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  • 1. Space&Energy * *think outside the planet Expand your horizon on 1
  • 2. NASA “ How inappropriate to call this planet Earth when it is quite clearly Ocean.” Sir Arthur C. Clarke2 3
  • 3. NASA Contents Space&Energy 25 6 Introduction to Space & Energy 30 Space and energy facts 8 Inner and outer Space 35 Arena Integrated Operations Fewer people have visited the deepest point on our own planet than have been to the Moon. 46 Ipark – the Stavanger Innovation Park 12 Robots: doing our dirty work 48 More efficient satellites from Now we know who really went to all those dangerous CMR Prototech places in outer space. 50 Real time environmental monitoring 15 The unknown subsea energy source with Biota Guard Methane hydrate might be our next major fossil fuel resource. 52 Eatops uses space technology to monitor offshore oil and gas fields 18 A selection of NASA space technology spinoffs 56 The Norwegian Space Centre 20 Rechargeable fuel cells in space 60 STM heads next generation open broadband NASA sponsored the first commercially viable fuel cell. interactive satellite technology effort for the ESA 21 Space spinoffs on the continental shelf In years to come, many space-based technologies will 62 Using ASIGN in Situational Awareness “Drilling up” make an impact offshore. systems 23 Observing the oceans from space 64 Taking Space & Energy to the Next Level Space offers an excellent vantage point for remote The core of enthusiasts behind the Space & Energy network sensing and observation of the Earth. 28 Space and energy timeline are all passionate about technology and space. 66 Only one millionth ... – The future of © 2010 ONS - Space & Energy Park, Stavanger, Norway - Art director: Klas Jønsson - Graphic Design: Muskat Design - Print: Gunnarshaug Circulation: 15 000 energy in space 16 36 38 40 42 44 54 58 The Norwegian Safer drilling with Telenor Satellites Houston – we have Remote, ONS – Space WORLD CLASS Oceaneering Space Industry Seabed Rig to focus on offshore the solution! complex and and energy – achieved with – operating in and shipping expensive to fix people, technology space and deep markets and dedication waters4 5
  • 4. Introduction to Space&Energy The parallell challenges and opportunities within the space and energy industry hides a vaste potential for competence and technology transfer. “The link between space and offshore is interesting because We believe the intersection and interaction of these two large industries it may lead to development of exciting technology and new business in Norway. will generate new solutions and new business opportunities. And we believe ” the examples and visions will ignite new interest and new perspectives Minister of Trade and Industry Trond Giske on both industries from politicians, professionals, students and public. During the ONS 2010 we will show this through conferences, seminars, “ONS has always been focused on new technology areas. the Space&Energy park and this magazine. Oil and gas industry is coupled with the rest of the energy cluster in front of significant technological challenges, and it is natural to find inspiration, knowledge and technology from the aerospace industry. ” Kjell Ursin Smith “My aim as editor of this magazine is to kindle an interest ONS in the often surprising interaction between the development of ocean and space. Despite our many challenges, we “Offshore and space activities both need innovative solutions, inhabit a world filled with possibilites and promise – if we are willing to think outside the planet. skilled people and technology with extreme qualities. It is therefore natural to exchange knowledge and experience ” Erik Newth – M.Sc. and editor across these industries and to take a joint effort to stimulate of Space & Energy interest in education in technology and science. ” Odd Roger Enoksen – CEO Andøya Rakettskytefelt AS and former Minister of Petroleum and Energy Thanks to our partnerships that made this possible: Norsk Romsenter NORWEGIAN SPACE CENTRE6 7
  • 5. NASA Inner and outer space Here’s a little-known, but important fact: Fewer people have visited the deepest point on our own planet than have been to the Moon. I n fact, while twelve Americans have matched innovation in the field of manned NOAA walked on the lunar surface, only two spaceflight. people have ever seen the bottom of the 10,911 metre deep Mariana Trench with The two great frontiers their own eyes. The parallel explosion in deep sea and space exploration was no coincidence. Those intrepid explorers were Jacques Pic- World War Two left mankind with two great card and Don Walsh. Their craft was the Tri- frontiers left to explore, and the technology este, a submarine designed to withstand with which to explore them: SCUBA gear more than one thousand times atmospher- and the space rocket. This technology, ic pressure. which matured in the 1950s and 60s, paid dividends during subsequent decades, from 20 minutes at the bottom deep-sea oil wells to satellite TV. The Trieste reached the floor of the Mariana Trench on January 23, 1960. Worried by a The similarities do not end here, however. crack in one of the windows, Piccard and The ocean and deep space are both incom- Walsh stayed for only twenty minutes, patible with human life. Pressure is a chal- which was time enough to make the stun- lenge in both environments (although in ning, and since confirmed, discovery that opposite ways), as are temperature, isola- fish and shrimp can thrive even at this tion and the sheer physical danger and ex- depth. pense of operating under such conditions. The Trieste mission was followed by a series Now what? of innovations in the 1960s, such as the There’s a less inspirational comparison to world’s first underwater habitat, deep-tow be made here as well. The US manned space sonar and the underwater robot. This was programme is effectively closing down in also the heyday of Jacques Cousteau, the 2010, with no plans to go back to the Moon world-famous explorer and populariser of or venture further afield. Likewise, no hu- all things oceanic. man has dived deeper than 6500 meters since the Trieste mission – it actually took Lieutenant Don Walsh and Jacques Piccard Meanwhile, Soviet Russia and the United 35 years for a robotic vehicle to reach the in the cramped quarters of the Trieste. States were engaged in the Space Race, same depth. >> which would result in a decade of un-8 9
  • 6. NOAA In 1979, American oceanographer Sylvia Earle performed the deepest untethered walk (381 metres) by any human before or since. >> In more ways than one, it seems as if we ter all, it was the pictures taken by Apollo have lost our spirit of adventure. This is not astronauts that made us appreciate that just a question of exploration for its own we live on an ocean planet. sake, though. As land-based resources are depleted in our quest to satisfy a growing, In 1979, American oceanographer Sylvia more affluent population, the two final Earle performed the deepest untethered frontiers can only increase in importance. walk (381 metres) by any human before or since. Earle used a “Jim suit”, a bulky metal But if we are to make use of the huge re- diving suit designed to maintain a pressure sources hiding beneath the waves and of one atmosphere regardless of the exte- above the atmosphere, we need to reinvig- rior pressure. The Jim suit was used exten- orate human exploration of both spheres. sively by the offshore oil industry for years, And you can’t do one without the other. Af- before being phased out in the 1990s.  *10 11
  • 7. NASA Robots: Robonaut 2 is a NASA project aimed at creating a humanoid robot that can work alongside humans in space and on Earth. doing our dirty work The iconic TV series Star Trek had the tag line "To boldly go where no man has gone before." Now we know who really went to all those dangerous places in outer space: robots. F or the foreseeable future, space be- mission that might last decades is there- stereoscopic images from which scientists longs to our robots. Likewise, robotic fore carried in a plutonium "battery". on Earth will identify target destinations. It Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROVs) is then left up to the rover to calculate a tra- reign supreme in the deep oceans. But al- Communication is slow and cumbersome, jectory that enables it to travel safely for though ROVs may have the same general as the number of bytes transmitted per about 100 metres per Martian day (24.5 appearance as space robots, the differences second plummets as the distance increas- Earth hours). are significant. es. The receiving stations on Earth need to be large and evenly distributed around the In addition to the navigation software, EX- First and foremost, ROVs are tethered to a globe to catch the exceedingly weak signals OMars is equipped with close-up collision vessel on the surface, and operated directly as our planets rotates. avoidance cameras. Basically, long before by a human being. Power and communica- the first astronaut sets his or her foot on tion are readily available through the um- Beyond the moon, having remote control in Mars, the planet will have been explored for bilical cord connecting the ROV to the sur- the usual sense of the word is impossible. us by robots with a level of intelligence sim- face. If something goes wrong, the vehicle The travel time of signals from Mars, com- ilar to an insect. can usually be hoisted to the surface and paratively nearby, is of the order of half an repaired. hour. This means that space probes need to Remote patching have a high degree of autonomous behav- If anything goes wrong – and something Autonomy in space iour. usually does – engineers have to solve the Space probes and rovers, on the other hand, problems without having direct access to need to be as self-sufficient as possible. Robotic mission to Mars the affected machinery. Take the Voyager 2 Outside the inner Solar system, solar panels The EXOMars mission, which is scheduled space probe, which in May this year devel- are no good, and all the energy needed for a to arrive on the Red Planet in 2019, will take oped a potentially lethal software problem.>> 12 13
  • 8. The unknown subsea >> That a computer which had been ex- Although the subsea environment is far development. Kongsbergs HUGIN AUV is posed to the radiation and vacuum of space more complex than the barren surface of a typical example. This battery-driven free- energy source for 33 years was still running, was less im- Mars, it is easy to imagine a future where swimming vehicle has a high degree of pressive than the fact that a fix was up- deep-water subsea installations are moni- independence, and is used for seabed map- loaded successfully at a distance of 13.7 bil- tored and maintained by the advanced ping and imaging, geological surveys, in- lion kilometres. descendants of todays AUVs. Many of these spection of underwater structures such as robots could resemble and emulate the pipelines, search operations, environmental Underwater robots behaviour of fish, moving in schools and missions, and military applications such as The nearest equivalent to space probes in driven by with artificial curiosity. surveillance and reconnaissance. the ocean are the autonomous underwater vehicles, or AUVs. Today, these robots are of- Kongsberg Maritime, based in Kongsberg, Robonaut 2 is a NASA project aimed at crea- ten used to make detailed maps of the Norway, is a leader in the field of AUV ting a humanoid robot that can work along- It looks a bit like ice but burns when you light it, and is mostly ocean floor prior to installing subsea infra- side humans in space and on Earth. At its structure. But their role and importance current stage of development, Robonauts found in sediments at the bottom of the ocean. Methane hydrate could be increasing, as oil exploration and advanced hands allow it to use the tools exploitation moves into deeper and colder built for astronauts, which removes the might be our next major fossil fuel resource. waters. need for tools made just for robots. Robo- naut could perform repetitive and hazard- Autonomous robots make sense from an ous extra-vehicular activities (EVAs) on the economic perspective. By performing rou- International Space Station, or serve as the Wikimedia Foundation tine subsea tasks, AUVs will be crucial to the “crew” on a robotic precursor mission to a automation of the offshore sector. human landing on Mars.   * M Conceptual drawing of ethane hydrate is a frozen mix of the future ExoMars Rover. water and methane which forms in conditions of low tempera- ture and high pressure. Crystals of deep- ocean methane hydrates were discovered a few decades ago. Although its true extent is unknown, it is estimated that hydrates represent energy reserves twice as large as all conventional gas, oil, and coal deposits combined. Recently, Japanese scientists dis- covered a methane hydrate deposit large enough to meet the energy-poor countrys needs for a decade. Carbon capture combination As yet, no one knows how to exploit this re- source in a safe and profitable manner without damaging impacts on the environ- ment. Methane is known to be a powerful greenhouse gas, and deposits of hydrates may contain free methane which could be released into the atmosphere during sub- sea mining operations. Alaskan trial run A block of methane hydrate crystals (white) Two scientists at the University of Bergen, Another advantage of Kvamme and Graues embedded in sediment found at a depth of 1200 metres offshore Oregon, USA, by scientists Bjørn Kvamme and Arne Graue, are devel- approach is the reduced risk of sedimentary aboard the research ship FS SONNE. oping a method which could solve two fracturing and landslides on the ocean floor problems at once. In cooperation with caused when the CO2 replaces the volume ConocoPhillips, Kvamme and Graue are of the methane hydrate lost through min- working on a technique to extract methane ing. A trial run of the method will be carried gas by injecting liquid carbon dioxide into out on the North Slope region of Alaska, hydrates, combining carbon capture with which is known to contain huge reserves of fossil energy extraction. methane hydrates.   * NASA14 15
  • 9. Romsenteret, Bjørn Ottar Elseth, This image of a model of AISSAT-1 being handed over to Senior Adviser Bjørn Ottar Elseth at the Norwegian Space Centre by Chief Scientist Bjørn T. Narheim at NDRE, shows how small the satellite is. The Norwegian We are still waiting for the moment when the first Space Industry Norwegian enters space, but Norwegian scientists and businesses are heavily involved in all other aspects of space exploration. T he Norwegian space industry em- dition) facility on Svalbard is used for train- communications antenna-pointing mecha- satellite was launched in July of 2010, and One of Norways most important contribu- ploys 3000 people, with an annual ing for unmanned and manned Mars mis- nisms for the European Space Agencys new will monitor maritime activities in Arctic tions to space exploration is the Svalbard turnover of more than $1 billion. This sions on a regular basis. climate satellites, Sentinel-1A and Sentinel-3A. waters through the Automatic Identifica- Satellite Station (SvalSat), which was estab- makes it larger than the traditional forestry tion System (AIS), a short range coastal lished in 1997. At 78°13 N, SvalSat is the industry. Supplying space missions Designing hybrid rockets traffic system currently used in shipping. northernmost ground station in the world. Kongsberg Defence & Aerospace (KDA) pro- Nammo, which has developed advanced This gives it a uniquely favourable position ESA As one of the leaders in solar science, vided systems integration for the Cassini- rocket motors for military clients since the Seagoing vessels of more than 300 gross for supporting satellites in a polar orbit. Norway has played a central role in the Huygens mission, which is still delivering 1960s, recently signed a contract with Ari- tons are required to be fitted with AIS, and Presently, SvalSat comprises a station build- development and processing of data from data of astonishing quality from the planet anespace for the delivery of 700 rocket en- AISSAT-1 will use this to track ship move- ing and six antenna systems, up to thirteen the SOHO solar observatory. At a time when Saturn. The Norwegian Defence Research gines during the next five years. Nammo is ments in a region of great importance to metres in diameter. Kongsberg Satellite the influence of the Sun on the Earths cli- Establishment (NDRE) developed one of the currently working on a unique hybrid rocket Norway. The Norwegian Space Center owns Services also runs the Trollsat ground mate is a hotly contested topic, research into "space weather" and other Sun-Earth- instruments aboard Cassini, and is also in- volved in instrumentation for the ExoMars design, where the fuel is stored separately in one solid and one liquid component. the project, with the Norwegian Defense Research Establishment responsible for the station, located at 72°S in Antarctica.  * related processes is of great value. project. Hybrid propulsion offers solutions which technical implementation at a cost of ap- are both safe and environmentally friendly. proximately $6 million. Training for Mars on Svalbard KDA delivered the mechanisms that rotate Researchers from the Norwegian University the solar panels on the Rosetta spacecraft, Making an Arctic nanosatellite NDRE will test the satellite for a year before In 2014, the European Space Agencys Rosetta of Science and Technology in Trondheim which in 2014 will be the first of its kind to AISSAT-1 is an ambitious Norwegian space Kongsberg Satellite Services takes control. lander will touch down on the nucleus of the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. have conducted biological experiments at orbit and deploy a landing craft to the project. This "nanosatellite" consists of a The Norwegian Coastal Administration will the International Space Station, and the nucleus of a comet. KDA also won the con- cube measuring only 20 by 20 by 20 centi- integrate the data from AISSAT-1 in its land- AMASE (Arctic Mars Analog Svalbard Expe- tract for the delivery of the solar panel and meters, weighing in at six kilograms. The based AIS system.16 17
  • 10. A selection of NASA space technology spinoffs For every public dollar invested in space research and development, the US government receives $7 back in the form of taxes from space-related business. H ere are some of the many scientific NASA has also contributed to the develop- breakthroughs and products directly ment of smoke detectors, flat panel televi- derived from the space industry: sions, high-density batteries, food packag- advanced scheduling systems, structural ing, freeze-dried technology, hair styling analysis software, air quality monitors, vir- appliances, fogless ski goggles, self-adjust- tual reality and telepresence systems, en- ing sunglasses, composite golf clubs, hang riched baby food, scratch-resistant lenses, gliders and art preservation. pool purification systems, a more aerody- namic golf ball, shock-absorbing materials for sports shoes, programmable pacemak- ers and breast cancer detection systems.18 19
  • 11. NASA NASA Field testing rovers on Svalbard, such as this model during the AMASE 2006 expedition, is useful for scientists planning future Mars missions. Rechargeable fuel cells in space Although the principle behind fuel cells was discovered in 1838, it was NASA that sponsored the first commercially viable fuel cell as a part of the manned Gemini project in the 1960s. Space spinoffs on the continental shelf Remote sensing and positioning services based on GPS are two areas where the offshore industry profits from space research. In years to come, many other space-based technologies will make an impact offshore. S S ince then, fuel cells – batteries where Potential satellite boost Without hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells, the oon, the detection of hazardous gas to "tune" the sensor to find gases of interest. electricity is generated in reactions Communications satellites are powered by Apollo missions to the Moon would have on oil and gas installations could be The space applications for the 0.5 square between a fuel and an oxidant – have solar panels, which stop working when the been impossible, as the batteries and solar faster, more reliable and cheaper centimetre detector are obvious: aboard a been a mainstay of manned space explora- satellites pass through the Earths shadow. panels of the 1960s were too inefficient. thanks to a project co-funded by the Euro- manned spacecraft or space station, air tion. Hydrogen and oxygen fuel cells are Today, batteries are used as back-up power Fuel cells were a disadvantage during the pean Space Agency (ESA) and the Microsys- quality is a matter of life or death, and gas light and highly effective, and produce wa- supplies in dark conditions. But batteries ill-fated Apollo 13 mission, however, as the tems and Nanotechnology Laboratory at the concentrations need to be monitored con- ter as a by-product, which is always useful are heavy, which in turn increases launch explosion that destroyed most of the Norwegian research organisation SINTEF. tinuously. in the vacuum of space. costs. Lightweight fuel cells could poten- spacecrafts oxygen supply (visible on the tially reduce launch costs and facilitate original photo above) also left it critically A tiny detector Avoiding false alarms Fuel cell in reverse greater transponder capacity onboard the low on power. The three Apollo astronauts The detection device is known as the Con- In the offshore industry, methane is the Recently, the Norwegian company Proto- satellite. were saved by the batteries and consuma- trollable Diffractive Optical Element (CDOE), main target for the MEMS sensor. Methane tech, in collaboration with the Energy Re- bles aboard the lunar module, which were and is based on MEMS or micro-electro- is a colourless and odourless gas which can search Centre of the Netherlands, has de- veloped a regenerative fuel cell. As the In a longer-term perspective, the technolo- gy may also find a market in the transporta- unaffected by the explosion.  * mechanical-systems technology. Basically, the CDOE is a silicon chip that detects be lethal in high concentrations, causing explosions or asphyxiation. Methane leak- name suggests, it runs the fuel cell process tion sector, where fuel cells have struggled methane. It does this by using tiny shifts, age is a common phenomenon in natural in reverse, generating hydrogen and oxygen to gain a foothold. equivalent to one hundredth of the width gas drilling operations, and the high relia- from electricity. of a human hair, of grid-like silicon gratings bility and ruggedness of a MEMS system >>20 21
  • 12. ESA >> is a big bonus in an environment where from ruggedised, commercially available By their very nature, space projects are com- false alarms can be very costly. shelfware, and it has the ability to analyse plex and costly, involving a large number of Observing the oceans samples from considerable distances. processes and technologies that need to be As the cost of manufacturing the CDOE monitored in order to guarantee reliability. chip falls, it is easy to imagine a wide variety Drill fluid analysis ESAs Envisat is a typical example, involving from space of uses, from air quality monitoring in office Statoil is currently testing an instrument the continuous monitoring of more than buildings to locking systems that prevent assembly that includes a Raman laser in or- 20 000 parameters. This is comparable an intoxicated driver from starting his car. der to improve the accuracy and speed of with a large offshore installation. the drill fluid analysis. When drilling for oil The Raman Spectrometer and gas, the quality of the fluid can tell ge- The "intuitive" part of the acronym refers to In cooperation with Norwegian space ologists a lot about the geology of the stra- the unique three-dimensional parameter scientists, Statoil is testing technology ta it comes form. representation, which was developed to im- developed for the European Space Agencys prove visibility on satellite projects. RIVOPS EXOMars mission, which is scheduled for The Raman spectrometer examines the was developed with the future exploration launch in 2018. mineralogy of the drill cuttings in the fluid, of the Arctic in mind, where extremely and immediately transmits the results to harsh conditions place a premium on the The mission consists of a rover that will travel around on the surface of Mars and the drilling deck. This makes it possible con- tinuously to evaluate the various geological safety and reliability of all systems.  * drill for soil and rock samples at up to two formations encountered by the drill bit. metres beneath the surface. The samples The Arctic Mars Analog Svalbard Expedition will be ground up and transferred to small Keeping production safe with 3D was launched in 2003 and is still running. Its boxes on a carousel mechanism, which will Norwegian offshore operators are currently goal is to study the geochemical and geo- move them past a battery of instruments. evaluating RIVOPS (Remote Intuitive Visual physical features, and look for biosignatures One of these is a Raman spectrometer, Operations System), an alarm interface that and life forms, at various field sites on the which can analyse the chemical content of is located on top of existing control sys- Svalbard archipelago. The sites were chosen a mineral sample by exposing it to laser tems. RIVOPS was developed by a French- because they are thought to resemble simi- light. Dutch start-up company in collaboration lar areas on Mars, and AMASE is a training with ESA, making use of the agencys expe- ground for scientists and engineers from The Raman laser, named after the Indian rience in satellite monitoring and emergen- around the world. It is also a test bed for physicist who discovered its properties in cy management. instruments and equipment that could be 1928, has many advantages: it can be built used on future Mars missions. M EMS or Micro-Electro-Mechani- cal Systems is made up of com- ponents that measure distances of between 1 and 100 micrometres. MEMS production is based on tried and tested mi- It is often said that the planet Mars is better cro-fabrication technology, and the finished units combine various mechanical ele- mapped than the Earth. This is not the fault ments, sensors, actuators and electronics on a silicon substrate similar to that used in of oceanographers, but rather a result of the computer memory chips. planets’ respective geological histories. T he obvious reason is that Mars no swathes of the surface with great detail in longer has any oceans, and only lim- a short time, as any user of Google Maps ited ice cover. A probe orbiting Mars will know. But remote sensing satellites do provides excellent views of the whole far more than take pictures of the visible planet, while at any given time more than surface. three-quarters of our planet is covered in liquid or frozen water. Ocean data sensing NASAs pioneering Seasat mission was Even so, space does offer an excellent van- launched in 1978 and used a synthetic aper- tage point for remote sensing and observa- ture radar and other instruments to collect tion of the Earth. A satellite can cover vast data on sea-surface winds and tempera- >>22 23
  • 13. ESA NASA >> tures, wave heights, atmospheric water, create air drag which would reduce the sat- Aquarius will change this radically. Within sea ice features and ocean topography. ellites orbital altitude over time. the first three months of the mission, more salinity data will have been gathered from The TOPEX/Poseidon mission and its suc- For this reason, GOCE is shaped like an space than in the previous 125 years of cessor, the Ocean Surface Topography mis- arrow and equipped with fins and an ion surface-based measurements. Oceanogra- sion, used similar instruments to acquire (electric) rocket engine that helps it main- phers expect the mission to cast light on data of great benefit to climate researchers, tain a stable orbit. GOCEs onboard power is the El Niño and La Niña phenomena, as well shipping companies, offshore industries, produced with advanced solar panels made as hurricane formation and the effects of fisheries management and biologists, to of composite materials, manufactured by the high-latitude "freshening" of sea water. mention just a few. Kongsberg Defence & Aerospace. Offshore applications For offshore oil operators, satellites such as these deliver crucial information on ocean circulation patterns, which helps minimise the impact of currents when laying cables and pipelines, for instance. Remote sensing can also be a useful aid in oil and gas exploration, both onshore and offshore. Natural leaks and seepage in the oceans can be indicators of deposits be- neath the sea floor. The environmental im- “Drilling up” pact of oil exploration and production, such as oil spills, cloud cover, sea level rises or the increases in atmospheric CO2 are often best monitored from space. Ocean current insights The European Space Agencys Gravity Field and Steady-State Ocean Circulation Explor- – The future of er (GOCE) is a recent and fascinating addi- Measuring salinity The surface of the ocean has “hills” and “val- tion. Launched in 2009, this satellite will NASAs Aquarius mission gives us a differ- leys” up to two metres in height/depth, and bring new insights into ocean currents by ent perspective on the oceans and the envi- the image above represents a map of the combining extremely accurate gravity data ronment. With its launch planned for 2011, topography of the ocean, similar to a topo- energy in space with information about sea surface topo- its goal is to measure the salinity or salt graphic map of the land surface. Unlike graphy. content at the sea surface. This is an impor- land topography, however, ocean topogra- tant factor in understanding the water cy- phy is influenced by a number of factors To achieve the required accuracy, the satel- cle, ocean currents and climate change. such as winds, ocean currents and tempera- lite must orbit as close to the Earth as pos- However, measurements to date have been ture. The velocity of ocean currents can be sible. Even at an orbital height of 260 kilo- limited mostly to summertime observa- calculated from the “slope” of the surface. metres, there is sufficient atmosphere to tions in shipping lanes. * What seems like an anecdote has huge implications for our energy future: all energy used on Earth originates in space in one way or another. The GOCE satellite orbits so close to the Earth that it requires an aerodynamic shape, guiding fins and an ion rocket to maintain altitude. The first large batch of GOCE data was released in 2010. F ossil fuel sources are stored solar side our planet. Not that this is going to The ultimate source of base-load electricity energy, and most renewable energy happen in the immediate future. generation is fusion power. For decades, sci- sources are driven by the Sun. Tidal entists have tried to replicate the physical power is of course driven by the Moon, and Energy on Earth processes that makes the stars shine, but nuclear and geothermal energy originate Hidden in sand and shale deposits, in mines with limited success. But sooner or later from radioactive materials forged by ex- and beneath the deep ocean, are energy they will succeed, and when they do, water ploding supernovae billions of years ago. reserves large enough to supply our needs will become an energy source in its own for decades to come. Add to this the known right. What this means is that when our Earth- reserves of uranium and thorium, and we based resources run out, we can access a are dealing with centuries power genera- One litre of water contains enough of the limitless supply of energy generated out- tion based on our Earth’s resources. isotope deuterium to provide the energy >>24 25
  • 14. NASA >> equivalent of 500 litres, or three barrels, elevator to vibrate like an extremely long may stray into the energy beam, it is easy to of oil. Although the fusion of deuterium guitar string. imagine how consumers might react to the results in less radioactive waste than con- idea of radiation beams from space, no ventional nuclear power generation, an Inspired by the Ansari X Prize, which led to matter how weak they might be. ideal clean and efficient process requires the development of the worlds first com- use of the isotope Helium-3. mercial space aircraft (SpaceShip One), Despite this, a report in 2007 commissioned NASA is awarding cash prizes to developers by the US Defence Department recomm- Looking to the Moon of space elevator technology. In 2009, ends space-based solar power as an energy Helium is extremely rare and inaccessible NASAs "Centennial Challenges" programme source for its military forces operating on Earth, but is abundant in space. Our clos- awarded $900,000 to Lasermotive, a com- abroad. An 80-metre diameter antenna est source of Helium-3 is the Moon, which pany that uses laser light for wireless power could receive one MW via microwaves, may have enough of the element in its transmission. As power cables will be far enough to power a thousand homes, from crust to provide the human race with pow- too heavy for use on the space elevator, a satellite in low Earth orbit. "It is impera- er at current levels for ten thousand years. wireless power is crucial to its success. tive that this work for drilling up vs. drilling down for energy security begins immedi- Once we obtain commercially viable fusion Collision avoidance ately," the report concludes. power, the technology required to carry out However, the main reason is the cloud of large-scale mining operations in space will “space junk” consisting of tens of thou- A global thermostat – in space? also have developed. NASA is currently sands of discarded objects orbiting Earth at In the end, the dominant contribution from planning a trial lunar extraction mission as any given moment. The laws of celestial space may turn out to be in the form of en- early as 2015, and the Chinese have hinted mechanics decree that the orbit of every ergy reduction. The most daring – some that they are considering a similar project. piece of space junk below geostationary might say extreme – of the climate change orbit will intersect the Space Elevator sooner mitigating technology proposals is the Mining operations on the Moon will proba- or later. space-based cloud of mirrors envisioned by bly be unmanned. With a time delay of only US astronomer Roger Angel. Angel, who is a three seconds, it is fairly easy to operate The elevator requires a collision avoidance winner of the Norwegian Kavli Prize for As- robots remotely from Earth. Once enough system, and presently the best option tronomy in 2010, is proposing the launch of Helium-3 has been extracted in an auto- appears to be a movable oil rig which would thousands of mirrors into a stable orbit mated factory, it can be transported rapidly also act as a launch pad. When a piece of some 1.5 million kilometres above the Earth, to Earth by an electromagnetic canon or debris is detected to be on collision course, oriented in the direction of the sun. "mass driver", powered by solar panels. the rig can be moved in such a way as to divert the cable from the oncoming debris. Here, they will form a permanent “sun- The Space Elevator screen”. By adjusting the angle of the mir- However, even though the expected boom A successful Space Elevator will open space rors, incoming sunlight could be reduced in commercial space operators and tourism up to commercial exploitation. But this will sufficiently to reduce the Earths tempera- will result in reduced launch costs, conven- not change the fundamentals of energy ture by several degrees. The mirrors could tional chemical rockets are too expensive production. Energy must still be reasonably also be used to direct more sunlight to- and dangerous to permit the widespread priced and safe to use if it is to matter on a wards the Earth in effect creating a global exploitation of resources in deep space. global scale. thermostat capable of managing tempera- ture shifts in either direction. The proposed Space Elevator – a cable low- Orbital solar power ered 36 000 kilometres from geostationary These criteria probably disqualify the other Although the consensus view is that we are orbit to a point along the equator – is cur- great space-based energy initiative: orbital heading for elevated global temperature in rently our best hope of reducing launch solar power plants. The main advantage of the coming century, there is always the pos- costs sufficient to permit large-scale mining these compared with earth-based photo- sibility of a massive volcanic eruption which Concept drawing of a operations on the Moon. voltaics is that they supply an almost con- within a few months might cool the planet completed space elevator. tinuous supply of undimmed sunlight in down by several degrees. This is where Norwegian offshore know- geostationary orbit. If the Space Elevator is how could come into its own. It was previ- successful, the cost of transporting and In this perspective, any climate change ously thought that the Space Elevator maintaining the panels may well turn out mitigating technology should have the needed to be anchored to solid ground, to be cost efficient in competition with capability to regulate both increases and which implied a location somewhere along ground-based systems. reductions in temperature. The Space Eleva- the equator in Africa, South America or Asia. tor will be hugely expensive, but could also The main challenge is our perception of serve as an "insurance policy" against cli- However, recent calculations show that the safety. The energy from the panels will have matic extremes such as the global cooling base of the elevator must be mobile. This is to be beamed down as microwave radiation that followed the massive eruption of partly due to the gravitational influence of to large receiving facilities on the ground. Mount Tambora in Indonesia in 1815.  the Sun and Moon, which will incite the Apart from the potential harm to birds that * 26 27
  • 15. 1.5 million BC: Primitive humans discover fire 40,000: First use of oil lamps 8000: Domestic animals are used as a power source 3000: Coal is being exploited in China 1500: Egyptians invent the water-powered clock 850: Natural gas is exploited in China 400: The first oil well is drilled on a Greek island 65 BC: First known reference to the use of windmills 800 AD: The rocket is invented in China 1000: The water-wheel becomes Europes principal energy source From wood to coal 1200: Coal is mined in Europe 1400: Invention of the turret windmill 1500: Rockets are routinely used as weapons 1670: Gas is distilled from coal 1694: Oil is produced from oil shale 1800: Invention of the electric battery 1830: The discovery of electromagnetic induction 1832: The first electric generator is built 1869: The first use of hydroelectric power 1879: The first commercially successful oil well is drilled in Titusville, Pennsylvania 1885: Invention of the transformer for alternating currents 1888: Invention of the dry cell battery 1900: The first offshore oil wells are drilled in the Caspian Sea 1913: The first geothermal power plant opens in Italy Space and 1920: Robert Goddard launches the first liquid-fuelled rocket The Oil Age 1941: The first German V-2 rocket is launched 1942: US scientists initiate the first self-sustaining nuclear reaction energy 1950: Soviet scientists invent the tokamak, which remains the mainstay of fusion power research 1953: The first commercial nuclear reactor opens in Britain 1954: Scientists at Bell Laboratories develop the solar cell 1957: Sputnik 1 is launched 1961: Yuri Gagarin becomes the first human to orbit the Earth 1969: Neil Armstrong becomes the first man on the Moon 1976: Viking I and II land on Mars, and search for life 1981: The launch of Columbia, the first Space Shuttle 1989: Voyager II passes Neptune, after exploring Jupiter, Saturn and Uranus 1986: The ITER fusion power research group is formed 2001: Launch of the Toyota Prius, the first commercially successful hybrid vehicle 2003: The Spirit and Opportunity rovers start their exploration of Mars 2009: Wind power accounts for more than 20 % of Denmarks electricity production 2010: The worlds first synthetic cell is announced 2015: Regular tourist flights to an inflatable space hotel 2020: A large-scale thorium power plant goes onstream in India 2025: Synthetic algal biofuel becomes cheaper than petroleum 2040: Thorium mining becomes Norways sixth largest industry 2045: China lands the first humans on Mars 2046: Chinese "taikonauts" discover signs of life on Mars The Future 2050: Commercially-viable nuclear fusion is finally achieved 2060: Synthetic "scrubber cells" reduce atmospheric CO2 by 20 % 2066: A ticket to the Moon equals an average annual salary 2100: Nuclear fusion and fission account for 80 % of the worlds electricity 2120: Helium-3 mining operations start on the Moon and in the asteroid belt 2150: The first manned mission to Jupiter, a huge source of Helium-3 2166: A ticket to Mars equals an average annual salary 2186: Space-based mirrors prevent an ice age after the eruption of the Yellowstone Supervolcano timeline 2200: The worlds last coal-fired power plant is shut down in the African Union29
  • 16. Space and energy L T Living at the bottom of the Gulf of he Sun generates 3.846–1026 Watts Mexico are “seep communities” – or- by converting 4 million tonnes of ganisms that utilise natural seepages hydrogen into helium every second NOAA facts of petrochemicals as a food source. This through the process of nuclear fusion. strange ecosystem resembles that found According to Albert Einsteins famous around hydrothermal vents (pictured right), equation E=mc2, this energy equals a mass and includes snails, crabs, clams and tube- loss of 600 tonnes a second. Since the Sun worms two metres in length. Scientists sus- started to shine 4.5 billion years ago, it has pect that the worms could live for centuries radiated away a mass equal to that of the in the pitch black conditions, more than a Earth simply by means of energy production. one kilometre below the ocean surface. Pressure loss in a space suit is far less serious In 2008 the human race consumed close to than losing pressure in a deep-sea diving half a zettajoule (1021 Joules) of energy, suit. A common misconception is that rapid more than 80 % of which was derived from decompression in space will lead to astro- the combustion of fossil fuels. This is equiv- nauts "exploding" from within. In reality, alent to the energy content of 200 trillion after asphyxiation, the greatest danger to Top 5 iPad Space Apps hamburgers, or 3 % of the solar energy that an unprotected astronaut in space is the strikes the Earth every day. With an increas- unfiltered ultraviolet radiation from the Sun. 1 Planets - your guide to the planets ingly expanding and affluent population, annual global energy consumption will 2 3D Sun - monitoring our star and space weather real time NASA/SOHO pass a zettajoule well before 2050. 3 NASA apps - news, pictures, missions and moviestime Mars - map and history, mining, planet engineering and tourism T 4 he first stage of the Saturn V Moon Apollo 11: The Game NASA 5 rocket, shown here (left) in full pro- pulsion, burned kerosene as rocket fuel. Although it generated less energy than the liquid hydrogen used on the Space Shuttle, kerosene rocket fuel is cheaper and easier to manage. It is still used on the Rus- sian Soyuz rockets, widely regarded as the Top 5 Space Websites most reliable “man-rated” launch vehicle in the world. 1 NASA: A The Ansari X Prize has set its future sights ccording to a study, Saturns moon 2 Google Sky: on the deep oceans, and is planning to Titan may contain hundreds of 3 Satellite tracker: announce a $10 million prize for a deep-sea times more liquid hydrocarbons 4 Virtual Mars Habitat: submersible that scientists could use to ex- than the Earth. This large, cold moon may plore the ocean floor and gather complex also be covered by solid hydrocarbons far 5 Solar System Simulator: data. Another X Prize under consideration is outstripping Earths total coal reserves. In for a private, deep ocean submersible which the future, Titan may serve as a fuel stop for can transport scientists to the ocean floor. manned rocket missions to the outer Solar Currently only five such craft exist in the System or even further afield. world, and all of these are owned by gov- ernments. The idea of using mirrors in space to supply energy and control the Earths climate is not new. In the 1980s, Soviet space scien- M NASA any of the leading investors in tists proposed launching mirrors into polar the private space sector, and half Earth orbit to reflect sunlight onto Siberia Top 10 Space Tech Movies of the space tourists that have during the winter period of permanent flown to date, are IT specialists such as Paul darkness. 1 2001 - A Space Odyssey 6 Mission to Mars Allen (Microsoft), Jeff Bezos (, Elon Musk (PayPal), and Charles Simonyi Apollo 13 Alien ESA/NASA 2 7 (pictured right). Since the 1960s, space 3 The Right Stuff 8 Wall-E exploration has not only provided direct 4 Moon 9 In the Shadow of the Moon benefits to IT development, but has also inspired countless youngsters to take up 5 Silent Running 10 Sunshine science and engineering studies. Allen, Bezos, Musk, and Simonyi all belong to the “Apollo generation”.30 31
  • 17. TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER PROGRAMME ESA BUSINESS INCUBATION CENTRES (ESA BICS) As part of its endeavour to encourage the transfer and com- mercialisation of space technologies, four ESA Business THE ESA TECHNOLOGY Incubation Centres (ESA BICs) have been set up in the TRANSFER PROGRAMME (TTPO) Netherlands, Darmstadt and Oberpfaffenhofen in Germany, and near Rome in Italy. The ESA BICs The ESA Technology Transfer Programme support selected entrepreneurs with compre- Office facilitates the use of space technology hensive commercial and technical assistance and space systems for non-space applications and to help them start up businesses that use demonstrates the benet of the European space space technology in non-space industrial, programme to European citizens. The office is responsible scientic and commercial elds and have for dening the overall approach and strategy for the trans- helped create more than 50 new start-up fer of space technologies, including the incubation of start-up companies in Europe. companies and their funding. The TTPO has successfully transferred over 230 space technologies to non-space sectors for applications as diverse as cooling suits for a Formula 1 racing team, OPEN SKY TECHNOLOGIES FUND ground penetrating radar to detect cracks in mine tunnels and several (OSTF) health-care innovations. For years, ESA has been bringing space technologies down to Earth through its Technology Transfer Programme and its ESA BICs. Now, the Agency will streng- TECHNOLOGY BROKER NETWORK then these initiatives by supporting new The TTPO uses a network of technology brokers to assess the market businesses using space innovations through needs in areas where there is a potential for exploitation of space a dedicated venture capital fund. The Open Sky technologies. The broker network hosts the database of the Technologies Fund is an early-stage venture capital Technology Forum online market place fund aimed at nurturing the most promising business where requests for technologies are matched with available space opportunities arising from space technologies and satellite technologies. In addition, the technology brokers also support the applications for terrestrial industries. The OSTF is managed by transfer process itself. Triangle Venture Capital Group on ESA’s behalf. CONTACT: ESA’S TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER PROGRAMME OFFICE EUROPEAN SPACE AGENCY WWW.ESA.INT/TTP KEPLERLAAN 1 2200 AG, NOORDWIJK ZH THE NETHERLANDS WWW.ESA.INT/BIC32 TEL: +31 71 565 6208 EMAIL: TTP@ESA.INT 33
  • 18. NASA Are you ready to think outside the planet? Arena Integrated Operations The concept of ”Integrated Operations” contains many dimensions and is used in several contexts. F or Arena IO it means that the off- shore operations will change a lot the next years mainly because of the technological shift towards increased auto- NASA mation and increased usage of real-time data from wells and facilities in general. “We will see more remotely controlled equipment and therefore new organisation models for operations,” says the project manager of Arena IO Martin Sigmundstad. “You will get more complex systems, but overall much safer for both personell and environment, and the systems of tomorrow will be smaller, smarter and cheaper com- pared to the large installations today.” Arena IO played a key role in the first Space & Energy conference which was organised together with Norwegian Space Center and Statoil in Stavanger June 2009. “It is natural and very beneficial for the energy industry to look at other industries to learn what they are doing. The aero- nautical and space industry has always been interesting in this respect,” continues Arena IO is a network of abt 50 Sigmundstad which has a long carreer in members, mostly companies in the oil & Statoil behind him. “We will build Arena IO gas business. Innovation Norway, Norwe- WE SUPPORT ONS SPACE & ENERGY 2010 further together with other related pro- gian Research Council and SIVA supports grams, and technology transfer with the the project which main office is in the space industry will be a prime catalyst and innovation park (ipark) in Stavanger. Read inspiration for our new ventures.”  * more on www.arenaio.no34 35
  • 19. Seabed Rig is developing technologies for a cleaner, safer and more effective way to drill. They have created a robotic underwater drilling platform that can be deployed on the ocean floor, enabling the safer exploration of ultra- deep water and Arctic regions − both difficult and sometimes impossible to access with traditional rigs. The autonomous drilling process represents a revolution in the oil and gas industry. "W e have created the world’s Safe and efficient the standard robot technology. Many un- first laboratory for fully auto- Seabed Rig AS is developing a seabed drill- foreseen things can happen during the matic and autonomous drill- ing rig that can carry out cost-effective drilling process. We wanted an autono- ing”, says an enthusiastic Kenneth Mikalsen, exploration drilling at the seabed, both in mous system, and looked to the space CTO at Seabed Rig. deep waters and in Arctic areas. The Seabed industry for inspiration”, says Mikalsen. Rig consists of a patented encapsulated and For the last 20-25 years, forward-looking pressure-compensated design. This system Communication and Control companies in the drilling sector have been is environmentally-friendly with zero dis- In order to design a drilling system with looking to introduce technology success- charges to the marine environment and autonomous capabilities, it has been essen- fully employed in other industries in order the same safety barriers as for conventional tial to develop machines that can perform to optimise processes on the drill floor. drilling. The rig is unmanned and operates independently within an overall machine Safer drilling with With its autonomous drilling rig prototype, using automated and robotic processes constellation. All machines are designed to Seabed Rig AS has introduced robot tech- remotely controlled and supervised from be self-contained and independent, mean- nology from the auto and health industries an interactive 3D interface. ing that they all possess the necessary and combined it with control system meth- components and systems for their opera- odology from the space sector. The rig pro- The Seabed Rig is assisted by a surface ves- tion. Each machine has its own communi- Seabed Rig totype shows that it is possible to imple- sel and connected via an umbilical that car- cation and power interface. This means ment this technology on the drill floor and ries its control cables and power supply, to- that if one machine breaks down it will not potentially open the door to a virtually gether with supplying drilling fluids. The have any influence on the function of the unmanned and much more cost-effective advantages of carrying out drilling opera- other machines in the system. drilling process. tions from the seabed include less depend- ence on weather, no heave compensation Each machine contains its own axis control- “The building blocks that Seabed Rig AS has or rigid riser systems, reduced mud back ler, and a full 3D model of the entire rig. made available will probably lead to a para- pressure, and an absence of personnel on This means that all the machines have full digm shift by which in the future even con- the rig. By automating the rig, workers are control at all times of the whereabouts of servative drill floor operations can be or- not exposed to hazards. Moreover, an auto- all the other components within the rig. ganised as production cells without human mated rig is less susceptible to human er- This gives the machines the capability to intervention”, says Mikalsen. rors – the source of several major incidents synchronise their movements with respect in the past. to each other, thus optimising the overall Seabed Rig AS is a Stavanger- For several years, Statoil have supported the process and avoiding collisions. All machines based company currently developing an inno- development of Seabed Rig, together with “Our aim is to make the system both safer continuously broadcast their status on a vative seabed-based drilling rig designed to the Norwegian Research Council (Petro- and more efficient than any exploration local network. carry out cost-effective drilling in deep waters maks and DEMO2000) and Innovation Nor- rig currently in operation”, says Kenneth and Arctic areas. The Seabed Drilling Rig con- way. They all believe that robotic and auto- Mikalsen. “A software application in the control centre sists of a patented, environmentally-friendly matic processes represent the future of contains a complete 3D model of the entire and encapsulated design that guarantees drilling. Inspired by space rig. The software updates the 3D model in zero discharges to the marine environment Seabed Rig AS has designed intelligent real time as the machines alter their physi- and the same safety barriers as for conven- “Statoil supports creative ideas and out-of- robots, controlled using software supplied cal configuration, thus providing the opera- tional drilling. The system is equipped as a the-box thinking. We were initially inter- by the American company Energid Techno- tor with a complete 3D interface to the rig. complete and fully-automated seabed drill- ested in Seabed Rig because of the oppor- logies Corporation. The software was origi- The operator can navigate within the 3D ing rig, remotely controlled from a surface tunities that the drilling unit offered for nally developed for NASA and the National model to get a closer look at the various vessel. exploration in the Arctic. The technology Science Foundation for controlling complex machines and processes. This interface can Seabed Rig is developing is increasingly robotic systems. easily be remotely hooked up via a standard The development of the rig is supported by Statoil, the Norwegian Research Council important to Statoil. We believe that there is massive potential in automation technol- “Robots can carry out very precise work, and internet connection”, explains Mikalsen.  * (Petromaks and DEMO2000) and Innovation ogy”, says Sigve Hovda, Chief Engineer for do it well, but in order to develop this drill- Norway. Read more on Drilling and Well Facilities at Statoil. ing rig we needed an extra level on top of36 37
  • 20. Oddveig Tretterud – Director Space Systems “It all began with satellite communications Torstein Solberg – Director Operations to the Ekofisk, Statfjord and Valhall oil fields Hege Lunde – Business Development Director in the North Sea”, he explains. “Operating companies entered into agreements with the then Televerket organisation concern- ing the development of satellite-based sys- tems that would enable us to offer telex and and telephony connections between the oil installations and the mainland”, says Solberg, who is now Director of Operations at TSBc. Before satellites were established, all com- munication between the platforms and the mainland was carried out using radio tele- phony. The NORSAT system that came into operation in 1976 carried telephony and data traffic to installations in the North Sea and eventually also to Svalbard. The opera- tors utilised closed and private networks on Telenor satellites the shelf itself, while Televerket was respon- sible for satellite transmissions between the installations and the mainland. In 1995 fibre cables came onto the scene, and the first cable was laid to the Troll A platform. to focus on offshore and shipping markets Solberg believes that oil and gas operations in the North Sea enabled the company to acquire expertise in the use of satellite technology. Over the years, the company has developed into a major player in the ufacturing”, says Oddveig Tretterud, Direc- Billions satellite communications sector. Since 2008 Telenor Satellite Broadcasting (TSBc) has launched two satellites, tor of Space Systems. In order to guarantee THOR 6 cost NOK 1.3 billion. This is a major the highest possible quality prior to launch, investment, even for an anticipated satel- “TSBc currently employs 165 staff, mostly in THOR 5 and THOR 6, and the next is already in the planning stage. Oddveig supervises the construction pro- lite lifetime of 15 years. THOR 6 has a wing- Oslo, but we also have offices in London and cess very carefully, making sure that the span of 30 metres, although the module in Sofia in Bulgaria. The planning of a new manufacturer follows quality requirements housing the payload measures only 2.3 by satellite and, not least, the fact that we can to the letter. “It takes about two years to 1.8 by 2.8 metres. It is equipped with three now utilise the Ka band, gives us the oppor- A t Telenor’s head office at Fornebu band. “This is something completely new Focus build a satellite tailored to our specifica- antennas and two wings carrying solar cell tunity to increase our future focus on the off- staff are working in preparation for the maritime sector", says Hege Lunde. In recent years, TSBc has made major invest- tions”, she says. panels. shore and maritime markets.”, says Solberg. for the commercial utilisation on future satellites of the new Ka frequency “Utilising the Ka band will give us more new capacity, and we will be able to offer ments in its satellite fleet. In 2008, THOR 5 was launched on a Russian Proton-M carrier All TSBc satellites are located in 1 degree A satellite must maintain a fixed position * band. If everything goes according to plan more services”. rocket from the Baikonur Space Centre in West, and broadcast TV signals into a total within the field of view of the antenna on the new satellite will be ready in 3 or 4 years. Kazakhstan. TSBc’s most recent satellite is of 16.6 million households in Scandinavia the ground at all times. Operators at TSBc’s “A new satellite will provide greater oppor- Private households THOR 6, launched from Kourou in French and Central and Eastern Europe. offices at Fornebu are working continuously Telenor Satellite Broad- tunities for us, especially now that we want TSBc is probably best known for its satellite Guiana in October last year. THOR 6 will to ensure that the satellites remain in their casting (TSBc) provides exten- to focus even more on providing offshore services to the home TV market. Via THOR 5, combined with THOR 5 double the capacity “This location is one of the most sought after correct positions despite their tendency to sive broadcasting and VSAT land-based and maritime services”, says Hege Lunde, THOR 6, and the Intelsat 10-02 satellite, on of Telenor’s satellite fleet. for TV broadcasts in this area", says Tretterud. drift off course due to the influence of the and maritime satellite solutions through- Director of Business Development. “An ever- 1° west we broadcast in excess of 683 TV “This is good news for us – also in terms of Sun and Moon. Fuel onboard the satellites out the Nordic countries, Europe and the expanding satellite fleet is good news for channels and 115 radio stations to Scandi- Quality maritime communications. Currently, fibre is used to power small thrusters until, after Middle East, utilising SCPC, MCPC, iDirect, anyone travelling on the high seas. More navia and the rest of Europe. This makes An Ariane 5 rocket carried THOR 6 to a Geo- provide the primary communications links about 15 years, most has been consumed DVBS2 and DVB-RCS technology. Its satel- and more vessels have parabolic antennas TSBc one of Europe’s leading providers in synchronous Transfer Orbit (GTO) before to the mainland, and many years of subsea and the satellites are taken out of service. lite fleet operates at the prime orbital that can access services such as TV, radio the satellite communications market. the satellite was placed in its final location, fibre cable laying has usurped the satellites. location of 1° West, the leading position and the internet – all you need is a satellite 1 degree West, some 36,000 kilometres But as new areas, such as the Arctic, open In the beginning for broadcasting services in the Nordic station equipped with a parabolic antenna”. “Our aim is to strengthen our position in above the equator. It was built by the up for offshore oil and gas development, we Overall responsibility for day-to-day opera- region, a “hotspot” location in Central and the offshore and maritime sectors”, says French company Thales Alenia Space. are well placed to deliver satellite commu- tions rests with Torstein Solberg who has Eastern Europe and an established plat- In the first instance, TSBc is planning to in- Hege Lunde. “Telenor has always competed nications services. Laying new fibre cables been working with satellite services since form for Datacomms services. TSBc has crease its Northern European coverage, and in this market, although perhaps better “Once a satellite is launched, you never get is expensive and time-consuming, whereas 1985. Telenor’s involvement with satellites also established inclined-orbit satellite to broadcast using the Ka band, which uti- known in the past as Telenor Satellite Serv- your hands on it again, so we have very satellites can get services up and running extends back to 1975. operations at the 4° West orbital position. lises higher frequencies than today’s Ku ices (Vizada).” demanding test requirements during man- really quickly”, she says. Read more on www.telenorsbc.com38 39
  • 21. Houston "B oth space missions and oil and gas production involve expensive and highly complex operations carried out in remote and unknown terri- tory. They involve a great deal of planning, dundancy, modular design, and Hardware in the Loop (HIL) testing have been put in place to mitigate risk. All of these approach- es can be beneficial to the space industry. “We deliver everything needed for the drill- ing “From bit to crown – all the way down”. The company is committed to the develop- ment of new technologies and services de- signed to further enhance our customers’ – we have the solution! testing and advanced technology. We be- “Redundancy refers to the duplication of operations. It continues to advance the de- lieve that much of the technology we have critical components in the drilling process sign of familiar components such as draw developed can be useful for the space in- with the aim of increasing system reliability. works, travelling equipment and pumps – dustry”, says Corporate Vice President and An example of this is the duplication of all in order to improve performance, safety, Chief Technology Officer, Hege Kverneland. instrumentation to avoid risk of failure”, and integration into today’s automated explains Skaugen. rigs”, says Senior Sales Manager, Tor Asle In the years to come, NOV is looking for- Garborg. ward to exchanging know-how and tech- Several rig packages utilise the concept of Technology giant National Oilwell Varco (NOV) is supporting the world’s nology with NASA, the Norwegian Space modular design during integration of the Career opportunities Centre and the European Space Agency. many components of the drilling process. Its continuous focus on technological de- oil and gas drilling and production industries with innovative solutions. The benefits of modular design include the velopment and improvement means that Harsh environments ease of isolating trouble points during NOV is always looking for talented engi- The company sees a connection between the technology it develops for Both the oil and gas sector and the space a given process, as well as providing simple neers, designers and technicians. Since it is industry operate in harsh environments. “plug and play” capabilities when replacing an international company, it can offer oil and gas production and that needed to carry out a space mission. Due to the Earth’s planetary orbit around modular units. To avoid potential failure in career opportunities at several locations the sun, its surfaces are exposed to both ex- the field, Hardware in the Loop (HIL) simu- both in Norway and worldwide. NOV envisions a number of areas in which offshore technology can benefit treme heat and cold. These extreme envi- lation is utilised in the product develop- ronments parallel those encountered in the ment phase to test rig equipment over “NOV offers exciting challenges for our em- the space sector. oil and gas industry. Whether in the ex- a wide range of conditions. This technique ployees. Although we are a large organisa- treme cold of the Arctic, or the blistering involves using machine control software tion, we are light on our feet. It’s easy to get heat of the desert, the operating environ- that runs virtual machines emulating the things done, and to make changes. We have ment represents a key design criterion for physical equipment to be used on the rig. very low staff turnover, but a high turn- modern drilling rigs. This also applies to the This allows proactive steps to be taken to around”, says Marketing Manager, Colleen tools used to drill the wellbore. adjust design faults before equipment is installed. Delane-Skibsrud.  * “In order to maximise tool life and prevent non-productive downtime, we utilise a vari- “These methods serve as precautionary ety of coatings to protect equipment from measures reducing the potential for acci- corrosion, abrasion, and wear and tear. The dents in the oilfield situation. Because fail- coatings, combined with our diamond cut- ure can be so costly, any opportunity to National Oilwell Varco ter technology, enable us to drill through all mitigate and eliminate risk receives mas- is a world leader in the supply of major types of formations – both on the Earth and sive attention. The outcome is reduced mechanical components for onshore and Moon”, says Corporate PSDT Manager, Geir downtime and safer working conditions”, offshore drilling rigs, complete land drill- Skaugen. says Engineering Director, Kjell Magne ing and well servicing rigs, tubular inspec- Stangeland. tion and internal tubular coatings, drill Thomas Aanundsen Reduced risk and the cost of failure string equipment and comprehensive lift- The space industry is highly vulnerable to Forward-looking technologies and services ing and handling equipment. It offers a the risk of failure during missions. This is National Oilwell Varco has more than broad range of downhole drilling motors, also something that the oil and gas sector 37,000 employees worldwide. From its in- bits and tools. National Oilwell Varco also can relate to. Due to the criticality of fail- ception as BLM in 1841, the company has provides supply chain services via its net- ures during oilfield operations, appropriate evolved into one of the world’s largest sup- work of distribution service centres located precautionary steps must be taken to avoid pliers of equipment and services to the oil at major drilling and production locations potential disaster. Applications such as re- and gas drilling and production industries. worldwide. Read more on www.nov.com40 41
  • 22. Remote,complex and systems is increasingly dependent on safe and reliable software. Consequently, the ability to assess, verify and validate soft- tolerant systems. Other industries with simi- lar challenges can draw on this experience. DNV was established in 1864 as an independent foundation, and works to safeguard life, property and the environ- expensive to fix ware-based systems is of the utmost im- In fact, the technology in embedded control ment. As a world-leading certification portance to most industries. systems used in the space and subsea sec- body, DNV provides certification, verifi- tors is very similar, and experience can thus cation, training and assessment services For systems located in remote and harsh be transferred quite easily. Fault-tolerant to companies and organisations world- environments for prolonged periods it is design can be carried out in similar ways, wide. DNV has 9,000 employees in more also important to be able to continue oper- and we are able to use the same techniques than 100 countries. Read more on www. ation after a system failure has occurred. for software analysis. The transfer of knowl- Over the years, the space industry has de- edge to other industries represents our veloped very sophisticated, staged, fallback most important reason for working with Det Norske Veritas (DNV) is a service and solutions provider that works with strategies as a basis for the design of fault- space projects”, explains Kvinnesland.   * companies in most industrial sectors, helping them to manage risk. Space and subsea operations represent two of the many sectors where DNV helps companies to manage business risk, safety, environmental performance, and to meet technology challenges along the entire value chain. ESA T he space and subsea sectors are ad- an overall certification scheme for the Gali- try out new methods and techniques as vanced and highly technical. Many leo satellite navigation system, which is the part of really ground-breaking satellite operations are carried out in unfamil- European counterpart to the US Global Po- projects. Most of the satellite programmes iar environments, and operational costs are sitioning System (GPS). continue for several years, so we get a lot of very high. When something goes wrong opportunity to carry out research”, says repair work is very expensive. DNV is work- Currently, DNV’s most important service re- Kvinnesland. ing to reduce the risk of malfunctions oc- lated to the European space industry is ISVV curring during space and subsea opera- (Independent Software Verification and Learning from the oil and gas industry tions. Validation). This involves the independent Although the space industry represents and complementary analysis of software ground-breaking territory it is still looking DNV has been working for many years with requirements, design, source code and test- to other sectors for inspiration. the European Space Agency (ESA) on a ing of software used in critical control sys- range of different projects. It signed its first tems onboard satellites. It is mandatory in “The ESA asked us to look onto safety re- contract with the ESA in 1986 to monitor the space industry to employ an independ- quirements for control room operation, of- technical and safety aspects of the Europe- ent organisation for this purpose. DNV is a ten known as ground control. The ESA an manned spaceflight programme. That leading organisation in this field and has wanted us to compare its safety require- same year DNV helped initiate the joint also been responsible for the development ments for control room design and opera- venture Formentor project established to of ESA’s guide to ISVV. tion with those used in the oil and gas and develop a computer-based system to iden- air traffic control sectors. The ESA were par- tify and respond to malfunctioning rocket “We are literally working to make sure that ticular interested in the requirements re- equipment. a satellite doesn’t get lost in space”, says lated to human factors that affect control Kenneth Kvinnesland, Head of Space Activi- room operations. Over the years DNV has been involved in a ties at DNV. “Working with ESA is very excit- wide range of projects from detailed tech- ing. We are involved in many research Where the subsea meets space nical safety analysis to the development of projects for the agency and this allows us to The safe and robust operation of technical42 43
  • 23. ONS – space and energy By focusing on innovation and encouraging you to open your mind to the latest developments, ONS gives you the tools you need to tackle the energy industry of tomorrow. O ur unique total concept, embracing an exhibition, a conference and an exciting cultural festival, has made us one of the key events bringing movers and shakers in this business together. ONS aims to be in the forefront of exploring new areas where knowledge, technology and expertise combine to make new breakthroughs. Technology transfer between the space and energy sectors is such an area and can result in new businesses, new jobs and new technologies. The future of the international oil and gas industry depends increasingly on its ability to develop new ground- breaking technologies, and ONS has always focused on such technologies. The oil and gas industry is closely linked to the rest of the energy cluster when it comes to address- ing major technological challenges, and it is natural for us to look to the aerospace industry for inspiration, know- how and technology.44 45
  • 24. Ipark the Stavanger Innovation Park Ipark brings together bright ideas, entrepreneurs, an active business community, the ways and means, an R&D community and Arena projects. And this produces results. I park, the Stavanger Innovation Park is an fluids and the separation of drill cuttings. ments, investors and industry created new international centre for research, inno- At ONS 2008 the company was awarded companies and established cooperation vation and business development. Ipark the SME Innovation Award, and in the based on technology licenses. is part of an expertise centre located at Spring of 2009 the Mudcube was installed Ullandhaug where the International Re- on Statoil’s Oseberg field. General information about Ipark search Institute of Stavanger (IRIS) and the Ipark is located on the university campus University of Stavanger (UiS) are important Typhonix AS has developed a unique valve at Ullandhaug, about 5 kilometres from partners. that represents a quantum leap in the field Stavanger city centre. About 150 companies, of improved oil recovery technologies. The employing about 800 personnel, share The Incubator is an Ipark department desig- valve has been tested everywhere from the approx. 35,000 square metres of office ned to promote the development of new inventor’s barn, Statoil’s research centre in space spread across 8 buildings. “Måltidets businesses, and each year 25 newly-estab- Porsgrunn, and now also at the company’s Hus” (building i7) was opened in the Spring lished companies are adopted. They are all own new laboratory at Varhaug. In the new of 2009, and is a unique centre dedicated to allocated expert advisers and access to a Year (2011) it will be tested at a North Sea field. the food and nutrition industry. The vision network that can help them to convert their leading from gastronomy and science to innovative business ideas into commercial GeoRigg is one of the new Ipark industry and a passion for food is reflected enterprises. The ideas range from highly Incubator companies in the range of technological developments specialised oil industry technology, to green The company was founded and adopted taking place there. enterprises, aviation. Focus areas are energy, into the Incubator in the Autumn of 2009. food and nutrition industry and ICT. GeoRigg’s aim is to develop a cost-effective The last building (designated i8) was com- method of drilling to exploit geothermal pleted in January 2010. Among other things, Incubator companies that have heat. This concept was recently rewarded this houses the University of Stavanger’s ”flown the nest” with DnB NOR’s regional Innovation Prize Centre for Organelle Research (CORE). The Companies such as Seabed Rig, Cubility and and is thereby invited to the Norwegian na- buildings are owned and administered by Typhonix have all started out as newly- established companies at the Ipark Incuba- tional final in September. Ipark Eiendom AS.  * tor, and were given vital assistance during Prekubator TTO the difficult start-up phase. The company Prekubator AS is integrated with the Ipark Incubator and functions as Seabed Rig AS was founded in 2005. In 2010 the region’s Technology Transfer Office Ipark – Norways first- a full scale prototype of the company’s (TTO). Prekubator is working in close colla- ever innovation park innovative seabed drilling rig was built in boration with researchers currently devel- Innovation and creativity have always collaboration with Statoil which now owns oping ground-breaking technologies and been important elements in the economy 20% of the company. Both the Arena pro- methods that show great potential. As a of the Stavanger region. With the creation gramme’s integrated operations network result of collaboration with Prekubator, of Norway’s first-ever innovation park in (Arena IO) and the company Simtano from these ideas will develop into commercial 1993, the region made a clear commit- Ipark have acted as advisors and door open- products and services. ment to promoting new companies. The ers providing essential access to contacts in aim was to provide the best frame condi- both Norway and the USA (NASA). Prekubator is responsible in Rogaland for tions for new concepts and smart ideas in the FORNY-program and the Innomed-pro- order to turn them into viable enterprises. Cubility AS has developed ground-breaking gram. Both focused on Innovation. Prekuba- Read more on technology for the treatment of drilling tor has together with research environ-46 47
  • 25. Telecommunications satellites are powered by solar panels, but during certain periods, they pass through the shadow of the Earth where solar power is inaccessible. For this reason, a back-up power source is required, and modern satellites carry rechargeable batteries which provide the power necessary during the eclipse. T he battery packs are heavy and also ative fuel cell systems for telecom satellites. account for a considerable proportion RFC technology from Prototech represents of a satellite’s total launch costs. Re- a promising alternative to current power search and development company CMR supply systems used in geo-stationary Prototech wants to improve this situation communication satellites”. with its regenerative fuel cell (RFC) technol- ogy. Since its spin-off from the Christian The original research into Prototech’s fuel Michelsen Research centre in 1988, Proto- cell technology started decades ago at the tech has been developing fuel cells for Christian Michelsen Institute, later to be space, oil and gas, transportation and ener- known as Christian Michelsen Research. gy applications. When CMR Prototech was established as a separate organisation in 1988, funding for A fuel cell is similar to a battery, but pro- fuel cell research was provided mainly by duces its electricity from hydrogen and oxy- the oil and gas industry, but the growing gen instead of battery acids. The by-product interest in efficient energy conversion has of this process is water, and if the process is promoted expansion of their market. CMR Prototech is a provider of reversed, a fuel cell can effectively recharge technical solutions, product development itself by utilising electricity to produce With 40 employees and its research and de- and manufacturing services covering ap- hydrogen and oxygen from water. In combi- velopment facilities in Bergen, Prototech is plications from space to consumer prod- nation with a traditional solar panel, the gearing up for a breakthrough in fuel cell ucts. fuel cell can use this regenerative process utilisation. In addition to its collaborative to recharge while there is plenty of sunlight efforts with the ESA, Prototech has supplied Prototech supplies the space industry More efficient satellites from available, and provide much-needed power when the satellite’s solar panel is in shadow. a fuel cell prototype to BKK (Norway’s sec- ond largest power producer). The 3 kW solid with structural components for satellites and launchers as well as experimental CMR Prototech oxide fuel cell produces clean energy from modules for scientific experiments. Many “Prototech’s regenerative fuel cell systems natural gas while simultaneously enabling telecommunications satellites currently represent a lighter alternative to current the straightforward capture of CO2. As part in operation are equipped with advanced satellite back-up power systems and has of a different environmental project, the lo- equipment housings supplied by Proto- the potential to reduce launch costs and cal ferry MF Vågen in Bergen has been tech. facilitate greater transponder capacity on equipped with a zero-emission fuel cell to board the satellite”, says CEO Marian N. recharge its battery-powered propulsion Prototech has established close collabora- Melle. “Motivated by the potential weight system, thus removing its dependency on tive relations with the European Space savings, the European Space Agency (ESA) polluting diesel generators located in the Agency (ESA) and the Norwegian Space has initiated a series of studies on regener- harbour.  * Centre. Read more on www.prototech.no48 49
  • 26. Vidar Skålevik Real time environmental monitoring with Biota Guard Increasing environmental awareness has made environmental manage- ment into a major strategic factor in the sphere of global competition among oil companies. While satellites currently monitor the ocean surface, there is also a need for new insights into the oceans themselves. It is no longer enough simply to monitor man-made changes in the oceans in real time − we also need to know more about the biological and ecological impacts of such changes. The Biota Guard System respond to both challenges. "B iota Guard is a flexible system discipline work environment. Environmen- says Sønneland. “We are developing a new, consisting of a number of biologi- tal effects are measured in real time and remotely deployed Arctic monitoring sys- cal sensors”, says Eirik Sønneland, corrective actions can be taken before an tem, incorporating an array of new and esta- CEO at Biota Guard. “The system monitors operational event develops into a serious blished biological and physical sensors that all man-made interventions such as oil rigs, environmental problem. will provide real time environmental infor- floating wind turbines and subsea installa- mation. The objective is to evaluate and tions – in harbours, estuaries and other “The system can transfer data using radio, develop real time biosensors and to test sensitive coastal areas”. acoustic telemetry and cable”, says Sønne- their capacity for monitoring offshore oil land. “Data signals are transmitted onshore and gas operations in Arctic waters”. Mussel power protects the environ- for analysis using algorithms and graphical ment representations. The system user can moni- Biota Guard was co-founded in 2005 by the One of Biota Guard’s biological sensors is tor environmental status 24 hours a day, International Research Institute of Stavanger the common blue mussel. The company and will be notified of any pollution detected (IRIS) and Procom Venture. IRIS is a principal Biota Guard AS was co-found- monitors the life signs of individual mussels. in the area in question. If necessary, it is also partner in the project. Funding from the ed in 2005 by IRIS Forskningsinvest AS “These bivalves close incrementally when possible to go back in time to document Research Council of Norway’s PETROMAKS and Procom Venture AS. The company’s exposed to pollutants or when experienc- the effects of known toxic discharges. The programme has been essential in enabling main objective is to offer the oil and gas ing physical stress due to other threats. The system also contributes towards maintain- the company to carry out its project. and maritime industries the opportunity mussels heart rate is also affected by fac- ing a valuable data acquisition process to improve their environmental manage- tors in its immediate surroundings”, says which can be used to record the long-term A primary objective of the PETROMAKS pro- ment capabilities. The Biota Guard system Eirik Sønneland. effects of operational activity in a given gramme is to promote the environmentally has been developed with financial sup- region”. sound development of petroleum activities port from, and in close collaboration with, The Biota Guard system also combines on the Norwegian continental shelf. The Statoil ASA, Eni Norge AS, ConocoPhillips advanced biosensor technology with chem- Arctic Challenges authorities have stipulated stringent zero- Norge, Shell Norge, GdF SUEZ Norge and ical and physical sensors configured in Biota Guard is now working on a new project emissions requirements on petroleum Total E&P Norge. Additional funding has adaptive sensor arrays which continuously – “Biota Guard Arctic”. activities in the Arctic due to the area’s been provided by the Norwegian Research monitor the marine environment. The data important fisheries resources and the gen- Council (PETROMAKS programme), Inno- collected are analysed in real-time by multi- “Our objective is to develop, test and dem- eral vulnerability of the environment to vation Norway and the SR-Bank Nærings- utvikling Foundation. Read more on www. variate statistical tools and any events are evaluated by expert in the Biota Guard onstrate to the offshore oil & gas industry an environmental impact monitoring sys- external factors.  * Expert Centre, which facilitates a multi- tem adapted for application in the Arctic”, 50 51
  • 27. With the help of ESA technology used in the monitoring and control of satellites, a start-up company at ESAs Business Incubation Centre has developed a system to monitor offshore oil and gas installations. "O ur Remote Intuitive Visual tion. “Within seconds, the operator can “Located 600 km north of Kola Peninsula, Operations System (RIVOPS) is identify where alarms originate and, more icebergs, 27-metre waves, and tempera- based upon years of ESA expe- importantly, how they are related. RIVOPS tures down to -50°C, pose extreme require- rience in the monitoring of satellites and can constantly supervise large installations, ments on the technology and systems the handling of emergency situations. It is such as the ones for oil and gas fields, and needed to extract gas and transport it to an alarm monitoring system that sits on provide the operators with a sharp under- the shores of Europe, Russia and North top of conventional distributed control sys- standing of the emergency scenario in real America,” says Van Damme. "For such sensi- tems used by offshore oil and gas explora- time, which increases the overall safety on tive installations, all possible precautions tion companies,” says Alexandre Van Damme the rigs,” explains Van Damme. should be taken, deploying our RIVOPS from the French-Dutch start-up company could provide extra safety." EATOPS. Van Damme is the co-inventor of RIVOPS. This system was developed using proven Spin-off through ESA’s Business In an offshore installation, thousands of pa- ESA technology to display the control of its Incubation Centre rameters have to be monitored continu- satellites, consisting of a console that pro- “This is an excellent example of how space ously. By combining them into clusters, and vides an intelligent overview of the alarm technology can benefit society,” explains applying a series of filtering algorithms, situation. It was developed at ESA’s Busi- Bruno Naulais, ESA Business Incubation Eatops RIVOPS provides a clean, graphical and in- ness Incubation Centre at ESTEC in Noord- Manager. “EATOPS based their system on tuitive overview of all emergency situations wijk, the Netherlands, with the support of well-proven technology we use at ESA to that can occur in an oil rig or similar off- ESAs flight controllers, as well as expertise monitor all our satellites. Located at the ESA shore structure. from the North Sea offshore oil and gas Business Incubation Centre in ESTEC, EAT- control centres in Den Haag and Den Helder OPS has been able to accelerate the spin-off EATOPS’ RIVOPS adds functionality to the in the Netherlands, and Stavanger in Norway. to the offshore business. Our specialists in uses space monitoring systems already in use to satellite monitoring have helped EATOPS to supervise the installations, and helps oil Novel 3D display for improved transfer proven functionality from our appli- overview and gas rig operators to spot and identify problems more quickly and efficiently. Another innovative aspect of RIVOPS is that, cations to their novel system.”  * compared to many conventional industrial Space technology increases safety monitoring systems, it uses 3D representa- technology At ESA, the concept of grouping parameters tion to display the status of all parameters. EATOPS SARL is a spin-off from into major clusters which are then moni- This was developed for satellite control in the European Space Agency. Founded in tored has been developed and refined dur- order to improve visibility. Transferred to 2006, the company is commercializing an ing years of satellite control. The way of or- RIVOPS, a whole range of features designed alarm monitoring console for offshore ganising the monitoring of the satellite specifically for offshore oil and gas rigs was control rooms. Its objective is to increase parameters and using intuitive visualisa- added. the awareness of the operators by reduc- tion techniques has proved to be a safe ing the number of alarms and a smart methodology that ensures faster decision- RIVOPS is under evaluation by several North alarm visualisation. EATOPS focus is on to monitor offshore making. Sea installations in Norwegian and Dutch alarm grouping presentation techniques waters. Van Damme foresees that it could making the job of the operator more This has made it possible to handle and provide additional safety for future explora- intuitive. The firm is deploying its tech- continuously monitor a large number of tion planned for the Arctic area, where the nology in France and the Netherlands, oil and gas fields parameters with the help of relatively few operators. For Envisat, Europe’s largest satellite, operators have to monitor over 20 000 parameters, which is comparable to fragile polar ecosystem and extremely harsh conditions call for extra careful monitoring, such as the vast Shtokman gas field in the Barents Sea, estimated to be one of the counting TOTAL E&P among its custom- ers. The product is distributed in Norway by Advanced Control A.S. in collaboration with VisCo Interactive Solutions A.S. Read that of a large offshore oil and gas installa- world’s biggest unexploited gas reserves. more on www.eatops.com52 53
  • 28. Bård Heitmann WORLD CLASS S pace-based technology and services “Norway and Kongsberg have been at the situational awareness in cases of an illegal are crucial elements in a wide range forefront of leading technology and sys- oil discharge or for the monitoring of vessels. of KONGSBERG systems. For this rea- tems in this field. We are therefore very son KONGSBERG is researching and devel- pleased to have the opportunity to provide “Satellite technology, such as the integrated oping such technology to make sure that the AIS payload for AISSat-1” says Gard use of imagery and AIS, is currently fully – achieved with people, we continue to supply leading systems to Ueland, President of Kongsberg Seatex AS. operational for maritime situational aware- our customers. This article provides some “The AISSat programme fits in very well ness applications”, says Jan Petter Pedersen, examples of such initiatives. with our aim to supply the best systems to Vice President of Kongsberg Satellite Serv- our customers for safe navigation, position- ices. “This technology can provide us with technology and dedication Kongsberg Seatex is a marine electronics manufacturer providing products and sys- tems facilitating precise positioning and ing and operation in demanding offshore and maritime applications. The Arctic repre- sents such an area”. early warnings about oil spills or vessel inci- dents, helping to facilitate a rapid response and reduce the impact on the environment. motion sensing, while Kongsberg Satellite Today, this technology is a cost-effective Services (KSAT) is a commercial satellite Maritime Situational Awareness tool in enabling state authorities to moni- service and information provider. services tor operational pollution and vessel traffic”. With more than 5,000 employees in 25 countries, KONGSBERG is among AIS information from the satellite will also Both Kongsberg Seatex and KSAT are invol- be used in the KSAT Maritime Situational Galileo activities the world’s leading manufacturers of high-technology systems for customers ved in AISSat-1 – a Norwegian experimental Awareness (MSA) system that provides glo- Kongsberg also plays an active role in the satellite that will be used by the maritime bal near real-time oil spill and vessel detec- development of Galileo – the high-profile in the oil and gas sector, the merchant marine, and the defence and aero- authorities as an additional means of en- tion services. European global navigation satellite sys- suring safety at sea in the Arctic regions. tem. Galileo’s new technology is reported space industries. Kongsberg’s subsidiary companies Kongsberg Seatex The system will make it easier to identify Satellite-based Synthetic Aperture Radar to be able to revolutionise our transport and coordinate vessels during search and (SAR) can provide repeated and extensive systems, thus increasing safety and improv- and Kongsberg Satellite Services are world leaders in their respective fields rescue operations, and to assist and moni- coverage of the Earth’s surface independ- ing efficiency. This in turn will make for a tor the transport of dangerous goods and ent of weather and light conditions, and better quality of life and reduce pollution in and supply products to both the space and the offshore energy sectors. cargo. The satellite was successfully has therefore become one of the most im- our cities. Galileo will also bring benefits in launched from India on 12 July this year. portant sensors used in operational marine other aspects of our everyday lives, includ- environmental monitoring. ing the facilitation of precision farming to AISSat-1 is equipped with technology devel- raise yields, better information for emer- oped and built in a collaborative effort be- KSAT has provided services utilising satel- gency services enabling faster response tween the Norwegian Defence Research lite radar images for the detection of oil times, and more reliable and accurate time Establishment, Kongsberg Seatex, the Nor- spills since 1998. Today this service is fully signals as a basis for our more vital compu- wegian Coastal Administration and the operational, and information about oil ter and communications networks. Norwegian Space Centre. It is financed by spills and their potential sources is supplied the Norwegian Ministry of Trade and Indus- to European end-users in near real time, i.e. Since the beginning of the Galileo pro- try. Kongsberg Satellite Services ground less than 30 minutes after satellite overpass. gramme, Kongsberg Seatex has played an station on Svalbard is utilised for AISSat-1 important role in its development, with an operations. The detection and monitoring of vessels emphasis on maritime applications and represents another near real-time satellite services needs. To date, its main activities technology-based service offered by KSAT. and projects have included the MARUSE - Satellite radar images are used to detect GNSS introduction into the maritime sec- the vessels, while information regarding tor, MarGal (harbour docking and inland their identity is derived by correlation with waterways), and GaleWAT, the combined the AIS data. Galileo and EGNOS (European Geostation- ary Navigation Overlay Service) for water- Near real time information supply is a key ways transport. Kongsberg Seatex is also a element of these services. Integration of key player in facilitating the infrastructureKongsberg Gruppen other types of information such as ship elements of both EGNOS and Galileo. KSAT(KONGSBERG) is an international, identification from the Automatic Identifi- contributes to the Galileo ground segmentknowledge-based group that supplies cation System (AIS) is also important in by means of its facilities on Svalbard andhigh-technology systems and solutionsto customers in the oil and gas sector, the order quickly to establish better maritime the Troll field.  *merchant marine, and the defence andaerospace industries. In 2009, KONGS-BERG had a turnover of NOK 13.8 billionand employed 5,423 persons in more than25 countries. Read more on www.kongs-berg.com54 55
  • 29. The Norwegian Space Centre Space systems have to be failure-proof, reliable, durable and energy efficient. That is why innovation in other fields often is inspired by high-tech developments in space. B ut a closer look reveals that techno- The Norwegian Space Centre is at logy transfer between space and ONS 2010 . . . The Norwegian Space energy actually goes both ways. The • because we recognise that activities Centre (NSC) is a governmental two fields share similar challenges due to within the space and energy sectors administrative agency subordinate to the performances under extreme conditions. face similar challenges Norwegian Ministry of Trade and Industry. The NSC is the principal coordinator of pub- The systems must be robust to tempera- • to highlight that space qualifications licly-funded research and development in ture variations and intense vibrations. Pre- could be an asset in other fields the Norwegian space industry. Its principal cision and efficient energy supply is neces- aim is to further develop high-tech indus- sary. Inaccessible environments on Mars or • because we want to explore new and trial ventures mainly within the framework at the bottom of the sea require remote realise ”mature synergies” between of ESA cooperation, but also in collabora- operations. Integration of complex systems space and the energy sectors tion with other international partners. Read is demanding. more on • to tell you about Norwegian participa- tion in the European Space Agency • to tell you about support, services and national funding provided by the Nor- wegian Space Centre as a first step in creating an expert network within the space and energy sectors that can later * be widened into other fields.  56 57
  • 30. NASA Underwater training- astronaut Oceaneering – operating in space and deep waters Oceaneering is a global oilfield provider of engineered products and related services, primarily to the offshore oil and gas industry, and with a focus on deep water applications. Oceaneering also applies its expertise I n Norway, Oceaneering utilises under- in pushing the boundaries of space explo- assembly, maintenance, and repair of satel- in applied technology to serve the defence and aerospace industries. water technology to perform several ration”, says Mark Gittleman, Vice-President lites and other spacecraft, including the tasks for the oil industry on the Norwe- and General Manager of Oceaneering International Space Station (ISS).  gian continental shelf. These include re- Space Systems. mote-controlled underwater operations, Building the Next Generation drilling and production support, structural Since 1978 OSS has developed and delivered of Robots and platform inspection and maintenance thousands of end items to NASA and other OSS is also playing a key role in the develop- and repairs. contractors related to intra- and extra- ment of the next generation of robots for vehicular activity (EVA, or spacewalking). use in the aerospace, undersea, military and At Oceaneering’s home base in Houston, It has developed advanced life support sys- automotive industries. The Robonaut 2 is an the company is working on a number of tems and technologies for use in future anthropomorphic (human-like) robot de- space-related projects for NASA. This is in spacesuits and spacecraft, and complete signed to assist an astronaut during space- addition to its subsea activities that include suites of tools and equipment for the walks. It is faster and more dexterous than remotely-operated vehicles, mobile off- earlier models and takes robot technology shore production systems, specialised built- to the next level. At the Johnson Space to-order subsea hardware, engineering and Center in Houston, the robot is now project management, subsea intervention performing complex tasks that pre- and installation services, non-destructive viously could only be carried out by testing and inspections, and manned div- humans. ing operations. Many systems requiring serv- Designing NASA’s New Spacesuit icing in harsh environments, In 2009 Oceaneering Space Systems (OSS) such as satellites in space, off- was selected by NASA to develop and pro- shore oil & gas platforms, and Oceaneering Inc. is a global duce the Constellation Space Suit System even explosive ordnance on oilfield provider of engineered services and (CSSS) – a new space suit designed for solar the battlefield, were never de- products, primarily to the offshore oil and system exploration. The CSSS is a key com- signed to be serviced by other gas industry, with a focus on deepwater ponent of the Extravehicular Activity (EVA) machines. An anthropomorphic applications. Through the use of its applied System for NASA’s space exploration pro- robot mimics human physiology, technology expertise, Oceaneering also gramme. It will be used to sustain the US and is able to use tools designed serves the defense and aerospace indus- presence in low Earth orbit, help establish for humans in order safely to per- tries. Oceaneering Norway is a subsea tech- an outpost on the moon, and lay the foun- form complex operations in very nology company providing ROV Services, engineered services and products to the dation for further human space exploration. hazardous environments.  * offshore oil and gas industry. Read more on “Our team is excited about this tre- mendous opportunity to assist NASA 58 59
  • 31. STM “Under contract to the European Space Agency (ESA), we are currently heading development of the next generation of global standards heads next for satellite communications based on small, efficient satellite ground terminals. These include mobile, transportable and fixed terminals”, says generation Rick Forberg, VP of Marketing and Strategy at STM Group. open broadband interactive I t is STM Group’s R&D centre, operated by STM Norway AS, which is heading the research and development consortium bition in August in order to demonstrate to all sectors of the oil and gas and energy-re- lated industries our ability to meet their satellite technology effort under the ESA contract. The main aim of development work is to enhance perform- ance and at the same time reduce the oper- monitoring, control and general communi- cations needs”, explains Rick Forberg. for the ESA ating costs of broadband interactive satel- STM has developed a compact, low-cost lite communications systems. base station system for GSM phones that integrates efficiently with their satellite STM Norway’s joint participants in this ad- ground terminals, thus enabling backhaul vanced development consortium are Thales connectivity to any location. This is needed Alenia Space Espana, The German Aero- for ships, offshore platforms and remote space Centre DLR, ENST Bretagne, Turbo- land-based operations, or in any situation Concept and Verisat. where workers or devices require uninter- rupted access to cellular communications. “We are honoured as a consortium to be se- “We are continuing to expand into new lected by the ESA and look forward to col- markets and locations and are focusing on laborating with our partners, all of whom high performance, high availability and are major contributors to the advancement cost-effective communications for both the of satellite communications research and renewable and traditional energy compa- technologies”, says Bjorn Platou, who is General Manager at STM Norway. nies”, says Forberg.  * Offshore and maritime communica- tions systems The STM Group is a global STM is a global group that facilitates broad- provider of satellite and cellular wireless band wireless two-way communications network systems and services for mobile for remote locations, data management, and fixed IP-based telephony, data and and simultaneous voice and video – all multimedia applications. With its SatLink® based on industry-leading satellite ground product line, the company is a leader in station technology. The company manufac- research into and the development and tures equipment, develops software, per- manufacture of MF-TDMA, bandwidth- forms integration and support, delivers on-demand solutions with certified com- turnkey systems and offers private commu- pliance to international standards. STM’s nications services on a global basis. services include custom network design, turnkey deployments, and operations “We are major suppliers of offshore and management. STM, SuperPico and SatLink maritime communications systems and are trademarks of STM. Read more on services. We are exhibiting at the ONS Exhi- www.stmi.com60 61
  • 32. Using ASIGN in Situational Awareness systems T he earthquake described left was cover virtually every part of the globe, al- of magnitude, and yet the system supports fictional, but the technology is not. though their capacity is limited and costs full visual resolution and quality as required. The earthquake struck at 8.15 a.m. EMSC in Paris which would use this infor- Less than one hour later the situation AnsuR Technology’s award-winning high. To counteract this, AnsuR have devel- Geo-referenced observations ensure rapid Ryan sensed it immediately. Jumping out mation during rescue planning. was under control thanks to an accurate ASIGN (Adaptive System for Image commu- oped optimised (GR4-COMS) communica- and direct integration with maps and satel- of bed, he grabbed his field gear and ran At 8.16 an alarm sounded at the com- ASIGN assessment. Yes, there was struc- nication in Global Networks) is very much a tion protocols for ASIGN. lite images in GIS. ASIGN can be utilised as a out of the building. The tremors told him mand centre. EMSC reported an earth- tural damage to one of the main pipe- reality. It is designed to provide rapid basic building block in any disaster, emer- UAVs that the installations might suffer exten- sive damage. quake of magnitude 8.7 at a location that spelled real danger for the northern lines, but the rapidly available observa- tions transmitted by Ryan had allowed answers to key questions that any com- mand centre must know – what has hap- ASIGN can use remote-controlled or pro- gency and situational awareness system. * Outside, he immediately deployed his installations. John turned his attention to them to close it off in time. Fortunately, pened – where and when? grammed unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) camera and Android phone, noting that the continuously online ASIGN server and the assessment images revealed little that carry photo, video or IR cameras and the latter had a good GPS fix. He was saw right away that Ryan was online environmental damage. Three steps communications systems such as radio, thankful in all the confusion for the pre- from the site. That meant that images Rescue and maintenance teams were ASIGN is designed around three basic steps mobile or satellite for transferring “live” im- configured wireless connection linking his and other geo-referenced sensor data being assembled, and were receiving involved in emergency/disaster manage- ages directly to ASIGN servers. While the AnsuR Technologies camera to the computer on which the would soon start flowing in. Sure enough updated digital maps generated from the ment and situational awareness: Observa- simplest configuration involves a remote- delivers space-age solutions for Situa- ASIGN client was running, and this allowed – within minutes – they did. In the mean- latest satellite images. They revealed that tion, Decision and Action. Since disasters controlled Android camera phone, possibly tional Awareness and Emergency and him to start his assessment observations. time John assembled the emergency team the main bridge leading to the site had typically happen outside the office, wireless with an additional camera, the system also Disaster Management. Server transfer of the images was auto- online and got to work. collapsed and was unusable. This was communication is essential. Normally, mo- supports advanced camera and flight com- matic. Meanwhile Ryan found that his truck confirmed by Ryan’s in-situ observations. bile networks are sufficient, but many areas puters with radio downlink and ground- ASIGN is an example from AnsuRs award The BGAN satellite terminal was in his still had the UAV microdrone he had With a sigh of relief, John waited for have poor coverage. Disasters may also based satellite relay. winning portfolio of wireless and inte- gear bag but, fortunately, the mobile net- trained with yesterday in the back. Un- the aftershocks that might be in store. damage existing infrastructure and in- grated space based technologies that has works were still operational with suffi- packing it rapidly, he started a 30-minute Although thousands of kilometres away, creased traffic loads can result in operative Basic building block given the company a leading internation- cient capacity for ASIGN. Images of the GPS-programmed aerial survey with live he knew that ASIGN could transport him networks congestion. ASIGN makes optimum image quality avail- al position in its areas of expertise. For damage were also transmitted to the image transfer to John via ASIGN. to the installation in seconds if required. able over any network faster, simpler and more information, visit us online at ansur. Satellite communications thus provide es- cheaper than other systems. Savings in no or come see us at IT Fornebu outside sential back-up. Mobile satellite networks bandwidth range from two to three orders Oslo. Read more on www.ansur.no62 63
  • 33. T Bjørn Ottar Elseth – The Norwegian Space Centre, he Space and Energy initiative is the technical sectors and have much in com- Ole Jørgen Engelsvoll – ONS and Brage W. Johansen – IRIS. result of a collaboration between a mon. group of individuals that first met at Stavanger’s innovation centre – Ipark. Their Welcome to the Moon – at ONS ideas and enthusiasm encouraged Statoil The Space and Energy initiative is inviting and the Norwegian Space Centre to collab- everyone to the Space and Energy Pavilion orate in finding opportunities and syner- at ONS – one of the world’s most important gies between the space and energy indus- oil and gas conferences. tries. In June 2009 they combined with the network Arena IO to arrange the first Space Jan Roger Moksnes, an Advisor at Melvær and Energy conference in Stavanger. More & Lien, is responsible for the Space and than 70 companies and invited speakers Energy Pavilion. He hopes that people will from the ESA and NASA took part. enjoy walking on the moon and getting to see things in a new light. The group is now transferring the initiative to ONS where there will be a Space and En- “We want people to think in a new and dif- ergy Conference and Pavilion. The confer- ferent way – outside planet Earth. Stepping ence is planned to become an annual event into the pavilion you will walk on the Moon that will consolidate the network, inform and look up at the Earth. Hopefully this will the industry and public, and inspire the spark people’s curiosity and encourage young – and the young at heart. them to learn more about all the exciting technology that is currently being devel- The core of the project team consists of Ole oped in both the space and energy sectors. Jørgen Engelsvoll from ONS, Brage W. Jo- hansen from IRIS, Bjørn Ottar Elseth from * the Norwegian Space Centre and Preben Strøm from Oceaneering. “For me the space industry has always been quite romantic”, says Brage W. Johansen, who is Vice President of Strategy and Busi- ness Development at IRIS. “Like all engi- neers, I’m very excited about all the tech- Taking Space & Energy to the nology developed within this industry. Having worked for Statoil for several years, Next Level I can see many similarities between the energy industry and the space sector”. Bjørn Ottar Elseth is a Senior Advisor at the Norwegian Space Centre and believes that the initiative is quite special. “It’s very excit- ing to be a part of this group”, he says. “The meeting of the space and energy sectors is unique. Hopefully we will find new and exciting projects which will benefit both sectors”. Any network must have an enthusiastic and energetic group of people "The parallels between subsea and spaced Ole Jørgen Engelsvoll is Project Manager for making things happen. The core of enthusiasts behind the Space & Energy the ONS Space and Energy Park, and also based operations are remarkable. We hope thinks that the initiative is full of potential. network are all passionate about technology and space. They want people “It has been great working on this project”, that Oceaneering through it`s unique expe- he says. “Everyone we meet is so excited to think outside planet Earth and to look to the space industry for inspiration. and supportive. We already had high ambi- rience can contribute in a positive manner tions for the project, and all the positive feedback we have received has boosted in the Space & Energy network. " these ambitions sky high. Both the energy and space industries are highly advanced Preben Strøm64 65
  • 34. NASA Only one millionth of the area of the sea floor has been observed directly by humans. If the same were true for Earths land mass, only 150 square kilometers – less than a tenth of the area of metropolitan London – would have been seen by us.66 67
  • 35. SPACE & ENERGY TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER Is there a technology that can solve my problem?Is there a market for my product in the space industry?We help you navigate in the universe of companies and investors, and formulate requests and search for partners. ENERGY INDUSTRY SPACE INDUSTRY Norsk Romsenter NORWEGIAN SPACE CENTRE Learn more on > Technology Transfer