Create an End User Adoption Strategy
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Create an End User Adoption Strategy

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We all know that End User Adoption is an important area of focus in your SharePoint project. In this session we will take a closer look at the End User Adoption work stream and the associated roles, ...

We all know that End User Adoption is an important area of focus in your SharePoint project. In this session we will take a closer look at the End User Adoption work stream and the associated roles, responsibilities, and tasks for the project plan. We will also review case studies to demonstrate how these differ based on the size of the project and the specific needs of the organization. You’ll walk away from this session with a tactical formula you can follow to create your end user adoption strategy and templates to support the process.

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  • How many people are familiar with OCM?
  • The range depends on the magnitude of the change (see later section).
  • What are we really trying to do in an OCM effort?
  • These four conditions are what you will want to drive toward in our tasks and templates section later: the content that goes into these materials.You will probably find as we go through these exercises that everything makes intuitive sense. This is correct, but what will really make this succeed is applying it to the particulars of your project. However, rational managers who attempt to put the four conditions in place by applying “common sense” typically misdirect time and energy, create messages that miss the mark, and experience frustrating unintended consequences from their efforts to influence change. Why? Because when they implement the prescription, they disregard certain, sometimes irrational—but predictable—elements of human nature.
  • Common examples: The good to great story (if we just did this we could be the best) or the turnaround story (We are poor at doing this but could turn it around). While both of these stories are rational, they are not motivating.
  • Change leaders need to be able to tell a change story that covers all five things that motivate employees. In doing so, they can unleash tremendous amounts of energy that would otherwise remain latent in the organization.
  • Much of the energy invested in communicating it would be better spent listening, not telling.In a famous behavioral experiment, half the participants are randomly assigned a lottery ticket number while the others are asked to write down any number they would like on a blank ticket. Just before drawing the winning number, the researchers offer to buy back the tickets from their holders. The result: no matter what geography or demographic environment the experiment has taken place in, researchers have always found that they have to pay at least five times more to those who came up with their own number.The “deficit based” approach—which identifies the problem, analyzes what’s wrong and how to fix it, plans, and then takes action—has become the model predominantly taught in business schools and is presumably the default change model in most organizations. Research has shown, however, that a story focused on what’s wrong invokes blame and creates fatigue and resistance, doing little to engage people’s passion and experience.Conventional approaches to change management underestimate this impact. The rational thinker sees it as a waste of time to let others discover for themselves what he or she already knows—why not just tell them and be done with it? Unfortunately this approach steals from others the energy needed to drive change that comes through a sense of ownership of the answer.
  • Employees must see the CEO and colleagues they admire behaving in the new way. Conventional change management suggests leaders should take actions that role model the desired change and mobilize a group of influence leaders to drive change deep into the organization.Leaders believe mistakenly that they already “are the change.” They generally prescribe to Gandhi’s quote: Be the change you want to be in the world. So, they act in accordance to the change and nothing happens. People go on doing what they have always done. Most executives don’t count themselves among the ones who need to change. How many executives when asked privately will say no to the question, “Are you customer focused?” and yes to the question “Are you a bureaucrat?” Of course, none. The fact is that human beings consistently think they are better than they are—a phenomenon referred to in psychology as a self-serving bias. Consider that 94 percent of men rank themselves in the top half according to male athletic ability. Whereas conventional change-management approaches surmise that top team role modeling is a matter of will or skill, the truth is that the real bottleneck to role modeling is knowing what to change at a personal level. Insight into what to change can be created by concrete 360-degree feedback techniques, either via surveys, conversations, or both.
  • Employees must see the CEO and colleagues they admire behaving in the new way. Conventional change management suggests leaders should take actions that role model the desired change and mobilize a group of influence leaders to drive change deep into the organization.Leaders believe mistakenly that they already “are the change.” They generally prescribe to Gandhi’s quote: Be the change you want to be in the world. So, they act in accordance to the change and nothing happens. People go on doing what they have always done. Most executives don’t count themselves among the ones who need to change. How many executives when asked privately will say no to the question, “Are you customer focused?” and yes to the question “Are you a bureaucrat?” Of course, none. The fact is that human beings consistently think they are better than they are—a phenomenon referred to in psychology as a self-serving bias. Consider that 94 percent of men rank themselves in the top half according to male athletic ability. Whereas conventional change-management approaches surmise that top team role modeling is a matter of will or skill, the truth is that the real bottleneck to role modeling is knowing what to change at a personal level. Insight into what to change can be created by concrete 360-degree feedback techniques, either via surveys, conversations, or both.Almost all change-management literature places importance on identifying and mobilizing those in the organization who either by role or personality (or both) have disproportionate influence over how others think and behave. While this is of course an important aspect of a program it must be perceived as a helpful element of a broader set of interventions rather than the only tactic.Studies suggest that success depends less on how persuasive a few selected leaders are and more on how receptive the “society” is to the idea. In practice it is often unexpected members of the rank and file who feel compelled to step up and make a difference in driving change. That’s why we warn against overinvesting in influence leaders and advocate that change leaders’ attention should be balanced across the right application of all four conditions for change, to ensure they reinforce each other in ways that maximize the probability of the change spark taking off like wildfire across the organization.
  • Systems, processes, and incentives must be in line with the new behavior. Conventional change management emphasizes the importance of reinforcing and embedding desired changes in structures, processes, systems, target setting, and incentives. This is true; however, to be effective these mechanisms must take into account that people don’t always behave rationally.Employees will go against their own self-interest if the situation violates other notions they have about fairness and justice. In making any changes to company structures, processes, systems, and incentives, change managers should pay what might strike them as an unreasonable amount of attention to employees’ sense of the fairness of the change process and its intended outcome. Particular care should be taken where changes affect how employees interact with one another (such as head count reductions and talent-management processes) and with customers (sales stimulation programs, call center redesigns, and pricing).Example: Bank story
  • Companies that try to link the objectives of change programs to the compensation of staff find that it rarely enhances their motivation for change to the extent desired. The reason for this is as practical as it is psychological in nature. The reality is that in the vast majority of companies, it is exceedingly difficult to incorporate a meaningful link to the change program within compensation systems that are based on a vast array of metrics.Many studies have found that for human beings satisfaction = perception - expectation (an equation often accompanied by the commentary, “reality has nothing to do with it”). Small, unexpected rewards can have disproportionate effects on employees’ satisfaction with a change program.
  • What is on your project plan?

Create an End User Adoption Strategy Create an End User Adoption Strategy Presentation Transcript

  • Create an End User Adoption Strategy ERICA TOELLE, CAIMAN CONSULTING (USA) HTTP://SLIDESHARE.NET/ERICATOELLE SHAREPOINT AND PROJECT CONFERENCE ADRIATICS 2013 ZAGREB, NOVEMBER 27-28 2013
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  • About Erica From Seattle, WA USA Current Project: Office 365 Migration & Adoption Program Organizational Change Management Love: Helping people through transitions + helping organizations meet their goals http://slideshare.net/ericatoelle
  • Agenda http://slideshare.net/ericatoelle
  • Benefits of End User Adoption A McKinsey study reviewed 40 major projects and examined the effect of an Organizational Change Management (OCM) program on a project's Return on Investment (ROI).
  • Benefits of End User Adoption The study concluded that the ROI was: • 35% when there was a poor OCM program or no program • 143% when an excellent OCM program was part of the initiative
  • What is Organizational Change Management (OCM)? • A systematic process that mitigates risks and leverages change as a resource for project success • An actionable, process-driven effort with work streams of activities and tasks • Has templates, forms, checklists and quality measurements that drive the OCM process Credit: Fred Asher
  • The Change Curve This is from the user perspective The Performance Dip Organizational Change Individual Change Phases of Transition Endings Transitions Valley of Despair New Beginnings Business Performance Initiative Complete Uninformed Optimism/ Uncertainty Informed Optimism Denial Anger Acceptance Testing Pessimism Despair/ Skepticism Time How people feel Impact to your business
  • Summary For a project, OCM costs should amount to 5-30% of the total resource budget. We will revisit budget in the execution section.
  • OCM Effort Adoption/Ownership occurs over time & with increasing effort Level of Change Effort Adoption/Ownership Shared Commitment Shared Understanding Adoption/Ownership: Sponsors, Stakeholders, and End Users demonstrate their commitment to the change initiative. They feel responsible and accountable for the project‟s success. Shared Commitment: Sponsors, Stakeholders, and End Users agree with the objectives of the project and express their support for the change. Shared Understanding: Sponsors, Stakeholders, and End Users understand the project and how the change it will impact them. Awareness: Sponsors, Stakeholders, and End Users are aware of the project objectives, activities, and timeline. Awarenes s Time
  • Four conditions required for behavior change: Storytelling http://slideshare.net/ericatoelle
  • Storytelling
  • What is Storytelling? Used to communicate vision and gain support. Employees must see the point of the change and agree with it. Fallacy What motivates you does not motivate your employees. http://slideshare.net/ericatoelle
  • Here is what does motivate people 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Impact on society (for instance, building the community and stewarding resources) Impact on the customer (for example, providing superior service) Impact on the company and its shareholders Impact on the working team (for example, creating a caring environment) Impact on “me” personally (my development, paycheck, and bonus) http://slideshare.net/ericatoelle
  • Realities You‟re better off letting them write their own story. When we choose for ourselves, we are far more committed to the outcome (almost by a factor of five to one). It takes a story with both positives and negatives to create real energy. http://slideshare.net/ericatoelle
  • What is Role Modelling? Employees must see the CEO and colleagues they admire behaving in the new way. Fallacy “Influence leaders” aren‟t the only solution for making change happen. http://slideshare.net/ericatoelle
  • What is Change Reinforcement? Systems, processes, and incentives must be in line with the new behavior. Realities The process and the outcome have got to be fair. http://slideshare.net/ericatoelle
  • Reality Money is the most expensive way to motivate people. Satisfaction = Perception - Expectation http://slideshare.net/ericatoelle
  • OCM Work Streams Stakeholder Understanding Gain understanding and agreement from leadership and those affected that the change is in their best interest. Have them follow through on calls to action. Support with the Right Roles Define how job descriptions change once the project is implemented. This includes how the solution will be maintained and what training is needed for whom. Communication Use existing communication channels to get the right message to the right people at the right time. Training Plan training on specific solutions and processes. Use a variety of methods and timing. http://slideshare.net/ericatoelle
  • OCM Work Stream Artifacts Define Design Build Launch Operate Organizational Culture Assessment Leadership & Stakeholder Assessment Create Training Manage Resistance to Change Operations Plan Stakeholder Understanding Change Magnitude Assessment Training Plan Support with the Right Roles Change Inventory and Role Mapping Communication Plan Ongoing Training Execute Communication Plan Stakeholder Meetings Communication Training Execute Training Change Champion Strategy Change Champion Execution Technical Project Activities http://slideshare.net/ericatoelle
  • Define: Size of Change Assessment • Use for: • Understanding how large the change is and why • Informing the OCM budget • What it is: • A way for the OCM resources and project team to understand risks due to scope • A starting point for cataloging and mitigation of risks • Informs the OCM strategy: training communications, etc. • Complete once per project
  • Define: Size of Change Assessment Small 1 Medium 2 Large 3 1 The number of stakeholder group affected 1-5 5-15 15+ 2 Impact to stakeholders on core competencies Low Medium High 3 Number of individuals affected by the change 1-25 25-150 150+ 4 Centralized or decentralized locations 1 2-4 4+ 5 Number of International Users 1 Country 2 Countries 3+ Countries 6 Required simultaneous changes to strategy, process, technology and skills 1 2-3 All 4 7 Degree of cross functional collaboration and involvement 1-2 BUs 2-4 BUs 5+ BUs 8 The degree to which departments are siloed Not siloed Some silos Many silos 9 Users have been involved in system design All Some None
  • Define: Size of Change Assessment Small 1 10 Timeframe for implementation 11 What is the business significance of the change? 12 Involvement / presentence of multiple consultants, vendors and / or third parties 13 Degree of executive / leadership consensus regarding future vision Medium 2 Large 3 Extended Aggressive Compact Non critical impact Important LOB impact Bottom line / mission critical Just You 1 other 2+ others Much Some Little or None
  • Magnitude of Change: Scoring Add up your total: 13 – 22 Points: Small Change 22 – 30 Points: Medium Change 30 – 39 Points: Large Change http://slideshare.net/ericatoelle
  • Define: Organizational Culture Assessment • Use for: • Understanding the organization‟s culture • Identify risks to the project imposed by organizational change • Informing the OCM budget • What it is: • A way for the OCM resources and project team to understand risks due to culture • An analysis that can be used in stakeholder conversations • Helps to plan for risk mitigation and OCM activities • Use only once across many projects
  • Define: Organizational Culture Assessment Low Risk 1 Medium Risk 2 High Risk 3 1 The number of existing change initiatives for end users None 1-2 3+ 2 Degree of cultural transformation required Low Medium Extensive 3 Organization‟s history of change Positive Neutral Negative 4 Quality and timely decision making within the organization Extensive Medium Low 5 Employees feel their voice is heard in their organization Definitely Sometimes Definitely Not 6 Degree of commitment from key stakeholder groups Much Some Little 7 There is a technology deterministic / isolation view in the organization Little Some Much
  • Define: Organizational Culture Assessment Low Risk 1 Medium Risk 2 High Risk 3 8 Understand of need for and implications of change by end users Extensive Some Little 9 Effective methods of communication (formal and informal) are utilized in the organization Definitely Sometimes Definitely Not 10 Managers of the groups that will be affected are committed to the change Much Some Little 11 Measurable goals for the change have been developed Major Some Minor 12 A compelling need for change has been communicated by upper and middle management to end users Extensive Some None 13 Employees in the organization perceive that leader “walk the talk Much Agreement Some Agreement No Agreement 14 The change is viewed as an ongoing process, and not an event within a specific time period Yes Some Groups Not at all 15 The organization has an fatalistic culture, based on fear No Somewhat Yes
  • Organizational Culture: Scoring Add up your total: 15 – 24 Points: Low Risk 25 – 34 Points: Medium Risk 35 – 45 Points: High Risk http://slideshare.net/ericatoelle
  • Approximate OCM Budget Need Small Chang e Medium Change Large Change Low Risk 5% 10% 20% Medium Risk 10% 20% 25% High Risk 20% 25% 30%
  • Define: Change Inventory • Use for: • Understanding how many changes we are asking the organization to make • Understanding what changes impact each role and / or stakeholder group • Informs the communication plan: This is what you will tell people • What it is: • A list of the desired changes, categorized by role • Later (in the define phase) these will be prioritized by positive business impact and risk
  • Define: Change Inventory Group Change Name Description Impacted Groups Impacted Roles Business Risk Benefit Workflow Finance workflow reengineering Re-engineer the workflow to execute on SharePoint Finance Group Procuremen Large t personnel Medium 3 All Web publishing Distribute news through portal instead of email All All Large Low 1 All Project Management Solution Manage projects using a SharePoint solution Project Managers Project Managers Medium Medium 2 A “change” is anything that impacts people, process or technology. Priority
  • Design: Stakeholder List • Use for: • Understanding who is impacted by the change • Understanding the current and future levels of commitment • What it is: • A way for the OCM resources and project team to accomplish the to-be state in a structured manner • The basis of the communications plan
  • Design: Stakeholder List Individuals or Groups Impact Current Commitment Level Future Commitment Level Project Risk Senior Executive High Buy-in High Sales Managers Medium Unaware Aware Low Finance Workflow users Stakeholder Group Name Aware High Unaware Owner Medium Legend: Impact on Project – High, Medium, Low Current Commitment Level – Unaware, Aware, Buy-In, Owner Future Commitment Level – Unaware, Aware, Buy-In, Owner Project Risk – High, Medium, Low
  • Design & Build: Stakeholder Meetings • Use for: • Creating awareness, buy-in and / or ownership among project stakeholders (depending on desired outcome) • Clearly communicating project information and asks • Provides an opportunity for two way communication • What it is: • A meeting or series of in person meetings
  • Design and Build: Stakeholder Meeting Objectives • Agenda: 1. Review project objectives • Gain agreement with stakeholder 2. Approach and timeline 3. Impact to their group / employees 4. Asks / Feedback • Make sure they understand their importance to making the change happen • Need to understand their three biggest roles in the project
  • Stakeholder Meeting Outcomes Shared Awarenes Understandi s ng Knowledge of project and objectives Buy- Ownershi In p X Stakeholder Agrees with project objectives X An understanding of how the change will impact their group X Awareness of groups policies to which you must adhere X Knowledge of existing processes that will be impacted X Identification of other stakeholders you may have missed X Knowledge of competing initiatives and “busy times” X Knowledge of preferred communication channels X Identification of change champions Awareness of existing materials that can be leveraged by the project X X
  • Design: Communications Plan • Use for: • Creating shared understanding with the team about who we are telling what, when, how, and why • Informing stakeholder how you will communicate with them going forward & what they can expect • Execution of the communications plan should create shared understanding & commitment with stakeholders • What it is: • The master plan of who you are telling what • Consists of a communication plan and channel plan
  • Design: Communications Plan Sub Audienc Audienc e e Channel Status call and email recap Frequency Weekly Manager CFO Update End Users Monthly Leadership Monthly Calls Finance Monthly Web Portal Weekly Updates Purpose Discuss key accomplishments, upcoming milestones, issues / risks, and action items. Provide credibility to the project and create awareness and shared understanding through updates. Continually evangelize work and highlight project “wins”. Update on project efforts with links to supporting detail. Content Developer Sender John Doe Jane Doe John Doe Jane Doe John Doe Jane Doe John Doe Jane Doe
  • Design: Communications Checklist Use preferred senders to deliver the communication Use multiple voices and channels to communicate Honesty is the only policy Communicate clearly and predictably Answer “why is this change happening” and “what is the risk of not changing” Answer “What‟s in it for me” Don‟t have communications come from the project team or project leaders Use face to face communication Repeat key messages 5-7 times Create opportunities for two way communication Evaluate the effectiveness of your communications
  • Design: Change Champion Strategy • Use for: • Having a “go-to” person in each stakeholder group • Owner level commitment to the change • First place to ask questions • Helps to identify and manage resistance to change • What it is: • A person who is selected as a change champion • Also known as a super user, power user, etc.
  • Design: Change Champion Strategy Characteristics: • Be well networked within the organization and respected by peers • Want to make a difference in a organization they are fully committed to • Have the courage to speak up for what they believe in • Be seen as „go to‟ people and opinion makers • Have a broad understanding of the organization and how it works • Be able to translate the overall change vision into local 'what‟s in it for me' scenarios • Feel passionate about the change while being empathetic to the mindset and behavior shift their colleagues will need to go through • 'Tuned in' to the mood of the area they are in and able to pick up on resistance to the change, lack of understanding of the change journey and communication gaps between the business and the program
  • Plan for Resistance to Change Expect and Plan for Resistance: Make a plan as a baseline but expect to put out fires Identify possible areas of resistance: Stakeholder assessment Identify what resistance might look like: stakeholder meetings When resistance occurs understand why / root cause at the individual and group level Monitor executives, managers and end users Prepare people that have credibility and respect with those at a high risk for resistance to help mitigate
  • Identify Cause of Resistance to Change • Underlying fear • Big assumption • Identify through a personal conversation
  • Further Learning Richard Harbridge: User Adoption Activities Listing Erica Toelle‟s Website Susan Hanley‟s Website Prosci: Change Management Research and Training Thank you to my OCM mentor Amalia Goodwin; the Hitachi Consulting Change Management Practice, and PeopleFirm
  • References 1. McKinsey ROI Study Summary 2. Why Intranet Governance is Overrated – It‟s Really About Change Management 3. OCM Overview – Fred Asher
  • questions? HTTP://SLIDESHARE.NET/ERICATOEL LE @ERICATOELLE
  • thank you. SHAREPOINT AND PROJECT CONFERENCE ADRIATICS 2013 ZAGREB, NOVEMBER 27-28 2013