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The ancient middle east  mesopotamian literature2
The ancient middle east  mesopotamian literature2
The ancient middle east  mesopotamian literature2
The ancient middle east  mesopotamian literature2
The ancient middle east  mesopotamian literature2
The ancient middle east  mesopotamian literature2
The ancient middle east  mesopotamian literature2
The ancient middle east  mesopotamian literature2
The ancient middle east  mesopotamian literature2
The ancient middle east  mesopotamian literature2
The ancient middle east  mesopotamian literature2
The ancient middle east  mesopotamian literature2
The ancient middle east  mesopotamian literature2
The ancient middle east  mesopotamian literature2
The ancient middle east  mesopotamian literature2
The ancient middle east  mesopotamian literature2
The ancient middle east  mesopotamian literature2
The ancient middle east  mesopotamian literature2
The ancient middle east  mesopotamian literature2
The ancient middle east  mesopotamian literature2
The ancient middle east  mesopotamian literature2
The ancient middle east  mesopotamian literature2
The ancient middle east  mesopotamian literature2
The ancient middle east  mesopotamian literature2
The ancient middle east  mesopotamian literature2
The ancient middle east  mesopotamian literature2
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The ancient middle east mesopotamian literature2

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  • Translaton: land between the rivers Present day location: Iraq; parts of Iran, Turkey, Syria Fertile Crescent Rivers: Tigris & Euphrates
  • Fertile Crescent Rivers: Tigris & Euphrates
  • Present day location: Iraq; parts of Iran, Turkey, Syria
  • Sumerians: first to successfully dominate region originally Nomadic people settled in region 5000 – 4000 BC Engineers: dug canals: drain marshland and irrigation mud houses, pottery, clay tablets for writing
  • Agricultural society wheat, barley; cattle, goats, sheep successful merchants and traders known for beautiful stonework, metalwork, sculpture Political boundaries City-states: large walled town and surrounding lands laid out around huge ziggurats (temples) Ziggurats: 6-7 stories high, brightly decorated-each level a different color; Priest King: ruler presiding over ziggurat thought to be representative of local god Largest Sumerian city-state: Ur, Uruk & Lagash Many city-states within sight of one another Lack of centralized government lead to fierce competition for land and resources.
  • 3 level class system (very strict…glass ceilings) 1. Nobles: priests and government officials 2. Middle Class: merchants and artisans, professional people(doctors) 3. Peasants: farmers, slaves
  • Advanced Culture Architecture: ziggurats Science & Math: developed mathematical system based upon a unit of 60; created a precise 12 month calendar based upon moon cycles
  • Cuneiform (Latin: cuneus=wedge “ Wedge writing”: Sumerian’s chief cultural achievement one of the world’s first systems of writing system of wedge-shaped markings made with a pointed stick “stylus” Records discovered financial transactions imaginative literature: myths, epics, hymns, laments, proverbs, and fables
  • Sumerians vulnerable: lack of central government of all city-states Akkadians : 1 st to dominate region after Sumerians Semitic people King Sargon : established empire that lasted nearly 100 years Gudea: Sumerian ruler returned Sumerian culture for short time at end of Akkadian rule Babylonians 2000BC Babylon: new capital city on bnks of Euphrates River “ gates of the gods”
  • Babylonians builders of Babylon Suppressed Sumerian politically; removed all power Valued Sumerian culture: adopted it as own used Sumerian cuneiform: adapted it to own Semitic language translated many Sumerian writings to own language most famous “Epic of Gilgamesh” used Sumerian as literary language (like latin during middle ages)
  • Babylonians builders of Babylon Suppressed Sumerian politically; removed all power Valued Sumerian culture: adopted it as own used Sumerian cuneiform: adapted it to own Semitic language translated many Sumerian writings to own language most famous “Epic of Gilgamesh” used Sumerian as literary language (like latin during middle ages)
  • Hammurabi 6 th ruler of Babylon Code of Hammurabi: 282 laws to live by Babylon 1792 BC: peak of glory religious and cultural center of western Asia
  • Hittites from Asia minor 1600 BC invaded and looted Mesopotamia left behind less drastic laws that Code of Hammurabi
  • Assyrians 900 BC came to Mesopotamia Nineveh: Assyrian capital built on banks of Tigris River 230 miles north of present day Baghdad King Assurbanipal: built the Library of Nineveh; holds all Sumerian and Babylonian literature (clay tablets)
  • Chaldeans: 612 BC overthrew Assyrians; Babylon continued to flourish
  • King Nebechadnezzar rebuilt city; spectacular palaces and temples destroyed Jerusalem and kept Jews captive for 70 years Hanging Gardens: one of 7 wonders of world; built for wife Tower of Babel : ziggurat; Babel = Hebrew for Babylon
  • Hanging Gardens: one of 7 wonders of world; built for wife
  • Tower of Babel : ziggurat; Babel = Hebrew for Babylon
  • Written 4000 years ago 1000 years older than the Greek epics and some books of Hebrew Bible Discovered in 1839 by amateur archaeologist
  • Story based upon some fact Gilgamesh believed to be king of Uruk (Sumer) Sometime between 2700 BC – 2500 BC
  • Earliest written fragments date from 2000 BC Put to complete form by a scribe in 1300 BC
  • Gilgamesh 2 parts god and 1 part human possesses natural powers and human weaknesses suffers from excessive pride or “hubris” on a quest for ‘immortality”
  • Discovered: modern day Iraq in Nineveh; buried remains of library of Assurbanipal
  • Transcript

    • 1. The Ancient Middle East
    • 2. Mesopotamia <ul><li>Translation </li></ul>
    • 3. Mesopotamia <ul><li>Fertile Crescent </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rivers </li></ul></ul>
    • 4. Mesopotamia <ul><li>Present day location </li></ul>
    • 5. Civilization Built on Mud <ul><li>Sumerians </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Engineers </li></ul></ul>
    • 6. Sumerian Culture <ul><li>Agricultural society </li></ul><ul><li>Political boundaries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>City-States </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Largest Sumerian City-states </li></ul></ul>
    • 7. Sumerian Society <ul><li>3 Level Class System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nobles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Middle Class </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peasants </li></ul></ul>
    • 8. Sumerian Society <ul><li>Advanced Culture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Architecture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Science and Math </li></ul></ul>
    • 9. Sumerian Writing <ul><li>Cuneiform </li></ul><ul><li>Records discovered </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Financial transactions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Imaginative literature </li></ul></ul>
    • 10. Waves of Invaders <ul><li>Akkadians </li></ul><ul><ul><li>King Sargon </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gudea </li></ul><ul><li>Babylonians 2000BC </li></ul>
    • 11. Rise of Babylon <ul><li>Babylonians </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Valued Sumerian Culture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adapted language and literature </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Used Sumerian as a literary language </li></ul></ul></ul>
    • 12. Rise of Babylon
    • 13. <ul><li>Hammurabi </li></ul><ul><ul><li>6th ruler of Babylon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Code of Hammurabi </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Babylon </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1792 BC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Religious and cultural of Western Asia </li></ul></ul></ul>
    • 14. Great Library of Nineveh <ul><li>Hittites </li></ul>
    • 15. <ul><li>Assyrians </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nineveh </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>King Assurbanipal </li></ul></ul>
    • 16. The Rebirth and Final Fall of Babylon <ul><li>Chaldeans </li></ul>
    • 17. <ul><li>King Nebechadnezzar </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hanging Gardens </li></ul></ul>
    • 18. <ul><li>Hanging Gardens </li></ul>
    • 19. <ul><li>Hanging Gardens </li></ul>
    • 20. <ul><li>Tower of Babel </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Babylon Falls </li></ul></ul><ul><li>539 BC </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cyrus the Great of Persia </li></ul></ul>
    • 21. Final Fall of Babylon <ul><li>Babylon Falls 539 BC </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cyrus the Great of Persia </li></ul></ul>
    • 22. Epic of Gilgamesh <ul><li>Written 4000 years ago </li></ul><ul><li>Discovered in 1839 by amateur archaeologist </li></ul>
    • 23. Epic of Gilgamesh <ul><li>Story based upon some fact </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gilgamesh </li></ul></ul>
    • 24. Epic of Gilgamesh <ul><li>Earliest written fragments date from 2000 BC </li></ul>
    • 25. <ul><li>Epic: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Long narrative that recounts the deeds of a larger-than-life hero who embodies the values of a particular society. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gilgamesh: the character </li></ul>Epic of Gilgamesh
    • 26. Versions of the Epic <ul><li>Based upon 12 clay tablets of cuneiform script </li></ul><ul><li>Discovered in modern day Iraq </li></ul><ul><li>Also found in Jerusalem </li></ul><ul><li>Also found in area from Mediterranean coast east to Persian Gulf </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reveals Mesopotamians’ pessimistic views of existence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reveals Mesopotamians’ sensitivity and humanity </li></ul></ul>

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