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Nouns and articles Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Nouns and articles (Los sustantivos y los artículos) It is often said that a noun is a person, place or thing. That is true but, in fact, a noun is anything we can put a name on. Therefore, even words that refer to abstract concepts such as love, life, anger, and so on, are nouns. In Spanish, one of the words for noun is nombre, which simply means name.
  • 2. In Spanish, nouns are classified into two groups: masculine and feminine Masculine nouns To identify our masculine nouns, we will start with the indefinite masculine article un, which in English is a or an un libro un reloj a book a watch un menú a menu un rubí a ruby Normally, nouns ending in o, í, ú or a consonant are masculine. Of course, there are exceptions. One is una mano. Note: The fact that a noun is masculine, other than those that denote human beings, has nothing whatever to do with sexual attributes.
  • 3. Words ending in í or ú (accented) are fairly rare in Spanish and, as mentioned, are normally masculine. un iglú an igloo un colibrí a hummingbird un menú a menu un gurú a guru un esquí a ski un rubí a ruby Words ending in i or u (unaccented) are even more rare, and may be masculine or feminine. una tribu a tribe un/una cursi a pretentious person (male/female) In Spanish, nouns are classified into two groups: masculine and feminine
  • 4. Masculine nouns To identify our masculine nouns, we will start with the indefinite masculine article un, which in English is a or an un hombre un doctor a man a doctor (m) un profesor a professor (m) un muchacho a boy In addition, nouns that denote male persons are normally masculine. In Spanish, nouns are classified into two groups: masculine and feminine
  • 5. Feminine nouns To identify our feminine nouns, we will start with the indefinite feminine article una, which in English is a or an una mesa a table una nación a nation una ciudad a city Normally, nouns ending in a, ad, ción, or sión are feminine. Two exceptions are un mapa and un día. Note: Again, the fact that a noun is feminine, other than those that denote human beings, has nothing to do with sexual attributes. In Spanish, nouns are classified into two groups: masculine and feminine
  • 6. Feminine nouns To identify our feminine nouns, we will start with the indefinite feminine article una, which in English is a or an una mujer una doctora a woman a doctor (f) una profesora a professor (f) una muchacha a girl In addition, nouns that denote female persons are normally feminine or have a feminine form that is the counterpart of the masculine. In Spanish, nouns are classified into two groups: masculine and feminine
  • 7. Nouns ending in o, í, ú, or a consonant are normally masculine nouns ending in e Words that end with e are suspect, that is, they may be masculine or they may be feminine un coche a car un bache a pothole un bote a can When in doubt about the gender of a noun ending in e, or any noun, ask a native speaker or your teacher, or look it up in a dictionary. una noche a night una llave a key una calle a street un frente a front una frente a forehead un bate a bat (baseball) una peste a plague Masculine Feminine Remember! Nouns ending in a, ad, ción, or sión are normally feminine
  • 8. Words that end with -ma are usually masculine un problema un aroma un tema un programa un clima un diagramaun sistema un diploma But there are a few exceptions: una diademauna trama una estratagema
  • 9. Definite and indefinite articles Es un libro. The indefinite article (un, una) refers to a non-specific item. It’s a book, any old book. The definite article (el, la) refers to a specific item. Es el libro que usamos en la clase de español. It’s the book we use in the Spanish class.
  • 10. Definite and indefinite articles Es una silla. The indefinite article (un, una) refers to a non-specific item. It’s a chair, any old chair. The definite article (el, la) refers to a specific item. Es la silla que usamos en la clase de español. It’s the chair we use in the Spanish class.
  • 11. Definite and indefinite articles Hay unos libros en la sala de clase. The plural indefinite article (unos, unas) can be translated as “some” or “a few.” There are a few books in the classroom. Hay unas sillas también. There are some chairs, too.
  • 12. Definite and indefinite articles Son los libros para la clase de español. The plural definite article (los, las), just like the singular, refers to specific things. They’re the books for the Spanish class. Son las sillas para los estudiantes. They’re the chairs for the students.
  • 13. Summary of definite and indefinite articles un The masculine indefinite articles are: unos a, an some, a few un libro = a book unos libros = some books The masculine definite articles are: el los the the (English has no plural form for the) el libro = the book los libros = the books
  • 14. Summary of definite and indefinite articles una The feminine indefinite articles are: unas a, an some, a few una silla = a chair unas sillas = some chairs The feminine definite articles are: la las the the la silla = the chair las sillas = the chairs
  • 15. Pluralization (La pluralización) Nouns are pluralized differently in Spanish than in English. If a noun ends in a, á, e, é, o, ó, i or u, we simply add s. libro Singular Plural libros casa casas llave llaves tribu tribus mamá mamás café cafés dominó dominós cursi cursis
  • 16. Pluralization (La pluralización) Nouns are pluralized differently in Spanish than in English. The rare word that ends in í or ú can be pluralized by adding either s or es. Singular Plural esquí esquís/esquíes rubí rubís/rubíes menú menús/menúes tabú tabús/tabúes colibrí colibrís/colibríes iglú iglús/iglúes
  • 17. Pluralization (La pluralización) If a noun ends in a consonant, we add es. papel Singular Plural papeles borrador borradores orden órdenes Nouns are pluralized differently in Spanish than in English. pared paredes reloj relojes señor señores
  • 18. Pluralization (La pluralización) Singular Plural Polysyllabic words that end in s, and are stressed on any syllable except the last one, maintain the same form in the plural as in the singular. We show that they are plural by using the plural article. el oasis los oasis el lunes los lunes Nouns are pluralized differently in Spanish than in English. la tesis las tesis If stressed on the last syllable, they are pluralized normally. el autobús los autobuses
  • 19. Pluralization (La pluralización) Generally, adjectives are pluralized just like nouns. If an adjective ends in a vowel, we simply add s. Singular Plural bonito bonitos inteligente inteligentes If an adjective ends in a consonant, we add es. fácil fáciles común comunes
  • 20. Pluralization (La pluralización) When a noun or an adjective ends in z, we must change the z to c before adding es. Singular Plural lápiz lápices luz luces feliz felices audaz audaces nouns adjectives
  • 21. FIN