Applied science research methods
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Applied science research methods

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    Applied science research methods Applied science research methods Presentation Transcript

    • Finding information
      Applied Science
    • Information search
    • Stage 1. Plan
      Think of key concept.
      Define key elements, sub-topics.
      Identify key words, phrases, people
      List associated/alternative words, spellings
      Set limits: time, place
    • Map your ideas
    • Stage 2: Search Library Internet
      Lending/Reference books
      Magazines
      DVDs
      Online resources
      Study space
      Search a variety of online resources on the:
      • surface web
      • deep web
    • Searching the web
      Popular search engines
      Bing http://www.bing.com
      Google http://www.google.com
      The surface web may not present all the results you expect or
      require. Often information is hidden deeper and within special
      Databases.
      The deep web contains information that cannot easily be
      found or retrieved by search engines as the information is
      stored and contained within databases.
    • Access identification
      Open Athens / MyAthens
      http://www.openathens.net
      Apply for an account
      Login to MyAthens
      Enter Username
      Enter password
      Select resources
      Secure/remote access
    • Library catalogue Virtual Learning
      D2L
      https://d2l.stevenson.ac.uk
      Visit
      Student Pages
      Learning Resources Centres
      Online resources
      Useful links
      Heritage Online
      http://www.stevenson.ac.uk/heritage
      Find links
      • Search by author, title, keyword
      .
      • Try an Advanced Search
      Search term: *
      Field : All fields
      Medium: Web site
    • Databases
      Search some of the databases that follow.
      (All these databases are listed on the library catalogue).
    • Electronic Books
      Ebrary
      http://site.ebrary.com/lib/stevenson/home.action
      Search over 3000 titles:
      eg. astronomy, evolution, human biology, polymers
      Browse – all subjects
      select a subject: eg. Science
      then select a sub-category: physics
      select a title & read text on screen
      ***Athens account required to access Bookshelf and highlighter pen**
      Watch the training video: http://www.ebrary.com/corp/collateral/flash/QuickStart/
    • Historic books
      JISC Historic Books http://www.jischistoricbooks.ac.uk
      Sign in as “Stevenson College Edinburgh”
      Then OpenAthens username and password
      View as text or image
      pre 20th century texts eg.
      Darwin, D (1882), Formation of vegetable mould….
      Galilei, Galileo(1730) mathematical discourses concerning 2 new sciences
    • General reference works
      Credo Reference
      http://www.credoreference.com
      - Search, browse, topic pages, find a book,
      - gadgets (Conversions eg. temperature : celsius - fahrenheit
      - concept map
      Oxford Reference Online
      http://www.oxfordreference.com
      - search, browse, timelines (scientists, inventions)
      - individual books, Visual English Dictionary, etc
      KnowUK
      http://www.knowuk.co.uk
      - search & refine, browse eg Dolly the Sheep
      - Social trends, Dictionary of Science & Technology, etc
    • Journals and newspapers
      Gale databases
      http://infotrac.galegroup.com/itweb/stevensc
      Articles from newspapers, magazines
      Full-text articles available.
      Search
      eg. Roslin Institute
      Browse subjects eg. radiation
      Browse publications:
      eg. Biochemistry & Cell Biology
      Advanced search:
      renewables(keyword) +
      Scotsman (publication title)
    • Journal archives
      Archives give access to older articles - up until about mid 1990s
      JISC Journal Archives
      http://www.jiscjournalarchives.ac.uk
      Search eg. bunsen burner, Kelvin
      - summary panel offers link to download pdf
      - IoP, RSC, ICE, OUP, Brill, Proquest
      *** Athens username required***
      Periodicals Archive Online
      http://pao.chadwyck.co.uk
      Search eg. atoms, chemicals, lab experiments
      View article text or article pdf
    • Statistics
      Fact File Online (only available in College)
      http://www.carelpress.co.uk
      select search or browse
      Select a category e.g. Animals
      view pages
      download Excel option
      Issues Online
      http://www.independence.co.uk/issues-online
      Select Issues Online login
      Select a category – Science & health
      Select a topic – eg. genetic modification
      Select topic articles, key facts, key statistics
    • Company information
      Datamonitor 360
      http://360.datamonitor.com
      search eg. Ineos, Pfizer
      Or browseindustries
      eg. biotechnology in the UK
      News
      Financial deals
      Opinion
      Companies
      SWOT analysis (often available)
    • Images
      Scran
      http://www.scran.ac.uk
      -search for images, use image to create posters etc.
      - Science pathfinder packs (Fleming, Lister, Watt, Young)
      JISC MediaHub
      http://jiscmediahub.ac.uk
      -search for video, image & audio resources
    • Ephemera
      The John Johnson Collection
      http://johnjohnson.chadwyck.co.uk
      an archive of 18th, 19th and early 20th century printed ephemera.
      Search, browse, login to Lightbox to store
      images, read responses (essays)
      Advertising:
      - dentistry
      - fuel
      - gas appliances
      - patent instruments
      - scientific instruments
      Document images in pdf
      Citation guide
    • Cartoons
      British Cartoon Archive
      http://www.cartoons.ac.uk
      Artwork, files, related documents
      Biographies of cartoonists
      Special collection for Carl Giles
      View cartoon groups –
      set up as teaching aids
      Read copyright info
      Search eg. chemical giles
      http://www.cartoons.ac.uk/browse/cartoon_item/anytext=chemical%20giles?page=9
    • Sound recordings
      BL Archival Sound recordings
      http://sounds.bl.uk
      (***Athens login required***)
      Browse: oral history
      then History of common cold unit
      then A-Z by interviewee
      Browse: environment & nature
      then amphibians, wildlife or soundscapes
    • Other
      Creative Commons http://creativecommons.org
      information on cc licences and search option.
    • Stage 3. Evaluate
      Think carefully about the information retrieved:
      Is information up-to-date, relevant, objective?
      Who supplied the information?
      Apply the PROMPT framework to assess information retrieved from your search.
      Presentation
      Relevance
      Objectivity
      Method
      Provenance
      Timeliness
    • Part 2Academic writing issues
    • Problems often arise from:
      Poor organisation of notes during research stage
      Excessive use of copy and paste (Ctrl-C, Ctrl-V)
      Non- acknowledgment, non attribution of sources
      Lack of understanding of referencing systems
      As a result:
      Academic integrity weakened
      Academic misconduct occurs
      Disciplinary procedures may be applied
      Research & academic writing
    • 1. Copyright
      Legislation
      protects the owner of the original creative work
      Permissions
      check or seek permission to re-use content in projects
      Reasons for copying
      Commercial use
      Non commercial use
      Educational licence
      Some materials are licensed especially for use in education
      .
    • 2. Plagiarism
      What does plagiarism mean to you?
      Watch the following video to discover what some other students think.
      • Plagiarism: student views [video & transcript]
      Running time: approx. 5 min.
      http://www.heacademy.ac.uk/resources/audioandvideo/assessment
      Or at: http://vimeo.com/channels/154640#9230505
    • Doing the right thing
      There are several ways to avoid plagiarising the work of others.
      Quote
      useful to highlight main points, support arguments made in your work
      place exact quote word for word in quotation marks and list source eg.
      “plagiarism is a notion specific to a particular culture and epoch” (Ashworth, Freewood and Macdonald, 2003)
      But - don’t use too many quotes in one piece of work
      Paraphrase
      read quote and rephrase into your own words to give an overview
      it is not enough to just change one word in the quote
      Remember to attribute the broad ideas to the original author.
      Summarize
      Instead of using multi quotes, take the main background ideas from each and present an overview of them all.
    • More information on plagiarism is available from:
      PLATO: Plagiarism teaching online
      available on D2Lhttps://d2l.stevenson.ac.uk/
      Student pages – Learning & Study Skills – Avoiding plagiarism/how to reference
      Student pages – Preparing for University - Study skills for university – Plagiarism
      Little book of plagiarism (Leeds Metropolitan University)
      http://www.scotlandscolleges.ac.uk/research/publications/other-publications.html
      Turnitin
      Plagiarism – additional advice
    • 3. Citations
      Why list citations?
      • a record of the information you researched and consulted
      Citation styles
      • Various styles including: APA, Harvard, MLA, Turabian
      Adding citations to academic writing
      • In-text citations
      • End of text – list of references
      • Footnotes (but these not always used with Harvard system)
      Type of resource cited include
      • book, journal article, online resources
      Elements recorded in citations may include
      • author, year published, title, title of article/journal, page number
      • type of electronic resource, web address, date/place accessed
      Guidelines
      • Some faculties may issue specific guidelines
      • Whatever system used, use consistently
    • How to make citations
      Harvard Reference system tutorial
      • PLATO: Plagiarism teaching online
      available on D2L
      https://d2l.stevenson.ac.uk/
      Student pages
      Learning & Study Skills
      Avoiding plagiarism/how to reference
    • 4. Reference Lists
      Free tools to help you organise citations and
      references include:
      Citavi http://www.citavi.com
      Cite u Like http://www.citeulike.org
      Connetea http://www.connotea.org
      EasyBib http://www.easybib.com
      Mendeley http://www.mendeley.com
      WorldCat http://www.worldcat.org
      Zotero http://www.zotero.org
    • Reference List
      What is a reference list?
      Found at end of assignment
      A list of all sources referred to in the main body of the assignment
      Listed A-Z by author’s surname
      What does it include?
      List of sources from which quotes have been taken
      List of sources which have been paraphrased
      What does it not include?
      any resources used only for background reading
    • 5. Bibliography
      What is a bibliography?
      A complete list of all the resources consulted during research.
      Not just a reference list.
      Contains all items whether or not you referred to them in the final project
    • Microsoft Office Word 7
      • Select references tab then citations & bibliography tools
      • Styles – APA, Chicago, GB7714, GOST, ISO 690, MLA, SIST02, Turabian
      • Manages sources, insert citation, bibliography
      • More info: Create a bibliography
      http://office.microsoft.com/en-us/word-help/create-a-bibliography-HA010067492.aspx