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The ancient middle east mesopotamian literature2

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  • Translaton: land between the rivers Present day location: Iraq; parts of Iran, Turkey, Syria Fertile Crescent Rivers: Tigris & Euphrates
  • Fertile Crescent Rivers: Tigris & Euphrates
  • Present day location: Iraq; parts of Iran, Turkey, Syria
  • Sumerians: first to successfully dominate region originally Nomadic people settled in region 5000 – 4000 BC Engineers: dug canals: drain marshland and irrigation mud houses, pottery, clay tablets for writing
  • Agricultural society wheat, barley; cattle, goats, sheep successful merchants and traders known for beautiful stonework, metalwork, sculpture Political boundaries City-states: large walled town and surrounding lands laid out around huge ziggurats (temples) Ziggurats: 6-7 stories high, brightly decorated-each level a different color; Priest King: ruler presiding over ziggurat thought to be representative of local god Largest Sumerian city-state: Ur, Uruk & Lagash Many city-states within sight of one another Lack of centralized government lead to fierce competition for land and resources.
  • 3 level class system (very strict…glass ceilings) 1. Nobles: priests and government officials 2. Middle Class: merchants and artisans, professional people(doctors) 3. Peasants: farmers, slaves
  • Advanced Culture Architecture: ziggurats Science & Math: developed mathematical system based upon a unit of 60; created a precise 12 month calendar based upon moon cycles
  • Cuneiform (Latin: cuneus=wedge “ Wedge writing”: Sumerian’s chief cultural achievement one of the world’s first systems of writing system of wedge-shaped markings made with a pointed stick “stylus” Records discovered financial transactions imaginative literature: myths, epics, hymns, laments, proverbs, and fables
  • Sumerians vulnerable: lack of central government of all city-states Akkadians : 1 st to dominate region after Sumerians Semitic people King Sargon : established empire that lasted nearly 100 years Gudea: Sumerian ruler returned Sumerian culture for short time at end of Akkadian rule Babylonians 2000BC Babylon: new capital city on bnks of Euphrates River “ gates of the gods”
  • Babylonians builders of Babylon Suppressed Sumerian politically; removed all power Valued Sumerian culture: adopted it as own used Sumerian cuneiform: adapted it to own Semitic language translated many Sumerian writings to own language most famous “Epic of Gilgamesh” used Sumerian as literary language (like latin during middle ages)
  • Babylonians builders of Babylon Suppressed Sumerian politically; removed all power Valued Sumerian culture: adopted it as own used Sumerian cuneiform: adapted it to own Semitic language translated many Sumerian writings to own language most famous “Epic of Gilgamesh” used Sumerian as literary language (like latin during middle ages)
  • Hammurabi 6 th ruler of Babylon Code of Hammurabi: 282 laws to live by Babylon 1792 BC: peak of glory religious and cultural center of western Asia
  • Hittites from Asia minor 1600 BC invaded and looted Mesopotamia left behind less drastic laws that Code of Hammurabi
  • Assyrians 900 BC came to Mesopotamia Nineveh: Assyrian capital built on banks of Tigris River 230 miles north of present day Baghdad King Assurbanipal: built the Library of Nineveh; holds all Sumerian and Babylonian literature (clay tablets)
  • Chaldeans: 612 BC overthrew Assyrians; Babylon continued to flourish
  • King Nebechadnezzar rebuilt city; spectacular palaces and temples destroyed Jerusalem and kept Jews captive for 70 years Hanging Gardens: one of 7 wonders of world; built for wife Tower of Babel : ziggurat; Babel = Hebrew for Babylon
  • Hanging Gardens: one of 7 wonders of world; built for wife
  • Tower of Babel : ziggurat; Babel = Hebrew for Babylon
  • Written 4000 years ago 1000 years older than the Greek epics and some books of Hebrew Bible Discovered in 1839 by amateur archaeologist
  • Story based upon some fact Gilgamesh believed to be king of Uruk (Sumer) Sometime between 2700 BC – 2500 BC
  • Earliest written fragments date from 2000 BC Put to complete form by a scribe in 1300 BC
  • Gilgamesh 2 parts god and 1 part human possesses natural powers and human weaknesses suffers from excessive pride or “hubris” on a quest for ‘immortality”
  • Discovered: modern day Iraq in Nineveh; buried remains of library of Assurbanipal

Transcript

  • 1. The Ancient Middle East
  • 2. Mesopotamia
    • Translation
  • 3. Mesopotamia
    • Fertile Crescent
      • Rivers
  • 4. Mesopotamia
    • Present day location
  • 5. Civilization Built on Mud
    • Sumerians
      • Engineers
  • 6. Sumerian Culture
    • Agricultural society
    • Political boundaries
      • City-States
      • Largest Sumerian City-states
  • 7. Sumerian Society
    • 3 Level Class System
      • Nobles
      • Middle Class
      • Peasants
  • 8. Sumerian Society
    • Advanced Culture
      • Architecture
      • Science and Math
  • 9. Sumerian Writing
    • Cuneiform
    • Records discovered
      • Financial transactions
      • Imaginative literature
  • 10. Waves of Invaders
    • Akkadians
      • King Sargon
    • Gudea
    • Babylonians 2000BC
  • 11. Rise of Babylon
    • Babylonians
      • Valued Sumerian Culture
        • Adapted language and literature
        • Used Sumerian as a literary language
  • 12. Rise of Babylon
  • 13.
    • Hammurabi
      • 6th ruler of Babylon
      • Code of Hammurabi
    • Babylon
      • 1792 BC
        • Religious and cultural of Western Asia
  • 14. Great Library of Nineveh
    • Hittites
  • 15.
    • Assyrians
      • Nineveh
      • King Assurbanipal
  • 16. The Rebirth and Final Fall of Babylon
    • Chaldeans
  • 17.
    • King Nebechadnezzar
      • Hanging Gardens
  • 18.
    • Hanging Gardens
  • 19.
    • Hanging Gardens
  • 20.
    • Tower of Babel
      • Babylon Falls
    • 539 BC
      • Cyrus the Great of Persia
  • 21. Final Fall of Babylon
    • Babylon Falls 539 BC
      • Cyrus the Great of Persia
  • 22. Epic of Gilgamesh
    • Written 4000 years ago
    • Discovered in 1839 by amateur archaeologist
  • 23. Epic of Gilgamesh
    • Story based upon some fact
      • Gilgamesh
  • 24. Epic of Gilgamesh
    • Earliest written fragments date from 2000 BC
  • 25.
    • Epic:
      • Long narrative that recounts the deeds of a larger-than-life hero who embodies the values of a particular society.
    • Gilgamesh: the character
    Epic of Gilgamesh
  • 26. Versions of the Epic
    • Based upon 12 clay tablets of cuneiform script
    • Discovered in modern day Iraq
    • Also found in Jerusalem
    • Also found in area from Mediterranean coast east to Persian Gulf
      • Reveals Mesopotamians’ pessimistic views of existence
      • Reveals Mesopotamians’ sensitivity and humanity