritorial Signals — badges, costumes, headquarters,banners, slogans, and all the other displays of group identity. This is where the action is, in terms oftribal territorialism, and only when a major war breaks out does the emphasis shift upwards to thehigher group level of the nation.8.Each of these modern pseudo-tribes sets up its own special kind of home base. In extreme cases non-members are totally excluded, in others they are allowed in as visitors with limited rights and under acontrol system of special rules. In many ways they are like miniature nations, with their own flags andemblems and their own border guards. The exclusive club has its own ‗customer barrier‘: the doormanwho checks your ‗passport‘ (your membership card) and prevents strangers from passing inunchallenged. There is a government: the club committee; and often special displays of the tribalelders: the photographs or portraits of previous officials on the walls. At the heart of the specializedterritories there is a powerful feeling of security and importance, a sense of shared defence against theoutside world. Much of the club chatter, both serious and joking, directs itself against the rottenness ofeverything outside the club boundaries—in that ‗other world‘ beyond the protected portals ……9.Second: The Family Territory. Essentially, the family is a breeding unit and the family territory is abreeding ground. At the centre of this space, there is the nest – the bedroom – where, tucked up in bed,we feel at our most territorially secure. In a typical house the bedroom is upstairs, where a safe nestshould be. This puts it farther away from the entrance hall, the area where contact is made,intermittently, with the outside world. The less private reception rooms, where intruders are allowedaccess, are the next line of defence. Beyond them, outside the walls of the building, there is often asymbolic remnant of the ancient feeding grounds—a garden. Its symbolism often extends to the plantsand animals it contains, which cease to be nutritional and become merely decorative—flowers andpets. But like a true territorial space it has a conspicuously displayed boundary-line, the garden fence,wall, or railings. Often no more than a token barrier, this is the outer territorial demarcation, separatingthe private world of the family from the public world beyond. To cross it puts any visitor or intruder atan immediate disadvantage. As he crosses the threshold his dominance wanes, slightly butunmistakably. He is entering an area where he senses that he must ask permission to do simple thingsthat he would consider a right elsewhere. Without lifting a finger, the territorial owners exert theirdominance. This is done by all the hundreds of small ownership markers they have deposited on theirfamily territory: the ornaments, the possessed objects positioned in the rooms and on the walls; the 22
  23. 23. furnishings, the furniture, the colours, the patterns, all owner-chosen and all making this particularhome base unique to them….10. When they venture forth as a family unit they repeat the process in a minor way. On a day-tripto the seaside, they load the car with personal belongings and it becomes their temporary, portableterritory. Arriving at the beach they stake out a small territorial claim, marking it with rugs, towels,baskets and other belongings to which they can return from their seaboard wanderings. Even if they allleave it at once to bathe, it retains a characteristic territorial quality and other family groups arrivingwill recognize this by setting up their own ‗home‘ bases at a respectful distance. Only when the wholebeach has filled up with these marked spaces will newcomers start to position themselves in such away that the inter-base distance becomes reduced. Forced to pitch between several existing beachterritories they will feel a momentary sensation of intrusion, and the established ‗owners‘ will feel asimilar sensation of invasion, even though they are not being directly inconvenienced.11. The same territorial scene is being played out in parks and fields and on riverbanks, whereverfamily groups gather in their clustered units. But if rivalry for spaces creates mild feelings of hostility,it is true to say that, without the territorial system of sharing and space-limited dominance, there wouldbe chaotic disorder.12. Third: the Personal Space. If a man enters a waiting room and sits at one end of a long row ofempty chairs, it is possible to predict where the next man to enter will seat himself. He will not sit nextto the first man, nor will he sit at the far end, right away from him. He will choose a position abouthalfway between these two points. The next man to enter will take the largest gap left, and sit roughlyin the middle of that, and so on, until eventually the latest newcomer will be forced to select a seat thatplaces him right next to one of the already seated men. Similar patterns can be observed in cinemas,public urinals, aeroplanes, trains and buses, This is a reflection of the fact that we all carry with us,everywhere we go, a portable territory called a Personal Space. If people move inside this space, wefeel threatened. If they keep too far outside it, we feel rejected. The result is a subtle series of spatialadjustments, usually operating quite unconsciously and producing ideal compromises as far as this ispossible. If a situation becomes too crowded, then we adjust our reactions accordingly and allow ourpersonal space to shrink. Jammed into an elevator, a rush-hour compartment, or a packed room, wegive up altogether and allow body-to-body contact, but when we relinquish our Personal Space in thisway, we adopt certain special techniques. In essence, what we do is to convert these other bodies into‗nonpersons‘. We studiously ignore them, and they us. We try not to face them if we can possiblyavoid it. We wipe all expressiveness from our faces, letting them go blank. We may look up at theceiling or down at the floor, and we reduce body movements to a minimum. Packed together likesardines in a tin, we stand dumbly still, sending out as few social signals as possible. 23
  24. 24. 13. Even if the crowding is less severe, we still tend to cut down our social interactions in thepresence of large numbers. Careful observations of children in play groups revealed that if they arehigh density groupings there is less social interaction between the individual children, even thoughthere is theoretically more opportunity for such contacts. At the same time, the high-density groupsshow a higher frequency of aggressiveness and destructive behaviour patterns in their play. PersonalSpace – ‗elbow room‘ – is a vital commodity for the human animal, and one that cannot be ignoredwithout risking serious trouble….14. Those of us who have to spend a great deal of time in crowded conditions become graduallybetter able to adjust, but no one can ever become completely immune to invasions of Personal Space.This is because they remain forever associated with either powerful hostile or equally powerful lovingfeelings. All through our childhood we will have been held to be loved and held to be hurt, and anyonewho invades our Personal Space when we are adults is, in effect, threatening to extend his behaviourinto one of these two highly charged areas of human interaction. Even if his motives are clearly neitherhostile nor sexual, we still find it hard to suppress our reactions to his close approach. Unfortunately,different countries have different ideas about exactly how close is close. It is easy enough to test yourown ‗space reaction‘: when you are talking to someone in the street or in any open space, reach outwith your arm and see where the nearest point on his body comes. If you hail from western Europe,you will find that he is atroughly fingertip distance from you. In other words, as you reach out, yourfingertips will just about make contact with his shoulder. If you come from eastern Europe you willfind you are standing at ‗wrist distance‘. If you come from the Mediterranean region you will find thatyou are much closer to your companion, at little more than ‗elbow distance‘.15. Trouble begins when a member of one of these cultures meets and talks to one from another.Say a British diplomat meets an Italian or an Arab diplomat at an embassy function. They start talkingin a friendly way, but soon the fingertips man begins to feel uneasy. Without knowing quite why, hestarts to back away gently from his companion. The companion edges forward again. Each tries in thisway to set up a Personal Space relationship that suits his own background. But it is impossible to do.Every time the Briton moves back, the other feels rejected. Attempts to adjust this situation often leadto a talking pair shifting slowly across a room, and many an embassy reception is dotted with western-European fingertip-distance men pinned against the walls by eager elbow-distance men. Until suchdifferences are fully understood, and allowances made, these minor differences in ‗body territories‘will continue to act as an alienation factor which may interfere in a subtle way with diplomaticharmony and other forms of international transaction ….16. A third method of reinforcing the body-territory is to use personal markers. Books, papers andother personal belongings are scattered around the favoured site to render it more privately owned in 24
  25. 25. the eyes of companions. Spreading out one‘s belongings is a well-known trick in public-transportsituations, where a traveler tries to give the impression that seats next to him are taken. In manycontexts carefully arranged personal markers can act as an effective territorial display, even in theabsence of the territory owner. Experiments in a library revealed that placing a pile of magazines onthe table in one seating position successfully reserved that place for an average of 77 minutes. If asports-jacket was added, draped over the chair, then the ‗reservation effect‘ lasted for over two hours.17. In these ways, we strengthen the defences of our Personal Spaces, keeping out intruders withthe minimum of open hostility. As with all territorial behaviour, the object is to defend space withsignals rather than with fists and at all three levels – the tribal, the family and the personal – it is aremarkably efficient system of space-sharing. It does not always seem so, because newspapers andnewscasts inevitably magnify the exceptions and dwell on those cases where the signals have failedand wars have broken out, gangs have fought, neighbouring families have feuded, or colleagues haveclashed, but for every territorial signal that has failed, there are millions of others that have not. Theydo not rate a mention in the news, but nevertheless constitute a dominant feature of human society –the society of a remarkably territorial animal.Lifestyle (sociology)"Way of life" redirects here. For other uses, see Way of life (disambiguation).Lifestyle is a term to describe the way a person lives, which was originally coined by Austrianpsychologist Alfred Adler in 1929. The current broader sense of the word dates from 1961.[1] A set ofbehaviors, and the senses of self and belonging which these behaviors represent, are collectively usedto define a given lifestyle. The term is defined more broadly when used in politics, marketing, andpublishing.A lifestyle is a characteristic bundle of behaviors that makes sense to both others and oneself in agiven time and place, including social relations, consumption, entertainment, and dress. The behaviorsand practices within lifestyles are a mixture of habits, conventional ways of doing things, and reasonedactions.Individual identityA lifestyle typically also reflects an individuals attitudes, values or worldview. Therefore, a lifestyle isa means of forging a sense of self and to create cultural symbols that resonate with personal identity.Not all aspects of a lifestyle are entirely voluntaristic. Surrounding social and technical systems canconstrain the lifestyle choices available to the individual and the symbols she/he is able to project toothers and the self.[2]The lines between personal identity and the everyday doings that signal a particular lifestyle becomeblurred in modern society.[3] For example, "green lifestyle" means holding beliefs and engaging inactivities that consume fewer resources and produce less harmful waste (i.e. a smaller carbonfootprint), and deriving a sense of self from holding these beliefs and engaging in these activities. 25
  26. 26. Some commentators argue that, in modernity, the cornerstone of lifestyle construction is consumptionbehavior, which offers the possibility to create and further individualize the self with differentproducts or services that signal different ways of life.[4]PoliticsThe term lifestyle in politics can often be used in conveying the idea that society be accepting of avariety of different ways of life—from the perspective that differences among ways of living aresuperficial, rather than existential. Lifestyle is also sometimes used pejoratively, to mark out someways of living as elective or voluntary as opposed to others that are considered mainstream,unremarkable, or normative.Within anarchism, lifestylism is the view that an anarchist society can be formed by changing onesown personal activities rather than by engaging in class struggle.Advertising and marketingIn business, "lifestyles" provide a means by which advertisers and marketers endeavor to target andmatch consumer aspirations with products, or to create aspirations relevant to new products. Thereforemarketers take the patterns of belief and action characteristic of lifestyles and direct them towardexpenditure and consumption. These patterns reflect the demographic factors (the habits, attitudes,tastes, moral standards, economic levels and so on) that define a group. As a construct that directspeople to interact with their worlds as consumers, lifestyles are subject to change by the demands ofmarketing and technological innovation.In the magazine and television industries, "lifestyle" is used to describe a category of publications orprograms.Attitude (psychology)An attitude is a hypothetical construct that represents an individuals degree of like or dislike forsomething. Attitudes are generally positive or negative views of a person, place, thing, or event— thisis often referred to as the attitude object. People can also be conflicted or ambivalent toward an object,meaning that they simultaneously possess both positive and negative attitudes toward the item inquestion. definitions of attitude An attitude can be defined as a positive or negative evaluation ofpeople, objects, event, activities, ideas, or just about anything in your environment (Zimbardo et al.,1999) In the opinion of Bain (1927), an attitude is "the relatively stable overt behavior of a personwhich affects his status." "Attitudes which are common to a group are thus social attitudes or `valuesin the Thomasonian sense. The attitude is the status-fixing behavior. This differentiates it from habitand vegetative processes as such, and totally ignores the hypothetical subjective states which haveformerly been emphasized. North (1932) has defined attitude as "the totality of those states that lead toor point toward some particular activity of the organism. The attitude is, therefore, the dynamicelement in human behavior, the motive for activity." For Lumley (1928) an attitude is "a susceptibilityto certain kinds of stimuli and readiness to respond repeatedly in a given way—which are possibletoward our world and the parts of it which impinge upon us." Attitudes are judgments. They developon the ABC model (affect, behavior, and cognition).[1] The affective response is an emotional response 26
  27. 27. that expresses an individuals degree of preference for an entity. The behavioral intention is a verbalindication or typical behavioral tendency of an individual. The cognitive response is a cognitiveevaluation of the entity that constitutes an individuals beliefs about the object.[citation needed] Mostattitudes are the result of either direct experience or observational learning from the environment.Bold text==Attitude formation== Unlike personality, attitudes are expected to change as a function ofexperience. Tesser (1993) has argued that hereditary variables may affect attitudes - but believes thatthey may do so indirectly. For example, consistency theories, which imply that we must be consistentin our beliefs and values. The most famous example of such a theory is Dissonance-reduction theory,associated with Leon Festinger, although there are others, such as the balance theory.Attitude changeBold textAttitudes can be changed through persuasion and we should understand attitude change as aresponse to communication. Experimental research into the factors that can affect the persuasivenessof a message include 1. Target Characteristics: These are characteristics that refer to the person who receives and processes a message. One such trait is intelligence - it seems that more intelligent people are less easily persuaded by one-sided messages. Another variable that has been studied in this category is self-esteem. Although it is sometimes thought that those higher in self-esteem are less easily persuaded, there is some evidence that the relationship between self-esteem and persuasibility is actually curvilinear, with people of moderate self-esteem being more easily persuaded than both those of high and low self-esteem levels (Rhodes & Woods, 1992). The mind frame and mood of the target also plays a role in this process. 2. Source Characteristics: The major source characteristics are expertise, trustworthiness and interpersonal attraction or attractiveness. The credibility of a perceived message has been found to be a key variable here; if one reads a report about health and believes it came from a professional medical journal, one may be more easily persuaded than if one believes it is from a popular newspaper. Some psychologists have debated whether this is a long-lasting effect and Hovland and Weiss (1951) found the effect of telling people that a message came from a credible source disappeared after several weeks (the so-called "sleeper effect"). Whether there is a sleeper effect is controversial. Perceived wisdom is that if people are informed of the source of a message before hearing it, there is less likelihood of a sleeper effect than if they are told a message and then told its source. 3. Message Characteristics: The nature of the message plays a role in persuasion. Sometimes presenting both sides of a story is useful to help change attitudes.Cognitive Routes: A message can appeal to an individuals cognitive evaluation to help change anattitude. In the central route to persuasion the individual is presented with the data and motivated toevaluate the data and arrive at an attitude changing conclusion. In the peripheral route to attitudechange, the individual is encouraged to not look at the content but at the source. This is commonlyseen in modern advertisements that feature celebrities. In some cases, physician, doctors or experts areused. In other cases film stars are used for their attractiveness. 27
  28. 28. Emotion and Attitude ChangeEmotion is a common component in persuasion, social influence, and attitude change. Much ofattitude research emphasized the importance of affective or emotion components. Emotion workshand-in-hand with the cognitive process, or the way we think, about an issue or situation. Emotionalappeals are commonly found in advertising, health campaigns and political messages. Recentexamples include no-smoking health campaigns and political campaign advertising emphasizing thefear of terrorism. Attitudes and attitude objects are functions of cognitive, affective and conativecomponents. Attitudes are part of the brain‘s associative networks, the spider-like structures residingin long term memory that consist of affective and cognitive nodes.By activating an affective or emotion node, attitude change may be possible, though affective andcognitive components tend to be intertwined. In primarily affective networks, it is more difficult toproduce cognitive counterarguments in the resistance to persuasion and attitude change.Affective forecasting, otherwise known as intuition or the prediction of emotion, also impacts attitudechange. Research suggests that predicting emotions is an important component of decision making, inaddition to the cognitive processes. How we feel about an outcome may override purely cognitiverationales.In terms of research methodology, the challenge for researchers is measuring emotion and subsequentimpacts on attitude. Since we cannot see into the brain, various models and measurement tools havebeen constructed to obtain emotion and attitude information. Measures may include the use ofphysiological cues like facial expressions, vocal changes, and other body rate measures. For instance,fear is associated with raised eyebrows, increased heart rate and increase body tension (Dillard, 1994).Other methods include concept or network mapping, and using primes or word cues.Components of Emotion AppealsAny discrete emotion can be used in a persuasive appeal; this may include jealousy, disgust,indignation, fear, blue, disturbed, haunted,and anger. Fear is one of the most studied emotional appealsin communication and social influence research.Important consequences of fear appeals and other emotion appeals include the possibility of reactancewhich may lead to either message rejections or source rejection and the absence of attitude change. Asthe EPPM suggests, there is an optimal emotion level in motivating attitude change. If there is notenough motivation, an attitude will not change; if the emotional appeal is overdone, the motivation canbe paralyzed thereby preventing attitude change.Emotions perceived as negative or containing threat are often studied more than perceived positiveemotions like humor. Though the inner-workings of humor are not agreed upon, humor appeals maywork by creating incongruities in the mind. Recent research has looked at the impact of humor on theprocessing of political messages. While evidence is inconclusive, there appears to be potential fortargeted attitude change is receivers with low political message involvement. 28
  29. 29. Important factors that influence the impact of emotion appeals include self efficacy, attitudeaccessibility, issue involvement, and message/source features. Self efficacy is a perception of one‘sown human agency; in other words, it is the perception of our own ability to deal with a situation. It isan important variable in emotion appeal messages because it dictates a person‘s ability to deal withboth the emotion and the situation. For example, if a person is not self-efficacious about their ability toimpact the global environment, they are not likely to change their attitude or behavior about globalwarming.Dillard (1994) suggests that message features such as source non-verbal communication, messagecontent, and receiver differences can impact the emotion impact of fear appeals. The characteristics ofa message are important because one message can elicit different levels of emotion for differentpeople. Thus, in terms of emotion appeals messages, one size does not fit all.Attitude accessibility refers to the activation of an attitude from memory in other words, how readilyavailable is an attitude about an object, issue, or situation. Issue involvement is the relevance andsalience of an issue or situation to an individual. Issue involvement has been correlated with bothattitude access and attitude strength. Past studies conclude accessible attitudes are more resistant tochangeImplicit and explicit attitudesThere is also considerable research on implicit attitudes, which are generally unacknowledged oroutside of awareness, but have effects that are measurable through sophisticated methods usingpeoples response times to stimuli. Implicit and explicit attitudes seem to affect peoples behavior,though in different ways. They tend not to be strongly associated with each other, although in somecases they are. The relationship between them is poorly understood.Jungs definitionAttitude is one of Jungs 57 definitions in Chapter XI of Psychological Types. Jungs definition ofattitude is a "readiness of the psyche to act or react in a certain way" (Jung, [1921] 1971:par. 687).Attitudes very often come in pairs, one conscious and the other unconscious. Within this broaddefinition Jung defines several attitudes.The main (but not only) attitude dualities that Jung defines are the following. Consciousness and the unconscious. The "presence of two attitudes is extremely frequent, one conscious and the other unconscious. This means that consciousness has a constellation of contents different from that of the unconscious, a duality particularly evident in neurosis" (Jung, [1921] 1971: par. 687). Extraversion and introversion. This pair is so elementary to Jungs theory of types that he labeled them the "attitude-types". Rational and irrational attitudes. "I conceive reason as an attitude" (Jung, [1921] 1971: par. 785). The rational attitude subdivides into the thinking and feeling psychological functions, each with its attitude. 29
  30. 30. The irrational attitude subdivides into the sensing and intuition psychological functions, each with its attitude. "There is thus a typical thinking, feeling, sensation, and intuitive attitude" (Jung, [1921] 1971: par. 691). Individual and social attitudes. Many of the latter are "isms".In addition, Jung discusses the abstract attitude. ―When I take an abstract attitude...‖ (Jung, [1921]1971: par. 679). Abstraction is contrasted with concretism. ―CONCRETISM. By this I mean apeculiarity of thinking and feeling which is the antithesis of abstraction‖ (Jung, [1921] 1971: par. 696).For example: "I hate his attitude for being Sarcastic."[edit] MBTI definitionThe MBTI write-ups limit the use of "attitude" to the extraversion-introversion (EI) and judging-perceiving (JP) indexes.The JP index is sometimes referred to as an orientation to the outer world and sometimes JP isclassified as an "attitude." In Jungian terminology the term attitude is restricted to EI. In MBTIterminology attitude can include EI and also JP. (Myers, 1985:293 note 7).The above MBTI Manual state ment, is restricted to EI," is directly contradicted by Jungs statementabove that there is "a typical thinking, feeling, sensation, and intuitive attitude" and by his other usesof the term "attitude". Regardless of whether the MBTI simplification (or oversimplification) of Jungcan be attributed to Myers, Gifts Differing refers only to the "EI preference", consistently avoiding thelabel "attitude". Regarding the JP index, in Gifts Differing Myers does use the terms "the perceptiveattitude and the judging attitude" (Myers, 1980:8). The JP index corresponds to the irrational andrational attitudes Jung describes, except that the MBTI focuses on the preferred orientation in the outerworld in order to identify the function hierarchy. To be consistent with Jung, it can be noted that arational extraverted preference is accompanied by an irrational introverted preference. By Mr. M AmirShehzadValues: A subjective point of view regarding the worth of our beliefs and the worth of the assumed orperceived beliefs, values and attitudes of those we view or interact with, based on our own narrowperspective. Once again the dictionary, ―the values of a person or group are the moral principles andbeliefs that they think are important‖.Values: a set of moral standards or rules (based on our beliefs) that govern they way we makejudgements regarding the goodness or badness of factors in our environment and that influence whatwe set as the norms of a correct existence. THE COMMON ACCEPTANCE OF HUMAN VALUESMuch controversy arises or is made out of the question of values; what is meant by values? Whichvalues are good and which bad, if any? Which values are to be tolerated even if their rightness iscontroversial? Has one a right to express and teach values? Can any science or doctrine be neutral withregard to values? These are key issues of psychic and social development, not facts merely to observeand describe. 30
  31. 31. The modern tendency is to avoid firm and definitive statements of values, often in the imaginedinterests of maintaining a reputation for scientific objectivity or of cultural and social tolerance. Thiswidely prevalent misconception assumes that the spirit of truth and liberality somehow binds us toremain passive observers and never to intervene in the free-for-all of moral conflict by assertingpositive values.The long-bemoaned loss of central values through the disruptions of traditional religious society andthe consequent value relativism in all fields, from science and the humanities to religion, from moralsto the arts, as world cultures come into contact and clash with one another has tended to obscure theexistence of common denominator values that have always existed and been practiced to variousextents in great world cultures.The values according to or against which we act are the unavoidable and essential element of allimportant decisions in the human arena. Values are the link that tie together personal perceptions andjudgements, motives and actions. The same applies in understanding social and political life. A make-or-break idea is that values or precepts - and their various practical consequences in life - are at least asfundamental to understanding man and society as are the much-vaunted physical necessities. They arealso essential in improving man and society too.Values are more important and primary than facts in forming and understanding all kinds of humanpurpose. Values, rather than observable facts, are keys to understanding the reality behind the sceneoutwardly presented by human behaviour. Motives and purposes are value determinations. The best-attested of facts can alter colour when explained by an interpreter. They appear in deeper perspectivewhen looked upon as the result of meaningful, intentional acts (provided the acts were voluntary). Anaction that seemed good at first can be seen as bad from a proper appreciation of motives, orunfortunate when the practical consequences are known.Whether any values exist that are universally held in esteem and have objective validity as an essentialpart of the human make-up is today often either doubted outright or regarded as an unverifiedhypothesis. Whether such a true ethic is somehow commonly inherent to humanity or not, has been thesubject of centuries of debate. Methods based on natural science cannot decide the issue, preciselybecause values are not facts. Opponents to the idea assert that such values that exist are simply theresult of sensible adjustments to circumstances or pragmatic behaviour for ensuring survival, reducingconflict, maximising security or even pleasure and so on. Hence, morals in modern societies today arein practice often made dependent on the perceived interests of either the individual, the group or thenation, and are thus relativistic, that is, without any definite or fixed value basis. Or they are simplydenied, as in out-and-out moralism on the lines of every man for himself and the idea of a free-for-allwith an ethical carte blanche.The idea that there are human values is becoming widespread, but few people can actually explainjust what these may be. A general disillusionment about the disunity of humanity amid the greatcultural clashes of the 20th Century seems to have hindered realisation of a common human valuesystem coming to expression through the fundamental strivings of humanity in much of history.Research into this hardly occurs, even though we are in a process of increasing world integration andthe global interaction of value systems. 31