Punctuation
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  • 1. Punctuation!!A quick run-through of the basics
  • 2. The punctuation marks we will learn about today are… The full stop (.) The comma (,) The colon (:) The semi-colon (;) The apostrophe (‘)
  • 3. The full stop The full stop (.) is  For example: used at the end of a  John kicked the ball. The sentence. A sentence ball smashed a window. is a group of words  These are sentences. They which makes complete make complete sense. sense. After a full  John kicked stop, we need a capital  The ball letter.  These are not sentences. They do not make complete sense.
  • 4. The comma (Part 1) The comma (,) is used to  For example, look at the sentence separate the main clause  While the children were working quietly, Miss Jeffery was surfing of a sentence from the the Internet. subordinate clauses. The  Miss Jeffery was surfing the main clause is the section Internet is the main clause. It makes complete sense by itself. of the sentence which  While the children were working makes complete sense by quietly is the subordinate clause. itself. The subordinate It does not make sense by itself. clauses do not make sense  The main clause and the by themselves. They need subordinate clause are separated by a comma. a main clause to add to  While the children were working their meaning. quietly, Miss Jeffery was surfing the Internet.
  • 5. The comma (Part 2) The comma (,) is also  For example: For lunch today I had: a cheese used to separate items sandwich, a packet of in a list. The rules are crisps, a Fruit Shoot and as follows: an apple.  There is no need to do In a list of objects, this: For lunch today I there is no need for a had: a cheese sandwich, a comma before the packet of crisps, a Fruit final object, because Shoot, and an apple. The comma before ‘and’ is ‘and’ takes its place. unnecessary.
  • 6. The comma (Part 3) Rule Number 2: In a list  Using the comma in a list of adjectives or adverbs, of adjectives: there is no need for a  The old tramp was a comma between the final smelly, dirty, unpleasant- adjective or adverb and looking man. the word it describes.  Using the comma in a list NB: an adjective describes of adverbs: a noun (person, place or  The motorbike sped thing). For example: The powerfully, dangerously, beautiful girl. An adverb exhilaratingly along the describes a verb (a doing road. word). For example: The car moved quickly.
  • 7. The colon (Part 1) The colon (:) is used to introduce a list. Remember the list of things I had for lunch? For lunch today I had: a cheese sandwich, a packet of crisps, a Fruit Shoot and an apple. Another example: There were a lot of things on Anna’s floor: clothes, books, plastic bags, shoes, papers and a dirty coffee mug she had forgotten to take downstairs.
  • 8. The colon (Part 2) The colon is also used to add further explanation to a point previously made. For example: Schools nowadays are much improved from previously: corporal punishment no longer exists, and teachers generally make an effort to involve and engage students in lessons.
  • 9. The semi-colon Many people get confused about the use of the semi-colon… But it’s not hard! It is used in two main ways.
  • 10. Using the semi-colon (Part 1) One way to use the semi-colon is to separate items in a list in which each item is fairly long and complicated.  Let me explain…
  • 11. The semi-colon explained (Part 1) In the sentence ‘For lunch  However, in the sentence today I had: a cheese ‘I did lots of things at the sandwich, a packet of weekend: I went to the crisps, a Fruit Shoot and theatre with my friends; I visited my gran for an apple.’ semi-colons are Sunday lunch; I did a not needed between the huge pile of marking; I items. They are short and created a PowerPoint uncomplicated, and only presentation.’ semi-colons require separating with are used to separate the commas. items because they are each quite lengthy. This makes the sentence clearer.
  • 12. Using the semi-colon (Part 2) Another way to use the semi-colon is to separate clauses in a sentence which have equal weight.  Let me explain:
  • 13. The semi-colon explained (Part 2) Remember the  Sometimes, a sentence explanation of main does not have a main clauses and subordinate clause and a subordinate clauses? clause. The main clause in a  Instead, it has two or more sentence makes complete clauses which each have sense by itself. equal weight (as though The subordinate clauses the sentence had two or do not make complete more main clauses). sense. They need the main  For example: Mavis was a clause to add to their student at the local meaning. school; she was a hard- working and pleasant girl.
  • 14. The semi-colon explained (Part 3) Here’s that sentence again: Mavis was a Sixth Form student at the local school; she was a hard-working and pleasant girl. Notice that each of the clauses makes complete sense by itself. Each one could be expressed as a sentence: Mavis was a Sixth Form student at the local school. She was a hard-working and pleasant girl. To put it simply…
  • 15. The semi-colon explained (Part 4) A semi-colon is an alternative to a full stop when you want to make two or more short sentences into one long one. Another example: ‘There had been no possibility of taking a walk that day. It had been raining steadily since dawn.’ becomes There had been no possibility of taking a walk that day; it had been raining steadily since dawn. You should always use a semi-colon and not a comma in this situation.
  • 16. The apostrophe The apostrophe is another one that causes a lot of unnecessary problems… It has two main functions: To show possession and To show omission. Let me explain…
  • 17. The apostrophe ofpossession: singular ‘owner’. The first use of the  The book of the boy apostrophe is to show  becomes possession (when something belongs to  The boy’s book someone). The apostrophe  The nappy of the baby always goes after the last  becomes letter of the word describing the person to  The baby’s nappy whom something belongs  The toys of the child (the ‘owner’). If the  becomes ‘owner’ is singular, the apostrophe is followed by  The child’s toys an ‘s’.
  • 18. The apostrophe of possession: plural ‘owner’ When the ‘owner’ in a sentence  However, when the ‘owner’ in (the person or thing to whom the sentence is plural but does something belongs) is plural not end in an s (children, AND ends in an s (boys, sheep) there is an ‘s’ after the babies) there is NO ‘s’ after the apostrophe. apostrophe.  For example: For example:  The toys of the children The books of the boys  becomes becomes  The children’s toys The boys’ books  The fleeces of the sheep The nappies of the babies  becomes becomes  The sheep’s fleeces The babies’ nappies
  • 19. The apostrophe of omission The apostrophe is also used when letters are omitted (left out) from a word or words. The apostrophe always goes in the place where letters are missing. For example: have not becomes haven’t because the ‘o’ is omitted. Some more examples on the next slide…
  • 20. Apostrophes of omissionhave not haven’tshall not shan’twill not won’tdo not don’tmust not mustn’tcannot can’tis not isn’tyou are you’rehe is he’sthey are they’re
  • 21. Almost over… The function of punctuation is to make your writing clearer and easier to understand. A good way of checking whether you need a punctuation mark is to read your work out loud. If you pause for breath, it’s a good bet that you need to add a punctuation mark of some kind.
  • 22. Hurrah! It’s the end! Yup… You now know all there is to know about punctuation!