Applied science research methodsPresentation Transcript
Finding information Applied Science
Stage 1. Plan Think of key concept. Define key elements, sub-topics. Identify key words, phrases, people List associated/alternative words, spellings Set limits: time, place
Map your ideas
Stage 2: Search Library Internet Lending/Reference books Magazines DVDs Online resources Study space Search a variety of online resources on the:
Searching the web Popular search engines Bing http://www.bing.com Google http://www.google.com The surface web may not present all the results you expect or require. Often information is hidden deeper and within special Databases. The deep web contains information that cannot easily be found or retrieved by search engines as the information is stored and contained within databases.
Access identification Open Athens / MyAthens http://www.openathens.net Apply for an account Login to MyAthens Enter Username Enter password Select resources Secure/remote access
Search term: * Field : All fields Medium: Web site
Databases Search some of the databases that follow. (All these databases are listed on the library catalogue).
Electronic Books Ebrary http://site.ebrary.com/lib/stevenson/home.action Search over 3000 titles: eg. astronomy, evolution, human biology, polymers Browse – all subjects select a subject: eg. Science then select a sub-category: physics select a title & read text on screen ***Athens account required to access Bookshelf and highlighter pen** Watch the training video: http://www.ebrary.com/corp/collateral/flash/QuickStart/
Historic books JISC Historic Books http://www.jischistoricbooks.ac.uk Sign in as “Stevenson College Edinburgh” Then OpenAthens username and password View as text or image pre 20th century texts eg. Darwin, D (1882), Formation of vegetable mould…. Galilei, Galileo(1730) mathematical discourses concerning 2 new sciences
General reference works Credo Reference http://www.credoreference.com - Search, browse, topic pages, find a book, - gadgets (Conversions eg. temperature : celsius - fahrenheit - concept map Oxford Reference Online http://www.oxfordreference.com - search, browse, timelines (scientists, inventions) - individual books, Visual English Dictionary, etc KnowUK http://www.knowuk.co.uk - search & refine, browse eg Dolly the Sheep - Social trends, Dictionary of Science & Technology, etc
Journals and newspapers Gale databases http://infotrac.galegroup.com/itweb/stevensc Articles from newspapers, magazines Full-text articles available. Search eg. Roslin Institute Browse subjects eg. radiation Browse publications: eg. Biochemistry & Cell Biology Advanced search: renewables(keyword) + Scotsman (publication title)
Journal archives Archives give access to older articles - up until about mid 1990s JISC Journal Archives http://www.jiscjournalarchives.ac.uk Search eg. bunsen burner, Kelvin - summary panel offers link to download pdf - IoP, RSC, ICE, OUP, Brill, Proquest *** Athens username required*** Periodicals Archive Online http://pao.chadwyck.co.uk Search eg. atoms, chemicals, lab experiments View article text or article pdf
Statistics Fact File Online (only available in College) http://www.carelpress.co.uk select search or browse Select a category e.g. Animals view pages download Excel option Issues Online http://www.independence.co.uk/issues-online Select Issues Online login Select a category – Science & health Select a topic – eg. genetic modification Select topic articles, key facts, key statistics
Company information Datamonitor 360 http://360.datamonitor.com search eg. Ineos, Pfizer Or browseindustries eg. biotechnology in the UK News Financial deals Opinion Companies SWOT analysis (often available)
Images Scran http://www.scran.ac.uk -search for images, use image to create posters etc. - Science pathfinder packs (Fleming, Lister, Watt, Young) JISC MediaHub http://jiscmediahub.ac.uk -search for video, image & audio resources
Ephemera The John Johnson Collection http://johnjohnson.chadwyck.co.uk an archive of 18th, 19th and early 20th century printed ephemera. Search, browse, login to Lightbox to store images, read responses (essays) Advertising: - dentistry - fuel - gas appliances - patent instruments - scientific instruments Document images in pdf Citation guide
Cartoons British Cartoon Archive http://www.cartoons.ac.uk Artwork, files, related documents Biographies of cartoonists Special collection for Carl Giles View cartoon groups – set up as teaching aids Read copyright info Search eg. chemical giles http://www.cartoons.ac.uk/browse/cartoon_item/anytext=chemical%20giles?page=9
Sound recordings BL Archival Sound recordings http://sounds.bl.uk (***Athens login required***) Browse: oral history then History of common cold unit then A-Z by interviewee Browse: environment & nature then amphibians, wildlife or soundscapes
Other Creative Commons http://creativecommons.org information on cc licences and search option.
Stage 3. Evaluate Think carefully about the information retrieved: Is information up-to-date, relevant, objective? Who supplied the information? Apply the PROMPT framework to assess information retrieved from your search. Presentation Relevance Objectivity Method Provenance Timeliness
Part 2Academic writing issues
Problems often arise from: Poor organisation of notes during research stage Excessive use of copy and paste (Ctrl-C, Ctrl-V) Non- acknowledgment, non attribution of sources Lack of understanding of referencing systems As a result: Academic integrity weakened Academic misconduct occurs Disciplinary procedures may be applied Research & academic writing
1. Copyright Legislation protects the owner of the original creative work Permissions check or seek permission to re-use content in projects Reasons for copying Commercial use Non commercial use Educational licence Some materials are licensed especially for use in education .
2. Plagiarism What does plagiarism mean to you? Watch the following video to discover what some other students think.
Plagiarism: student views [video & transcript]
Running time: approx. 5 min. http://www.heacademy.ac.uk/resources/audioandvideo/assessment Or at: http://vimeo.com/channels/154640#9230505
Doing the right thing There are several ways to avoid plagiarising the work of others. Quote useful to highlight main points, support arguments made in your work place exact quote word for word in quotation marks and list source eg. “plagiarism is a notion specific to a particular culture and epoch” (Ashworth, Freewood and Macdonald, 2003) But - don’t use too many quotes in one piece of work Paraphrase read quote and rephrase into your own words to give an overview it is not enough to just change one word in the quote Remember to attribute the broad ideas to the original author. Summarize Instead of using multi quotes, take the main background ideas from each and present an overview of them all.
More information on plagiarism is available from: PLATO: Plagiarism teaching online available on D2Lhttps://d2l.stevenson.ac.uk/ Student pages – Learning & Study Skills – Avoiding plagiarism/how to reference Student pages – Preparing for University - Study skills for university – Plagiarism Little book of plagiarism (Leeds Metropolitan University) http://www.scotlandscolleges.ac.uk/research/publications/other-publications.html Turnitin Plagiarism – additional advice
3. Citations Why list citations?
a record of the information you researched and consulted
Various styles including: APA, Harvard, MLA, Turabian
Adding citations to academic writing
End of text – list of references
Footnotes (but these not always used with Harvard system)
Type of resource cited include
book, journal article, online resources
Elements recorded in citations may include
author, year published, title, title of article/journal, page number
type of electronic resource, web address, date/place accessed
Some faculties may issue specific guidelines
Whatever system used, use consistently
How to make citations Harvard Reference system tutorial
PLATO: Plagiarism teaching online
available on D2L https://d2l.stevenson.ac.uk/ Student pages Learning & Study Skills Avoiding plagiarism/how to reference
4. Reference Lists Free tools to help you organise citations and references include: Citavi http://www.citavi.com Cite u Like http://www.citeulike.org Connetea http://www.connotea.org EasyBib http://www.easybib.com Mendeley http://www.mendeley.com WorldCat http://www.worldcat.org Zotero http://www.zotero.org
Reference List What is a reference list? Found at end of assignment A list of all sources referred to in the main body of the assignment Listed A-Z by author’s surname What does it include? List of sources from which quotes have been taken List of sources which have been paraphrased What does it not include? any resources used only for background reading
5. Bibliography What is a bibliography? A complete list of all the resources consulted during research. Not just a reference list. Contains all items whether or not you referred to them in the final project
Microsoft Office Word 7
Select references tab then citations & bibliography tools