The Making-of-a-Professional-Teacher
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The Making-of-a-Professional-Teacher Presentation Transcript

  • 1. The Making ofa Professional Teacher 2007 師德全台巡迴講座 Michael Tsai 師德種子講師 知名連鎖品牌美語師資培訓講師 英國劍橋 TKT 國際認證講師 快速記憶及心智繪圖講師 1
  • 2. Agenda1. Approach, Method and Technique1. Approach, Method and Technique2. Teaching Methodologies2. Teaching Methodologies3. How to choose the “best” method?3. How to choose the “best” method?4. Teaching very young learners4. Teaching very young learners4. Practical games and activities4. Practical games and activities 2
  • 3. What is it to bea professional teacher? 3
  • 4. A professional teacher is… 4
  • 5. Approach, method or technique? 5
  • 6. 6
  • 7. METHODOLOGYAPPROACH METHOD TECHNIQUETheories Principles ActivitiesBelief Goals SkillsNature of Syllabus Procedureslanguage and Roleslanguage Materialslearning Plans 7
  • 8. Teaching Methodologies 8
  • 9. Before we start…Don’t look at your handouts!How did you learn your first foreign language?How did you learn your mother tongue?Which teaching method or methods do you usually use to teach English?Talk with your partner.Share with us. 9
  • 10. Now, let’s have a little test…Look at the handouts now.Discuss with your partner which teaching methods fit into the different descriptions. 10
  • 11. Teaching Methodologies 11
  • 12. 1. The Grammar-Translation Method 12
  • 13. 13
  • 14. General descriptionFocus  Translation  GrammarTraditional way to teach  Latin  Greek19th century  European languagesDevelop  Reading skill  cognitive ability 14
  • 15. ActivitiesPresentation of grammar rulesStudy of lists of vocabularySynonyms, antonyms, roots, prefixes, suffixesTranslation exerciseReading comprehension 15
  • 16. 2. Natural Approach 16
  • 17. 17
  • 18. General description 1970s-1980s, Krashen & Terrell Focus  Spoken language  Oral communication skill  Use of objects and actions in teaching  Natural principles of first language acquisition  Content, not form Meaningful communication 4 Hypothesis  Acquisition-Learning Hypothesis  Monitor Hypothesis  Natural Order Hypothesis  Input Hypothesis: i+1  Affective Filter Hypothesis 18
  • 19. ActivitiesUse pictures, drawings, gesturesTPRCommandsClassroom language 19
  • 20. 3. The Direct Method 20
  • 21. 21
  • 22. General description19th centuryTarget language onlyMeaning “directly” communicated using  Actions  Objects  Mime  Gestures  SituationsL & S before R & WGrammar: inductive learning 22
  • 23. Example 1Example 4 Grammatical Example 2 Rules Example 3 23
  • 24. Example 1Example 4 Grammatical Example 2 Rules Example 3 24
  • 25. ActivitiesReading aloudQ & ASelf-correctionConversationFill-in the blanksDictationListening comprehensionParagraph writing 25
  • 26. Berlitz1. Never translate: demonstrate2. Never explain: act3. Never make a speech: ask questions4. Never imitate mistakes: correct5. Never speak with single words: use sentences6. Never speak too much: make students speak much7. Never jump around: follow your plan8. Never go too fast: keep the pace of the student9. Never speak too slowly: speak normally10. Never speak too quickly: speak naturally11. Never speak too loudly: speak naturally12. Never be impatient: take it easy 26
  • 27. 4. The Audio-Lingual Method 27
  • 28. 28
  • 29. General description1950s-1960s, USArmy MethodBehaviorismL & S before R & WUse  Dialogues  DrillsDiscourage the use of mother tongue 29
  • 30. Behaviorism + REPEATED REINFORCEMENT BEHAVIORSTIMULUS REPONSE NO / - NO REPEATED REINFORCEMENT BEHAVIOR 30
  • 31. Activities Repetition Inflection: he she; singular plural Replacement: “Helen is a girl.” “SHE is a girl.” Restatement: indirect speech direct speech Completion: “I want a hot dog and you want…” Transposition: “I’m hungry. (SO…)” Expansion: “I enjoy it. (…very much)” Contraction: “I play at school.” “I play THERE.” Transformation: I am… I am not… Am I… Integration: “I am glad.” + “You are here.” Rejoinder: Introduce yourself in a polite way… Restoration: students/ waiting/ bus 31
  • 32. 5. The Silent Way 32
  • 33. 33
  • 34. General description 1970s, US, Galeb Gattegno Use  Gesture, Mime, Visual aids, Wall chart, Cuisenaire rods Vocabulary is the key Force learners’  self-awareness, self-reliance, self-responsibility Teaching should be subordinated to learning. The teacher works with the students, the student works on the language. The teacher is not a language teacher, but a teacher of language learners. 34
  • 35. Rectangle Chart 35
  • 36. English Fidel 36
  • 37. Word Chart 37
  • 38. Cuisenaire Rods 38
  • 39. Activities1. Pronunciation (stress, intonation)  Word  Phrase  Sentence2. Structure  Vocabulary  Sentence pattern 39
  • 40. 6. Desuggestopedia 40
  • 41. 41
  • 42. General description1970s, Bulgaria, Georgi LozanovRich sensory learning environment  Picture, color, songs, music, posterPositive expectation of successUse a varied range of methods  Dramatized texts  Music  Active participation in songs and games, etc. 42
  • 43. Activities1. Presentation  Relax  Positive frame of mind  Learning is going to be easy and fun.2. First Concert - "Active Concert“  Active presentation  Accompanied by classical music.3. Second Concert - "Passive Review“  Relax and listen to some Baroque music  Text read very quietly in the background4. Practice  Games, puzzles, etc.  Review and consolidate 43
  • 44. 7. Community Language Learning 44
  • 45. 45
  • 46. General description 1960s, US, Charles  Group learning Curran  Mutual trust, help, Whole persons cooperation  “Language is people.”  Counseling learning  “Language is persons  Teacher: Counselor in contract.”  Non-defensive  “Language is persons learning in response.”  Security  “Learning is persons.”  Aggression Highly learner  Attention centered  Reflection  Retention  Discrimination 46
  • 47. Activities Translation  L decides what T teaches; T translates Group work  Group prepares materials, e.g. a talk, a topic, a story Recording  Piece by piece, in target language Copying  Write down the scripts Reflection & Observation  Share feeling with others, with group, or with class Listening  Listen to teacher’s or learner’s own recording Free Talk  With others or teacher, about content or47 experience
  • 48. 8. Total Physical Response 48
  • 49. 49
  • 50. Let’s have a French lesson now!Assis!Debout!Venez ici!Allez la-bas!Dormez!Levez! 50
  • 51. General description 1960s, US, James Asher Key concepts  COMPREHESNION  ACTIONS  RESPONSES It’s all in the way we learn. “Do not attempt to force speaking from students.” Comprehension before expression. Focus on the content, not on the form. Verb is the king!  Imperative! 51
  • 52. How does a baby learn to utter the first word and then speak?Language-body conversationBabies don’t learn by memorization.Words without actions in the primary stage  Meaningless!  No matter how many times they are repeated!  Try with your dog! 52
  • 53. Procedure1. T says & acts; C observes2. T says & acts; C acts3. T says; C acts4. T says; C says & acts5. 1 L says & acts; both C & T act6. 1 L says & acts; C acts7. 1 L says; both C & T say & act8. 1 L says; C says & acts 53
  • 54. 9. Communicative Approach 54
  • 55. 55
  • 56. General description 1980s Linguistic + Communicative competence  Knowledge of language  Knowledge of rules of speaking  Knowledge of different types of speech acts  Knowledge of how to use the language appropriately in different kinds of social contexts Authentic language, materials Specific vocabulary and expressions Functions  Requesting, describing, expressing likes & dislikes Use language to perform different kinds of tasks 56
  • 57. Activities Johnson and Morrow 1981 Real communicative activities:  Information gap  Choice  Feedback Same forms Different functions  “How are you?” Same functions Different forms  Introduce yourself Role play Interviews Surveys Pair work 57
  • 58. 10. Content-based Approach 58
  • 59. 59
  • 60. General description Language across the curriculum Language immersion Target language is a medium to learn other content areas Language immersion  Immerge language teaching with authentic contents, communication and other school subjects Develop communicative skill Satisfy learners’ needs  Choose their own materials, topics, activities Encourage independent learning! 60
  • 61. Activities Listening Language Language Social Social Math Math Studies Studies TopicWriting Topic Theme Theme Speaking Health Edu Health Edu Art Art P.E. P.E. Science Science Technology Technology Reading 61
  • 62. 11. Task-based Approach 62
  • 63. 63
  • 64. General descriptionLesson based around the completion of a central taskLanguage determined by what happened during the completion of the task 64
  • 65. ProcedurePre-taskPre-task Task Circle Task Circle Post-task Post-task•Defining the •Task •Reportingtask •Pair or group •Feedback•Preparing for work •Analyzingthe task •Planning for the •Practicing report •Oral •Written 65
  • 66. Activities Information gap  Exchange info  No continuous negotiating Opinion gap  A given topic  Out of control Reasoning gap  New info concluded from given info  The best Project work Problem solving 66
  • 67. 12. Cooperative Learning 67
  • 68. 68
  • 69. General description 69
  • 70. Procedure1. Planning2. Grouping3. Explanation4. Assigning roles5. Completing tasks6. Observation7. Presentation8. Evaluation 70
  • 71. ActivitiesPeer tutoringJigsawCo-operative projectsGroup investigation 71
  • 72. 13. Multiple Intelligences 72
  • 73. Yea me too.I just love to talk88 73
  • 74. General description1983, US, Howard GardnerThere is more than one psychological site of intelligence in the human brain.  7 basic intelligences  8th: Naturalist intelligence  9th: Existentialist/ Spiritualist intelligenceThe weak intelligences can be improved by working on strong ones!!Use the children’s natural learning strengths to enhance their weak ones. 74
  • 75. The Intelligence Pizza 75
  • 76. The 8 intelligences Scientific thinking Inductive/deductive reasoning Pattern recognition 76
  • 77. The 8 intelligences Sense of sight learning Internal image construction 77
  • 78. The 8 intelligences Physical movement Brain’s motor cortex 78
  • 79. The 8 intelligences Person-to-person relationships 79 Communication
  • 80. The 8 intelligencesRecognition of tonalpatternsSensitivity to rhythmand beats 80
  • 81. The 8 intelligencesInner states ofbeingSelf-reflection 81
  • 82. The 8 intelligencesWordsLanguage 82
  • 83. The 8 intelligencesRecognition,Appreciation, andUnderstanding of theflora and fauna of thenature 83
  • 84. Logical / Mathematical Abstract Symbols/  Logical/Pattern Formulas Games Calculation  Number Sequences/ Deciphering Codes Patterns Forcing Relationships  Outlining Graphic/Cognitive  Problem Solving Organizers 84
  • 85. Visual / Spatial Strategies Active imagination  Mind mapping Color/texture  Montage/collage schemes  Painting Drawing  Patterns/designs Guided  Pretending/Fantasy imagery/visualizing  Sculpting 85
  • 86. Bodily / Kinesthetic Strategies Body  Gymnastic routines language/physical  Inventing gestures  Physical exercise Body  Role playing/mime sculpture/tableaus  Sports games Dramatic enactment Folk/creative dance 86
  • 87. Intrapersonal Strategies Consciousness  Thinking strategies practices  Independent Emotional processing studies/projects Focusing/  Mindfulness practices concentration skills  Silent reflection Higher-order reasoning 87
  • 88. Musical / Rhythmic Strategies Environmental  Percussion vibrations sounds  Rapping Instrumental sounds  Rhythmic patterns Music composition/  Singing/humming creation  Tonal patterns Music performance  Vocal sounds/tones 88
  • 89. Interpersonal Strategies Collaborative skills  Intuiting others’ teaching feelings Cooperative learning  Sensing others’ strategies motives Empathy practices  Jigsaw Giving feedback  Person-to-person Yea me too. Group projects I just love to talk communication  Receiving feedback 89
  • 90. Verbal / Linguistics Strategies Creative writing  Poetry Formal speaking  Reading Humor/jokes  Storytelling Impromptu speaking  Story creation Journal/diary  Verbal debate keeping  Vocabulary 90
  • 91. Naturalist Strategies Caring for  Nature encounters/ plants/animals field trips Conservation  Natural observation practices  Natural world simulations Environmental  Species classification feedback  (Organic/inorganic) Hands-on labs 91
  • 92. How to choose the “best” method? 92
  • 93. What affects your choices?Personal beliefExperienceTeaching stylesClassesStudentsSituations 93
  • 94. Different choicesAbsolutismRelativismPluralismEclecticismPrincipled Eclecticism 94
  • 95. To sum up…There is no perfect method!A method is suitable only for a certain environment.A good method depends on the efforts furnished by the teacher him-/herself.All methods are results of wisdom and experiences of many people.Consider about your students’ needs!“Adapt; don’t adopt!”~ Clifford Drator 95
  • 96. Teaching very young learners 96
  • 97. Teaching very young learners Physical and mental differences 3 phases:  Listening phase  Developing phase  Miming phase Classroom management Words are not enough Play with the language Variety in the classroom Establishing routines and learning habits Cooperation not competition 97
  • 98. Practical games, activities and scoring systems 98
  • 99. What is a “game”?A game in language teaching is defined as followings:  An organized activity that usually has the following properties:  a particular task or objective  a set of rules  competitions between players  communication between players by spoken or written language 99
  • 100. Warm-ups or lead-ins?Warm-ups (warmers):  To raise students’ energy level  Make them feel comfortable  Not always connected to the topicLead-ins:  Focus on the topic or the new language  Motivate students  Make a link between the topic and students’ own lives 100
  • 101. Scoring beyond scoresThink beyond pointsUse toys, toy moneyCombine games, gambling with scoringFocus on fun, not on competitionBe fair! 101
  • 102. Conclusion 102
  • 103. What you can do…Improve your overall English ability!Learn everything around English teaching!Reflect upon your own teaching often!Think about the ultimate destination you want to take your students to in the end!Be open-minded!Be a life-long learner yourself! 103
  • 104. Thank you for your attention! Any comments or shares of thoughts are welcome! huttm@hotmail.com 104