MODEL OF LEADERSHIP AND MOTIVATION IN
AND INDIAN SCRIPTURES
"Motivation is a decision-making process, through which the individual chooses
the desired outcomes and sets in motion the behavior appropriate to them".
Motivation is defined as an urge in an individual to perform goal directed
behavior. Therefore, motivation cannot be inflicted from outside but it is an intrinsic
desire in a man to achieve the target goal through performance or activity.
Motives are expression of person’s need. Hence, they are personal and internal.
Incentives on the other hand are external to the person. They are made part of work
environment by management in order to encourage workers to accomplish task. The
motivational model indicates that a sense of felt deprivation generates needs and
such needs create tension in an individual. The individual perceive and makes cost
benefit analysis on the ways and means of releasing such tension.
• Leadership :-
“a process of social influence in which one person can enlist the aid
and support of others in the accomplishment of a common task”
Leadership is "organizing a group of people to achieve a common
goal". The leader may or may not have any formal authority. Studies of
leadership have produced theories involving traits situational interaction,
function, behavior, power, vision and values charisma, and intelligence,
among others. Somebody whom people follow: somebody who guides or
establishing a clear vision
sharing that vision with others so that they will follow willingly,
MAHATMA GANDHI – AN INDIAN MODEL OF SERVANT
Mahatma Gandhi was born on October 2, 1869 at
Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, known as Mahatma
Gandhi and the great leader of the masses in India, is the
important architect and significant leader of the Indian
India is a land of great political leaders who ruled the country effectively and
also by protecting its national interest. It was not an easy task to
accomplish, keeping in view the changes taking place in the world political
scenario. Leaders like Pundit Jawaharlal Nehru, Lal Bahadur Shastri and Indira
Gandhi Bose played an indispensable role in changing the perspective of world
• Bal Gangadhar Tilak
Bal Gangadhar Tilak was a social reformer and freedom fighter. He was
one of the prime architects of modern India and strongest advocates of
Swaraj (Self Rule). He was universally recognized as the "Father of Indian
Bhagat Singh was among the prominent revolutionaries who shaped the
base of a grand national movement. Following his execution, on March
23, 1931, the supporters and followers of Bhagat Singh regarded him as a
Models of Motivation
Motivation means ‘’to move’’. It is a prosses of stimulating people to
action to accomplish desired goals. It is an psychological phenomenon
which generates within an individual. Motivation refers to the way in
which urges, drives,desires,aspirations, strivings, needs detect control or
explain the behavior of human being. Motivation concerns itself with the
will to work
The study of human motivation is importance in the theory of
management. Management involves creation and maintenance of
environment for performance of individuals working together in groups
towards accomplishment of common objectives therefore the manager
cannot perform his function without resulting what motivates people.
• CONCEPT OF MOTIVATION:
1. Motivation is a psychological phenomenon, which generates
within an individual.
2. It is an inner feeling, which energizes a person to work
3. The emotions or desires of a person prompt him for doing a
4. There are unsatisfied needs of a person which disturb his
5. A person moves to fulfill his unsatisfied needs by
conditioning his energies.
6. There are dormant energies in a person, which are activated
by channelizing them into an action
• Models of motivation in indian thought
1-shrikrishna model of motivation :-
In Mahabharata Arjuna chose Krishna as his advisor because Krishna
represented almighty source of motivation. when Arjuna is disheartened at
the onset of kurukshetra bettal ,Krishna motivates him.
Shri krishna,by the power of hues inspiring words, changes arjun’s mind
from states of inertia to one of righteous action, from the states o
alination,to estates of self confidence in the ultimate victory of ‘”DHRMA’”
BHAGWADGEETA says that he ideal spiritual hero should have
qualities like ;fearlessness,vigour,purity,evennessof mind,patienc etc
Krishna explain the importance of gyanyoga,bhaktiyoga,and
karma yoga to Arjuna .
According to Krishna excellence in karma is yoga. his word had
magical impact on Arjuna, who won the battal over affirming the
victory of dharma over adhrma,satya over asatya
• Rajarishi Model – The authentic Indian Model, which states
a leader should be skilled in governance(like Raja) and should seer (rishi).
E.g.. Raja Janak. Rishi is eternal traveler and a person who can show light
• . It symbolizes the holistic synthesis the holistic synthesis of character &
behavior . The leadership should be above the greedy path towards the
spiritual one. There are many examples like: Buddha, Asoka,
Harshvardhan, Shivaji, Chanakya etc. Leaders should give utmost
importance to integrity & social responsibilities. A great leader should
posses a charisma arising out of consistent pursuit of self control,
sacrifice & renunciation.
Leadership from Buddhism :-
According to this model, leader can be king if he is free from 4 evils:
Partially, dislike ignorance & fear. A leader should following qualities:
• He must have a pure mind [chittashuddhi] for a holistic vision.
• A pure mind is the condition of perfect insight into fundamentals.
• His counselor should be free from self-interest.
Manu- Smriti Model of leadership :-
According to this model, there are few principles for a king or a leader. He
should avoid all undertaking success that depends on others and purse
that success which entirely depends on him. Everything that depends on
other gives pain & everything on oneself gives pleasure.
• Lord created punishment for the king. It’s a protection of all creatures.
• Punishment has to be inflicted justly.
• Vivekananda Model of leadership : -
• : Vivekananda tried to reconcile Gyan & Karma to bring true leadership
qualities in man. According to this model, leader
• Leader is not made. He has to be born with it.
• For better judgment, a leader should be free from selfishness.
• Work like a worm steadily.
• Vijigshu Model of Leadership ( Kautilaya) : -
Vijigshu means Vijay (victory) ikshuk (desirous). Thus, leader must be
desirous of victory. Developed in the context of 'Kingdom
Management', model required the king or the leader to be self motivated
and driven by 'victory' orientation. Vijigshu uses the persuasion
(Sam), economic incentive (dam), power division (bhed) and punishment
(danda) as instruments to achieve his objective of loksangraha (welfare of
the world). I n this model, power (danda) is to be used for loksangraha i.e.
enlightened collective interest and not for self-interest.
• The world today is witnessing rapid environmental changes
which are causing fundamental transformation that have a
dramatic impact on the organization and present new
challenges for human resource management in general and
motivation levels in particulars .There have been numerous
studies which relate motivation but no such study was found
to be relating motivation in defense personnel. Similarly
there have been numerous studies which relate motivation
with leadership behavior and organization effectiveness.
But no such study was found to be relating motivation with
leadership behavior ,organizational culture ,team spirit and
personnel effectiveness of manager..
• Today giving models of motivation is more appropriate than the needy
,greedy or hungry model of motivation If organization as well as
employee both have thinking of giving then they becomes self motivated
to do better towards their responsibilities and ultimately organization
achieve its goal
• leadership is a vast and important subject . we can find leadership in
every sort of work and play .. This is possible because they allow for
different types of followers ,situations and leaders .They are flexible in
nature an adaptable too. Leadership models are useful and perhaps the
best toolkit if you have only one ,but they work best when the leader is
additionally able to draw on to integrate the best of what Leadership
philosophies and leadership style theory can offer…..
• ‘’ LEADERSHIP IS NOT ABOUT MAKING SPEECHES OR BEING
LIKED;LEADERSHIP IS DEFINED BY RESULTS NOT ATTRIBUTES’’.
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