The Ancient Middle East
Mesopotamia <ul><li>Translation </li></ul>
Mesopotamia <ul><li>Fertile Crescent </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rivers </li></ul></ul>
Mesopotamia <ul><li>Present day location  </li></ul>
Civilization Built on Mud <ul><li>Sumerians </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Engineers </li></ul></ul>
Sumerian Culture <ul><li>Agricultural society </li></ul><ul><li>Political boundaries  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>City-States </...
Sumerian Society <ul><li>3 Level Class System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nobles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Middle Class </li></...
Sumerian Society <ul><li>Advanced Culture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Architecture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Science and Math <...
Sumerian Writing <ul><li>Cuneiform </li></ul><ul><li>Records discovered </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Financial transactions </li>...
Waves of Invaders <ul><li>Akkadians </li></ul><ul><ul><li>King Sargon </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gudea </li></ul><ul><li>Babyl...
Rise of Babylon <ul><li>Babylonians  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Valued Sumerian Culture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adapted ...
Rise of Babylon
<ul><li>Hammurabi  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>6th ruler of Babylon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Code of Hammurabi </li></ul></ul>...
Great Library of Nineveh <ul><li>Hittites </li></ul>
<ul><li>Assyrians </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nineveh </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>King Assurbanipal </li></ul></ul>
The Rebirth and Final Fall of Babylon <ul><li>Chaldeans </li></ul>
<ul><li>King Nebechadnezzar </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hanging Gardens </li></ul></ul>
<ul><li>Hanging Gardens </li></ul>
<ul><li>Hanging Gardens </li></ul>
<ul><li>Tower of Babel </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Babylon Falls  </li></ul></ul><ul><li>539 BC </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cyrus the ...
Final Fall of Babylon <ul><li>Babylon Falls  539 BC </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cyrus the Great of Persia </li></ul></ul>
Epic of Gilgamesh <ul><li>Written 4000 years ago </li></ul><ul><li>Discovered in 1839 by amateur archaeologist </li></ul>
Epic of Gilgamesh <ul><li>Story based upon some fact </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gilgamesh  </li></ul></ul>
Epic of Gilgamesh <ul><li>Earliest written fragments date from 2000 BC </li></ul>
<ul><li>Epic: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Long narrative that recounts the deeds of a larger-than-life hero who embodies the val...
Versions of the Epic <ul><li>Based upon 12 clay tablets of cuneiform script </li></ul><ul><li>Discovered in modern day Ira...
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The ancient middle east mesopotamian literature2

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  • Translaton: land between the rivers Present day location: Iraq; parts of Iran, Turkey, Syria Fertile Crescent Rivers: Tigris &amp; Euphrates
  • Fertile Crescent Rivers: Tigris &amp; Euphrates
  • Present day location: Iraq; parts of Iran, Turkey, Syria
  • Sumerians: first to successfully dominate region originally Nomadic people settled in region 5000 – 4000 BC Engineers: dug canals: drain marshland and irrigation mud houses, pottery, clay tablets for writing
  • Agricultural society wheat, barley; cattle, goats, sheep successful merchants and traders known for beautiful stonework, metalwork, sculpture Political boundaries City-states: large walled town and surrounding lands laid out around huge ziggurats (temples) Ziggurats: 6-7 stories high, brightly decorated-each level a different color; Priest King: ruler presiding over ziggurat thought to be representative of local god Largest Sumerian city-state: Ur, Uruk &amp; Lagash Many city-states within sight of one another Lack of centralized government lead to fierce competition for land and resources.
  • 3 level class system (very strict…glass ceilings) 1. Nobles: priests and government officials 2. Middle Class: merchants and artisans, professional people(doctors) 3. Peasants: farmers, slaves
  • Advanced Culture Architecture: ziggurats Science &amp; Math: developed mathematical system based upon a unit of 60; created a precise 12 month calendar based upon moon cycles
  • Cuneiform (Latin: cuneus=wedge “ Wedge writing”: Sumerian’s chief cultural achievement one of the world’s first systems of writing system of wedge-shaped markings made with a pointed stick “stylus” Records discovered financial transactions imaginative literature: myths, epics, hymns, laments, proverbs, and fables
  • Sumerians vulnerable: lack of central government of all city-states Akkadians : 1 st to dominate region after Sumerians Semitic people King Sargon : established empire that lasted nearly 100 years Gudea: Sumerian ruler returned Sumerian culture for short time at end of Akkadian rule Babylonians 2000BC Babylon: new capital city on bnks of Euphrates River “ gates of the gods”
  • Babylonians builders of Babylon Suppressed Sumerian politically; removed all power Valued Sumerian culture: adopted it as own used Sumerian cuneiform: adapted it to own Semitic language translated many Sumerian writings to own language most famous “Epic of Gilgamesh” used Sumerian as literary language (like latin during middle ages)
  • Babylonians builders of Babylon Suppressed Sumerian politically; removed all power Valued Sumerian culture: adopted it as own used Sumerian cuneiform: adapted it to own Semitic language translated many Sumerian writings to own language most famous “Epic of Gilgamesh” used Sumerian as literary language (like latin during middle ages)
  • Hammurabi 6 th ruler of Babylon Code of Hammurabi: 282 laws to live by Babylon 1792 BC: peak of glory religious and cultural center of western Asia
  • Hittites from Asia minor 1600 BC invaded and looted Mesopotamia left behind less drastic laws that Code of Hammurabi
  • Assyrians 900 BC came to Mesopotamia Nineveh: Assyrian capital built on banks of Tigris River 230 miles north of present day Baghdad King Assurbanipal: built the Library of Nineveh; holds all Sumerian and Babylonian literature (clay tablets)
  • Chaldeans: 612 BC overthrew Assyrians; Babylon continued to flourish
  • King Nebechadnezzar rebuilt city; spectacular palaces and temples destroyed Jerusalem and kept Jews captive for 70 years Hanging Gardens: one of 7 wonders of world; built for wife Tower of Babel : ziggurat; Babel = Hebrew for Babylon
  • Hanging Gardens: one of 7 wonders of world; built for wife
  • Tower of Babel : ziggurat; Babel = Hebrew for Babylon
  • Written 4000 years ago 1000 years older than the Greek epics and some books of Hebrew Bible Discovered in 1839 by amateur archaeologist
  • Story based upon some fact Gilgamesh believed to be king of Uruk (Sumer) Sometime between 2700 BC – 2500 BC
  • Earliest written fragments date from 2000 BC Put to complete form by a scribe in 1300 BC
  • Gilgamesh 2 parts god and 1 part human possesses natural powers and human weaknesses suffers from excessive pride or “hubris” on a quest for ‘immortality”
  • Discovered: modern day Iraq in Nineveh; buried remains of library of Assurbanipal
  • The ancient middle east mesopotamian literature2

    1. 1. The Ancient Middle East
    2. 2. Mesopotamia <ul><li>Translation </li></ul>
    3. 3. Mesopotamia <ul><li>Fertile Crescent </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rivers </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Mesopotamia <ul><li>Present day location </li></ul>
    5. 5. Civilization Built on Mud <ul><li>Sumerians </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Engineers </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Sumerian Culture <ul><li>Agricultural society </li></ul><ul><li>Political boundaries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>City-States </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Largest Sumerian City-states </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Sumerian Society <ul><li>3 Level Class System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nobles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Middle Class </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peasants </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Sumerian Society <ul><li>Advanced Culture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Architecture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Science and Math </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Sumerian Writing <ul><li>Cuneiform </li></ul><ul><li>Records discovered </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Financial transactions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Imaginative literature </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Waves of Invaders <ul><li>Akkadians </li></ul><ul><ul><li>King Sargon </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gudea </li></ul><ul><li>Babylonians 2000BC </li></ul>
    11. 11. Rise of Babylon <ul><li>Babylonians </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Valued Sumerian Culture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adapted language and literature </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Used Sumerian as a literary language </li></ul></ul></ul>
    12. 12. Rise of Babylon
    13. 13. <ul><li>Hammurabi </li></ul><ul><ul><li>6th ruler of Babylon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Code of Hammurabi </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Babylon </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1792 BC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Religious and cultural of Western Asia </li></ul></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Great Library of Nineveh <ul><li>Hittites </li></ul>
    15. 15. <ul><li>Assyrians </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nineveh </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>King Assurbanipal </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. The Rebirth and Final Fall of Babylon <ul><li>Chaldeans </li></ul>
    17. 17. <ul><li>King Nebechadnezzar </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hanging Gardens </li></ul></ul>
    18. 18. <ul><li>Hanging Gardens </li></ul>
    19. 19. <ul><li>Hanging Gardens </li></ul>
    20. 20. <ul><li>Tower of Babel </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Babylon Falls </li></ul></ul><ul><li>539 BC </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cyrus the Great of Persia </li></ul></ul>
    21. 21. Final Fall of Babylon <ul><li>Babylon Falls 539 BC </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cyrus the Great of Persia </li></ul></ul>
    22. 22. Epic of Gilgamesh <ul><li>Written 4000 years ago </li></ul><ul><li>Discovered in 1839 by amateur archaeologist </li></ul>
    23. 23. Epic of Gilgamesh <ul><li>Story based upon some fact </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gilgamesh </li></ul></ul>
    24. 24. Epic of Gilgamesh <ul><li>Earliest written fragments date from 2000 BC </li></ul>
    25. 25. <ul><li>Epic: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Long narrative that recounts the deeds of a larger-than-life hero who embodies the values of a particular society. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gilgamesh: the character </li></ul>Epic of Gilgamesh
    26. 26. Versions of the Epic <ul><li>Based upon 12 clay tablets of cuneiform script </li></ul><ul><li>Discovered in modern day Iraq </li></ul><ul><li>Also found in Jerusalem </li></ul><ul><li>Also found in area from Mediterranean coast east to Persian Gulf </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reveals Mesopotamians’ pessimistic views of existence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reveals Mesopotamians’ sensitivity and humanity </li></ul></ul>

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