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The Making-of a Professional Teacher

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  • 1. The Making ofa Professional Teacher 2007師德全台巡迴講座 Michael Tsai 師德種子講師 知名連鎖品牌美語師資培訓講師 英國劍橋TKT國際認證講師 快速記憶及心智繪圖講師 1
  • 2. Agenda1. Approach, Method and Technique2. Teaching Methodologies3. How to choose the “best” method?4. Teaching very young learners4. Practical games and activities 2
  • 3. What is it to bea professional teacher? 3
  • 4. A professional teacher is… Life-Long Learning PassionateAppreciative Resolved Naïf Open-minded PROFESSIONAL Optimistic TEACHER FlexibleImaginative Energetic Self- Confident Sympathetic 4
  • 5. Approach, method or technique? 5
  • 6. 6
  • 7. METHODOLOGYAPPROACH METHOD TECHNIQUETheories Principles ActivitiesBelief Goals SkillsNature of Syllabus Procedureslanguage and Roleslanguage Materialslearning Plans 7
  • 8. Teaching Methodologies 8
  • 9. Before we start…Don’t look at your handouts!How did you learn your first foreign language?How did you learn your mother tongue?Which teaching method or methods do you usually use to teach English?Talk with your partner.Share with us. 9
  • 10. Now, let’s have a little test…Look at the handouts now.Discuss with your partner which teaching methods fit into the different descriptions. 10
  • 11. Teaching Methodologies 11
  • 12. 1. The Grammar-Translation Method 12
  • 13. 13
  • 14. General descriptionFocus  Translation  GrammarTraditional way to teach  Latin  Greek19th century  European languagesDevelop  Reading skill  cognitive ability 14
  • 15. ActivitiesPresentation of grammar rulesStudy of lists of vocabularySynonyms, antonyms, roots, prefixes, suffixesTranslation exerciseReading comprehension 15
  • 16. 2. Natural Approach 16
  • 17. 17
  • 18. General description1970s-1980s, Krashen & TerrellFocus  Spoken language  Oral communication skill  Use of objects and actions in teaching  Natural principles of first language acquisition  Content, not formMeaningful communication4 Hypothesis  Acquisition-Learning Hypothesis  Monitor Hypothesis  Natural Order Hypothesis  Input Hypothesis: i+1  Affective Filter Hypothesis 18
  • 19. ActivitiesUse pictures, drawings, gesturesTPRCommandsClassroom language 19
  • 20. 3. The Direct Method 20
  • 21. 21
  • 22. General description19th centuryTarget language onlyMeaning “directly” communicated using  Actions  Objects  Mime  Gestures  SituationsL & S before R & WGrammar: inductive learning 22
  • 23. Example 1Example 4 Grammatical Example 2 Rules Example 3 23
  • 24. Example 1Example 4 Grammatical Example 2 Rules Example 3 24
  • 25. ActivitiesReading aloudQ & ASelf-correctionConversationFill-in the blanksDictationListening comprehensionParagraph writing 25
  • 26. Berlitz1. Never translate: demonstrate2. Never explain: act3. Never make a speech: ask questions4. Never imitate mistakes: correct5. Never speak with single words: use sentences6. Never speak too much: make students speak much7. Never jump around: follow your plan8. Never go too fast: keep the pace of the student9. Never speak too slowly: speak normally10. Never speak too quickly: speak naturally11. Never speak too loudly: speak naturally12. Never be impatient: take it easy 26
  • 27. 4. The Audio-Lingual Method 27
  • 28. 28
  • 29. General description1950s-1960s, USArmy MethodBehaviorismL & S before R & WUse  Dialogues  DrillsDiscourage the use of mother tongue 29
  • 30. Behaviorism + REPEATED REINFORCEMENT BEHAVIORSTIMULUS REPONSE NO / - NO REPEATED REINFORCEMENT BEHAVIOR 30
  • 31. ActivitiesRepetitionInflection: he she; singular pluralReplacement: “Helen is a girl.” “SHE is a girl.”Restatement: indirect speech direct speechCompletion: “I want a hot dog and you want…”Transposition: “I’m hungry. (SO…)”Expansion: “I enjoy it. (…very much)”Contraction: “I play at school.” “I play THERE.”Transformation: I am… I am not… Am I…Integration: “I am glad.” + “You are here.”Rejoinder: Introduce yourself in a polite way…Restoration: students/ waiting/ bus 31
  • 32. 5. The Silent Way 32
  • 33. 33
  • 34. General description1970s, US, Galeb GattegnoUse  Gesture, Mime, Visual aids, Wall chart, Cuisenaire rodsVocabulary is the keyForce learners’  self-awareness, self-reliance, self-responsibilityTeaching should be subordinated to learning.The teacher works with the students, the student works on the language.The teacher is not a language teacher, but a teacher of language learners. 34
  • 35. Rectangle Chart 35
  • 36. English Fidel 36
  • 37. Word Chart 37
  • 38. Cuisenaire Rods 38
  • 39. Activities1. Pronunciation (stress, intonation)  Word  Phrase  Sentence2. Structure  Vocabulary  Sentence pattern 39
  • 40. 6. Desuggestopedia 40
  • 41. 41
  • 42. General description1970s, Bulgaria, Georgi LozanovRich sensory learning environment  Picture, color, songs, music, posterPositive expectation of successUse a varied range of methods  Dramatized texts  Music  Active participation in songs and games, etc. 42
  • 43. Activities1. Presentation  Relax  Positive frame of mind  Learning is going to be easy and fun.2. First Concert - "Active Concert“  Active presentation  Accompanied by classical music.3. Second Concert - "Passive Review“  Relax and listen to some Baroque music  Text read very quietly in the background4. Practice  Games, puzzles, etc.  Review and consolidate 43
  • 44. 7. Community Language Learning 44
  • 45. 45
  • 46. General description1960s, US, Charles Group learning Curran  Mutual trust, help,Whole persons cooperation  “Language is people.” Counseling learning  “Language is persons  Teacher: Counselor in contract.” Non-defensive  “Language is persons learning in response.”  Security  “Learning is persons.”  AggressionHighly learner  Attention centered  Reflection  Retention  Discrimination 46
  • 47. ActivitiesTranslation  L decides what T teaches; T translatesGroup work  Group prepares materials, e.g. a talk, a topic, a storyRecording  Piece by piece, in target languageCopying  Write down the scriptsReflection & Observation  Share feeling with others, with group, or with classListening  Listen to teacher’s or learner’s own recordingFree Talk  With others or teacher, about content or experience 47
  • 48. 8. Total Physical Response 48
  • 49. 49
  • 50. Let’s have a French lesson now!Assis!Debout!Venez ici!Allez la-bas!Dormez!Levez! 50
  • 51. General description1960s, US, James AsherKey concepts  COMPREHESNION  ACTIONS  RESPONSESIt’s all in the way we learn.“Do not attempt to force speaking from students.”Comprehension before expression.Focus on the content, not on the form.Verb is the king!  Imperative! 51
  • 52. How does a baby learn to utter the first word and then speak?Language-body conversationBabies don’t learn by memorization.Words without actions in the primary stage  Meaningless!  No matter how many times they are repeated!  Try with your dog! 52
  • 53. Procedure1. T says & acts; C observes2. T says & acts; C acts3. T says; C acts4. T says; C says & acts5. 1 L says & acts; both C & T act6. 1 L says & acts; C acts7. 1 L says; both C & T say & act8. 1 L says; C says & acts 53
  • 54. 9. Communicative Approach 54
  • 55. 55
  • 56. General description1980sLinguistic + Communicative competence  Knowledge of language  Knowledge of rules of speaking  Knowledge of different types of speech acts  Knowledge of how to use the language appropriately in different kinds of social contextsAuthentic language, materialsSpecific vocabulary and expressionsFunctions  Requesting, describing, expressing likes & dislikesUse language to perform different kinds of tasks 56
  • 57. ActivitiesJohnson and Morrow 1981Real communicative activities:  Information gap  Choice  FeedbackSame forms Different functions  “How are you?”Same functions Different forms  Introduce yourselfRole playInterviewsSurveysPair work 57
  • 58. 10. Content-based Approach 58
  • 59. 59
  • 60. General descriptionLanguage across the curriculumLanguage immersionTarget language is a medium to learn other content areasLanguage immersion  Immerge language teaching with authentic contents, communication and other school subjectsDevelop communicative skillSatisfy learners’ needs  Choose their own materials, topics, activitiesEncourage independent learning! 60
  • 61. Activities Listening Language Social Math Studies TopicWriting Theme Speaking Health Edu Art P.E. Science Technology Reading 61
  • 62. 11. Task-based Approach 62
  • 63. 63
  • 64. General descriptionLesson based around the completion of a central taskLanguage determined by what happened during the completion of the task 64
  • 65. ProcedurePre-task Task Circle Post-task•Defining the •Task •Reportingtask •Pair or group •Feedback•Preparing for work •Analyzingthe task •Planning for the •Practicing report •Oral •Written 65
  • 66. ActivitiesInformation gap  Exchange info  No continuous negotiatingOpinion gap  A given topic  Out of controlReasoning gap  New info concluded from given info  The bestProject workProblem solving 66
  • 67. 12. Cooperative Learning 67
  • 68. 68
  • 69. General description 69
  • 70. Procedure1. Planning2. Grouping3. Explanation4. Assigning roles5. Completing tasks6. Observation7. Presentation8. Evaluation 70
  • 71. ActivitiesPeer tutoringJigsawCo-operative projectsGroup investigation 71
  • 72. 13. Multiple Intelligences 72
  • 73. Yea me too.I just love to talk88 73
  • 74. General description1983, US, Howard GardnerThere is more than one psychological site of intelligence in the human brain.  7 basic intelligences  8th: Naturalist intelligence  9th: Existentialist/ Spiritualist intelligenceThe weak intelligences can be improved by working on strong ones!!Use the children’s natural learning strengths to enhance their weak ones. 74
  • 75. The Intelligence Pizza 75
  • 76. The 8 intelligences Scientific thinking Inductive/deductive reasoning Pattern recognition 76
  • 77. The 8 intelligences Sense of sight learning Internal image construction 77
  • 78. The 8 intelligences Physical movement Brain’s motor cortex 78
  • 79. The 8 intelligences Person-to-person relationships Communication 79
  • 80. The 8 intelligencesRecognition of tonalpatternsSensitivity to rhythmand beats 80
  • 81. The 8 intelligencesInner states ofbeingSelf-reflection 81
  • 82. The 8 intelligencesWordsLanguage 82
  • 83. The 8 intelligencesRecognition,Appreciation, andUnderstanding of theflora and fauna of thenature 83
  • 84. Logical / MathematicalAbstract Symbols/ Logical/Pattern Formulas GamesCalculation Number Sequences/Deciphering Codes PatternsForcing Relationships OutliningGraphic/Cognitive Problem Solving Organizers 84
  • 85. Visual / Spatial StrategiesActive imagination Mind mappingColor/texture Montage/collage schemes PaintingDrawing Patterns/designsGuided Pretending/Fantasy imagery/visualizing Sculpting 85
  • 86. Bodily / Kinesthetic StrategiesBody Gymnastic routines language/physical Inventing gestures Physical exerciseBody Role playing/mime sculpture/tableaus Sports gamesDramatic enactmentFolk/creative dance 86
  • 87. Intrapersonal StrategiesConsciousness Thinking strategies practices IndependentEmotional processing studies/projectsFocusing/ Mindfulness practices concentration skills Silent reflectionHigher-order reasoning 87
  • 88. Musical / Rhythmic StrategiesEnvironmental Percussion vibrations sounds RappingInstrumental sounds Rhythmic patternsMusic composition/ Singing/humming creation Tonal patternsMusic performance Vocal sounds/tones 88
  • 89. Interpersonal StrategiesCollaborative skills Intuiting others’ teaching feelingsCooperative learning Sensing others’ strategies motivesEmpathy practices JigsawGiving feedback Person-to-person Yea me too.Group projects I just love to talk communication Receiving feedback 89
  • 90. Verbal / Linguistics StrategiesCreative writing PoetryFormal speaking ReadingHumor/jokes StorytellingImpromptu speaking Story creationJournal/diary Verbal debate keeping Vocabulary 90
  • 91. Naturalist StrategiesCaring for Nature encounters/ plants/animals field tripsConservation Natural observation practices Natural world simulationsEnvironmental feedback Species classification  (Organic/inorganic)Hands-on labs 91
  • 92. How to choose the “best” method? 92
  • 93. What affects your choices?Personal beliefExperienceTeaching stylesClassesStudentsSituations 93
  • 94. Different choicesAbsolutismRelativismPluralismEclecticismPrincipled Eclecticism 94
  • 95. To sum up…There is no perfect method!A method is suitable only for a certain environment.A good method depends on the efforts furnished by the teacher him-/herself.All methods are results of wisdom and experiences of many people.Consider about your students’ needs!“Adapt; don’t adopt!”~ Clifford Drator 95
  • 96. Teaching very young learners 96
  • 97. Teaching very young learnersPhysical and mental differences3 phases:  Listening phase  Developing phase  Miming phaseClassroom managementWords are not enoughPlay with the languageVariety in the classroomEstablishing routines and learning habitsCooperation not competition 97
  • 98. Practical games, activities and scoring systems 98
  • 99. What is a “game”?A game in language teaching is defined as followings:  An organized activity that usually has the following properties:  a particular task or objective  a set of rules  competitions between players  communication between players by spoken or written language 99
  • 100. Warm-ups or lead-ins?Warm-ups (warmers):  To raise students’ energy level  Make them feel comfortable  Not always connected to the topicLead-ins:  Focus on the topic or the new language  Motivate students  Make a link between the topic and students’ own lives 100
  • 101. Scoring beyond scoresThink beyond pointsUse toys, toy moneyCombine games, gambling with scoringFocus on fun, not on competitionBe fair! 101
  • 102. Conclusion 102
  • 103. What you can do…Improve your overall English ability!Learn everything around English teaching!Reflect upon your own teaching often!Think about the ultimate destination you want to take your students to in the end!Be open-minded!Be a life-long learner yourself! 103
  • 104. Thank you for your attention! Any comments or shares of thoughts are welcome! huttm@hotmail.com 104